All who take refuge from civil authority in a church or on church land cannot be removed without the permission of the abbot or bishop.
Native people of the country take charge of the church in the country.
An Italian traveler who visited the lands of the Far East and returned to Europe to spread the news, sparking interest in exploration for commercial gain and missionary expansion.
An Arab scholar and traveler who was partly responsible for the European colonization and missionary efforts in Africa, because he revealed the presence of gold in that region.
Henry the Navigator
The Portuguese prince who explored and colonized Africa, spreading Christianity along the way.
Afonso the Good
Catholic king of the Congo who tried unsuccessfully to oversee the conversion of his people to Catholicism, while holding back the greed of the Portuguese colonists who were enslaving them.
A cooperative effort between the encomendero (the conquistador or his descendant) and the doctrinero (usually a mendicant friar) to build a sound economic and spiritual base in the Spanish territories of the New World.
Our Lady of Guadalupe
Title given to Mary, the mother of Jesus, based on her miraculous appearance to Juan Diego at Tepeyac, Mexico, in AD 1531.
Bartolomé de las Casas
The Spanish Catholic bishop in the territories of the New World who argued that the enslavement of the native peoples was immoral and should be stopped.
A companion of Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Jesuit order and the leader of the Catholic mission to India, Japan and China.
An Italian Jesuit known for his successful missionary work to China, especially his efforts to make Catholic Christianity intelligible in Chinese cultural terms.
The process by which a religion "learns" to live and act within a culture different from the one in which it began, so that the religion gradually comes to act naturally within that culture's pattern of act and thought.
The process by which an individual learns to live and act within a particular culture in such a way that the culture's particular pattern of actions and thoughts become second nature to the person.
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