-West Europe can?t recover from WWI Nationalist movements in Europe -US & Japan become super powers -Revolutions in Mexico, China & Japan effect political/economic foundations of imperialism -Middle east helps rebuild/restructure, others maintain self-sufficiency Egypt Nationalism -Briatain wants to protect the suez canal trade -Egypt denies self rule at Versailles public protests -students/women lead demonstrations new parties come to power -reforms brought Gamal Abdul Nassar to power Zionists (pograms) wanted Jews expelled from Europe India Nationalism -British want complete control Indians were drawn to fight in British wars -Riots & attacks on the British Indians lost -Believed British rule had to end -Mohandas Ghandi -Led Indian Nationalist movements -taught nonviolence passive resistance&civil disobedience(disobeyed unjust laws) -Led Salt March- Brought attention to unjust British rule African Nationalism -Materials & Military labor was taken -Wanted to regain freedom which WAS gained after WWI -Colonial powers = Self government national government Roaring 20s in Europe: Brief period of recovery -Kellog Brand Pact= outlawed war forever between Europe nations -Rampant consumerism- radios, cars, etc. -Suffrage/Women?s rights were granted West Europe Post WWI Dissary: -Austria-Hungary & Ottoman Empire collapsed -War was fought for territorial purposes -Governments had no money leading to inflation & unemployment GREAT DEPRESSION: Causes: -returning soldiers need jobs unemployment -america boomed then crashed less demand from raw materials, overproduction of manufactured goods Effects: -stock market crashed -banks & businesses closed -countries raise import tariffs trade declined -communism & fascism rise -loss of faith in democracy and capitalism ITALY POST WWI: -Becomes fascist- great nationalism and loyalty to country, militarism, dictatorship. -Treaty of Versailles ? Italy wasn?t given promised land & had unfulfilled goals -unemployment, decline of trade, taxes rose weak economy -Social Party organizes strikes fascist groups develop socialists left -NORTH URBAN // SOUTH RURAL -Black Shirts= fascist Benito Mussolini: -powerful orator, promises economic, political, & social stability -wants to recreated roman empire -came to power (election1921- fascists 35 seats/1922 threatens coup d?etat with 25000 black shirts) --- WHILE IN POWER: -Crime was reduced, trains ran on time, conquered Ethiopia, built schools, offered electricity -workday hours increase, pay stayed the same. Dictator, militaristic, nationalistic HOW HIS POWER FELL: -Rome/Berlin allied, joined hitler in 1940, ruled italy for 3 years as a Nazi -Anti-Semitic laws -King Victor Emmanuel removed Mussolini, and had him arrested -Rescued by Hitler and became the head of the ?puppet? (Italian Socialist Republic) -Mussolini flees with mistress to Switzerland, executed by Italian resistance ends fascism dominance -After he died Italy was in extreme poverty and disunity new constitution Rise of fascism and Nazism -Germany became powerless of league of nations -Dissaproved of Weimar Republic (Kaiser stepped down after WWI, Germany chaos, weak democratic government, taxes rose) -Hitler exploits fears and uses terror and intimidation & EXTREME nationalism Formation of the Nazi Party: -German workers party led by Anton Drexler, Hitler joins and became leader -Hitler used scapgoats to blame for Germany?s problems Preparing to take over: -Beer Hall Putsch ? 1st attempt to take control of Nazis -try to force leaders of Bavarian gov?t to support March on Berlin (to announce a new government) -Bavarians agree but back out the day of the march, hitler=arrested for 5years ?Mein Kampf? ?written by Hitler in jail, USED: Propaganda, mass psychology, & mass organization of the people National socialism- loyalty to Germany Racism- triumph of Aryan race by armed force because all races were inferior to pure German ?master race? Lebensraum- expand to Poland & Russia for living space for germans Strong government- complete obedience & loyalty to the fuhrer Minister of Propaganda : Joseph Goebbels (worshipped Hitler)
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