Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
1) Without it we would be in a state of lawlessness.
2) To create rules we live by so that may live in an organized and orderly society.
3) We need the government to solve our disputes.
4) To provide goods and services we are not able to provide ourselves.
Articles of Confederation: Were they effective? Why or why not?
Not effective; without a centralized authority to regulate commerce, states taxed imports from other states, stunting economic growth.
Amendment process: easy or hard? (understand why the founding fathers made it easy or hard)
Hard; so that legislation could not be easily manipulated by those in power
Civil War Amendments
Federalism: supported the Constitution, maintained that sovereignty rested not in the legislature, but with the people.
Anti-Federalists: opposed the Constitution, feared the executive branch would grow to resemble the King they just fought to escape and that the national government under the Constitution would consolidate state government.
Diffusion of Innovation Theory
When one state adopts a policy that becomes successful, the states around that particular state also adopt the policy as well.
How can states get around the Supremacy Clause?
Supremacy Clause: Federal laws > conflicting state and local laws
1) implementation: EPA clean up, the federal government issues that the state EPA must clean up chemical spill, the state government gets to decide when they clean up the spill – a way to “stick it to the man”
2) enforcement: someone must challenge the law in court in order for it to be implemented by the federal government
Missouri v. Holland (1920): men in Missouri were hunting birds, were told to stop by the game warden and that the hunting of those particular birds was illegal because they were native to Canada. The men: how can hunting these birds be illegal? Under the Supremacy Clause, it was ruled that Congress could in fact implement such laws.
State power as outlined in the Constitution
The reserve powers of the states (sometimes referred to as the police powers) include powers to protect the safety, health, and welfare of their citizens. These powers cannot be denied to the states and are granted to the states under the 10th Amendment. Basically whatever power the federal government doesn’t hold is left to the states.
What system of government does America function under? How does the power flow?
“Republican Form of Government”
People > Federal, State
McCulloch case: What did this establish?
Necessary and Proper Clause
Gibbons case: What did this establish?
doctrine holding that state governments and the federal governments have almost completely separate functions
Race to the Bottom
The race to the bottom is a socio-economic phenomenon in which governments deregulate the business environment or taxes in order to attract or retain economic activity in their jurisdictions, resulting in lower wages, worse working conditions and fewer environmental protections. An outcome of globalization and free trade, the phenomenon may occur when competition increases between geographic areas over a particular sector of trade and production. (Southwest, Sun Belt)
Senate: responsive to the needs of the entire state; six year term – serve as trustees and vote according to their own conscience
House: represents a district within a state, two year term – concerned with re-election, serve as delegates and vote on laws according to what the voters want
Four groups elected officials modify their behavior for
Re-election: the “guaranteed” votes
Primary Group: people who may or may not vote for you
Personal: “inner circle”, homestyle – behavior at home vs. in Washington
Homestyle: What is it? What does it depend on?
Homestyle – behavior of elected officials at home vs. behavior of elected officials in Washington, “how often do they go home?”
Oversight Function: Ways Congress makes sure laws are being carried out
authority to monitor the ways in which the executive branch implements laws
Filibuster: What is it? What is it used for? Is it common today?
Extended debates that members start with the purpose of delaying or even preventing the passage of bills. Throughout Senate history, a wide range of bills, from civil rights to product liability legislation, have been delayed or defeated by filibusters. The only way to stop a filibuster is by invoking a cloture, a motion to end debate that requires a supermajority of sixty votes to pass. Once a cloture has been invoked on a bill, no more than thirty additional hours of debate are permitted.
Congressional demographics vs. American demographics
Congress: predominately white old men
Problems with Congress: population; no third party representation
Republican vs. Democrat, no third party members involved
Power to declare war
Under the War Powers Act Congress has the sole power to declare war, but this is typically only implemented only after the President has requested a declaration of war.
5 roles of the president
Commander in Chief > commander in chief of the armed forces of the United States; (War Powers Act) – 1945 Truman bombs
Power to Pardon > power to grant clemency (mercy) for crimes against the United States, excluding the case of impeachment from federal office.Chief Diplomat > ability to establish treaties, only with the “Advice and Consent” of the Senate
Head of State > symbolic
Chief Legislator > veto, pocket veto; congress. agenda
Executive agreements: including the example discussed in class
“loophole” to the “advice and consent of the Senate”
Rally ‘Round the Flag Effect
The rally 'round the flag effect is a concept used in political science and international relations to explain increased short-run popular support of the President of the United States during periods of international crisis or war.
Going public: what happens when a president talks to us too much? In what case does a president’s speech have more impact on us?
3 reasons for going public
1) Generate support (re-election)
2) Generate support for a policy
3) Increase approval ratings
time of crisis > inform, while also putting the general public at ease
Bargaining vs. Going Public: Why would a president choose one over the other in current times?
Pre 1950: Bargaining – president commonly compromised
Post 1950: Going Public – pressure on Congress by the president, strengthens position of president through the support of the people; president is expected to follow through on “promises”
threats to presidential power
1) Lack of public support
3) Congress – lack of compromise
4) Supreme Court
5) Agency Backlash – failure to implement policies
Role of the Vice President
Draws the votes in an election that the president cannot; “back-up president”
Which members of staff does the president rely on the most?
Key Staff: Chief of Staff, Legal Counsel, Commerce Director, Press Secretary
Executive Order; Eisenhower’s use
Lame Duck President
second term and therefore not eligible for re-election
Refusal to sign a bill that has been passed by Congress, the bill is then sent back to the chamber I which it originated with his objections; pocket veto – if congress will be out of session within ten days, he can simply not sign the bill
Executive Privilege: Nixon’s use
Executive privilege: the president’s right to engage in communications with his advisors that he does not have to reveal; Nixon à released only partial transcripts during the trial
Appointment/Confirmation process: how does it work; how long are justices appointed for?
Appointed by the President, confirmed by the Senate – Article II of the Constitution; Justices serve life terms
Demographics of justices: race, gender, religion; is the current court considered to be diverse? Current ideological make-up of the court (think about the chart we looked at in class)
There are 3 female Supreme Court Justices, one of which is Hispanic. Another Justice is African American - this is the most diverse Supreme Court in the history of our nation.
Marbury v. Madison: What is it? Why is it significant? Understand judicial review
Judicial review: power of the courts to declare the actions of Congress unconstitutional and therefore void; Marbury v. Madison (1803); Hamilton described the Judicial Branch as “the least dangerous branch” because it had no power of the sword or the purse, judicial review changed this
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!