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A feature is a single spatial object and could be a point, line, or polygon. A feature class is a
collection of similar features with the same attribute fields. A feature data set is a collection of
feature classes that share a common theme and coordinate system.
There are 3 feature classes, 650 features, 3 attribute tables, and 650 records in the database.
Rainfall, temperature, and slope are continuous data types. Voting districts, soil types, and vegetation types are all discrete data types for categorical data.
The two GPS units are set to record location in different coordinate systems. To get matching locations, one would need to set his/her unit to record in the same coordinate system as the other.
Vector would be a better choice. Vector can store features with greater precision, important when storing property boundaries. Vector can store multiple attributes for each parcel. Vector can store the parcel data more efficiently with less storage space for the same resolution in raster.
The length of field in inches is 100 yd Å~ 36 in./yd = 3600 in. Set up the ratio 0.5 in./3600 in. = 1/x,
yielding x = 7200. The scale is thus 1:7200.
The boundary is being located by the GPS with a relatively high precision, so I would consider it precise. However, interpreting the location of the boundary is subjective, and the boundary itself may move over time depending on climate and precipitation, so the accuracy is questionable.
The crop field can be well defined for a single moment in time as it is very clear what is growing. However, the crop type could change from year to year. The organic matter value of the soil probably changes from place to place within the field, and so can only be considered a representative value. Knowing how it was determined might be important.
Logical consistency is related to the topology of features and their spatial relationships to each other, as well as their geometric errors. The planar topology functions of geodatabases help users evaluation and maintain logical consistency.
Mastering ArcGIS Tutorial Data 5th edition [CD-ROM]. Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw Hill Higher Ed, 2011.
The data are using a geographic coordinate system, and the units are in degrees.
The origin always has x-y coordinates of 0,0. The Central Meridian has an x-coordinate of zero.
A spheroid is a smooth, mathematical representation of a sphere with a different major and minor axis. A geoid is an irregular shape representing the mean sea level elevation of the earth.
Conic projections have decreasing lengths of the parallels as you approach the poles, which mimics the decrease in the circumference of the earth towards the poles. Hence the distances do not get distorted with increasing distance from the equator. Since distance is not distorted, areas generally aren’t either. In a cylindrical projection the longitudes are always projected straight up and down, so direction won’t be distorted.
Rasters must be resampled to a new cell grid after transforming or projecting them. New cell values are generated for the new grid based on one of three resampling methods. Nearest neighbor grabs the value of the cell closest to the center of the new grid. Bilinear and cubic convolution interpolate values based on the four or sixteen closest cells.
The Prime Meridian is the longitude line on earth defined as zero, and it runs through Greenwich, England. A central meridian is the center of a map projection where x = 0, and may be any longitude line.
You will use the Define Projection tool to set the coordinate system label to UTM Zone 13 NAD
False. The extent is the range of x-y values, and the United States in GCS would have positive decimal degrees for y because it is north of the equator, but negative degree values for x because it is west of the Prime Meridian.
You will use the Project tool to convert the shapefile to a new shapefile with the Oregon Statewide coordinate system.
Idaho is split between UTM Zones 11 and 12, and has three State Plane Zones, so one single
predefined coordinate system is not available. You could (1) start with a UTM zone and redefine the central meridian through the center of the state, (2) just use the central State Plane zone (which would almost be the same thing). The state is more north-south, so UTM is better than a conic projection.
Geocoding requires a reference layer with streets and address ranges, and a table containing the addresses to be matched.
One Range uses two values to record the addresses range on the street as a single range; Two Range uses four attributes to code ranges on the left and right side.
It would be 750 feet from the 1200 corner.
The street type is the designation as part of the street name, such as Street, Road, Lane, Boulevard, Avenue, etc.
The components are the house number, street name, street type, and suffix direction.
In batch mode, the software simply tries to match as many records as it can. In interactive mode, the user examines each address and potential candidates, and chooses the best fit.
A geocoding service includes a reference layer and a set of options for geocoding, and is required before geocoding can be performed.
An alias table contains common place names and their addresses, to facilitate matching to streets when a place name may be the only address given (such as City Hall).
An alternate name table provides nicknames or alternative names for roads, for example a highway 79 with a common name of Main St.
The geometric accuracy of the reference layer would be the first consideration. However, the largest potential for geometric errors would come from the process used to estimate the location of the address along the street. Real addresses are not necessarily regularly spaced or a consistent distance from the road.
The line symbol is 3.4 points/ 72 = 0.0472 inches thick. Set up the ratio 0.0472/x = 1/20,000,000 and solve for x, getting 944,444 inches, which is 78,704 feet or 13.5 miles.
Acres of farm land, numbers of Hispanics, and square miles of park land would be normalized,
because the value can depend on the area of measurement. The average daily temperature, median
rent, and sales tax rate do not need to be normalized.
Geologic units—unique values
Black and white aerial photo—stretched
4-band satellite image—RGB composite
Precipitation—stretched or classified
Landslide hazard—unique values
Slope in degrees—stretched or classified
A layer file does not store any actual spatial data, so the layer file size for the two spatial data sets would not be significantly different.
(a) A map document contains only references to spatial data, not the data itself. When Jill sends the document, it is separated from the data, which her colleague does not have. Thus the map has no layers appearing in it. (b) Since the data are available to her colleague this time, she must have used relative pathnames instead of absolute pathnames. When the location of the map document changed, it lost track of the data.
You should avoid using any characters except letters, numbers, and the underscore character. Spaces, although permitted, can cause problems and should not be used.
Thematic rasters contain map quantities or features. Image rasters show brightness values and are typically photographs or satellite data.
It means that the layer has lost track of the feature class or raster that it refers to, and cannot find the data. Fixing it requires resetting the path to the correct location.
Who will use it? Under what circumstances will it be used? What am I trying to accomplish with it? Are there issues of sensitivity or privacy?
Map balance refers to the symmetry and layout of the elements of the map, and includes issues such as the distribution of full and empty space, the placement of features, the relative size and importance of features, and the alignment of features.
Pastels and earth tones are most pleasing for large areas, but dark or emphatic colors can be used for special emphasis. Colors have psychological implications which can be used to enhance the map, such as using red for danger, blue for water, and green for vegetation.
Common pitfalls for legends are (1) allowing cryptic filenames instead of understandable labels, (2) failing to format numeric values into round classes, and (3) failing to adjust neatlines for correct balance.
A geographic coordinate system is referenced to a 3D sphere and used degrees of latitude and longitude. When displayed in a map it distorts the features and elongates the east-west direction,which makes it a poor choice for mapping.
Area, distance, direction, and shape can be distorted by map projections. Conic projections tend to preserve area or distance. UTM and State Plane coordinate systems have minimal distortion in all four properties as long as the map falls within a single zone.
(a) Use a UTM or State Plane projection. (b) Use Equidistant Conic, Albers, Lambert Azimuthal, or Lambert Conformal Conic. (c) Use Equidistant Conic. (d) Use Albers Equal Area Conic or Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area
If a projection that does not preserve direction is used, north may be at an angle. If the north direction changes significantly over the map, as it does for large area conic projections, a graticules grid should be used rather than a north arrow.
Annotation should be stored as a feature class in a geodatabase if you wish to use it in more than one map document.
The map scale is the ratio of units on the map to units on the ground. The scale range controls the range of scales at which features are allowed to appear. The reference scale is the scale at which symbols or text labels appear at their assigned size.
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