The process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs and values.
What the public thinks about a particular issue or set of issues at any point in time.
public opinion polls
Interviews or surveys with samples of citizens that are used to estimate the feelings and beliefs of an entire population.
Unscientific surveys used to gauge public opinion on a variety of issues and policies.
A subset of the whole population selected to be questioned for the purposes of prediction or gauging opinion.
A method of poll selection that gives each person in a group the same chance of being selected.
A variation of random sampling; census data are used to divide the country into four sampling regions. Sets of counties and standard metropolitan statistical areas are then randomly selected in proportion to the total national population.
Polls taken for the purpose of providing information on an opponent that would lead respondents to vote against that candidate.
Continuous surveys that enable a campaign to chart its daily rise or fall in support.
Polls conducted as voters leave selected polling places on Election Day.
margin of error
A measure of the accuracy of a public opinion poll.
The coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals.
An organized effort by office holders, candidates, activists, and voters to pursue their common interests by gaining and exercising power through the electoral process.
The office holders who organize themselves and pursue policy objectives under a party label.
The workers and activists who make up the party's formal organization structure.
party in the electorate
The voters who consider themselves allied or associated with the party.
A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity.
The selection of party candidates through the ballots of qualified voters rather than at party nominating conventions.
civil service laws
These acts removed the staffing of the bureaucracy from political parties and created a professional bureaucracy filled through competition.
Politics that focuses on specific issues rather than on party, candidate, or other loyalties.
To vote for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election.
Politics that focuses directly on the candidates, their particular issues, and character, rather than on party affiliation.
A shifting of party coalition groupings in the electorate that remains in place for several elections.
An election that signals a party realignment through voter polarization around new issues.
The gradual rearrangement of party coalitions, based more on demographic shifts than on shocks to the political system.
A group made up of interests or organizations that join forces for the purpose of electing public officials.
national party platform
A statement of the general and specific philosophy and policy goals of a political party, usually promulgated at the national convention.
A voting system that apportions legislative seats according to the percentage of the vote won by a particular political party.
An electoral system in which the party that receives at least one more vote than any other party wins the election.
A party meeting held in the presidential election year for the purposes of nominating a presidential and vice presidential ticket and adopting a platform.
Institutional collection of policy-oriented researchers and academics who are sources of policy ideas.
The virtually unregulated money funneled through political parties for party-building purposes such as get out the vote efforts or issue ads. Banned after 2002.
Funds that can be used for direct electioneering but are limited and regulated by the Federal Elections Commission.
A citizen's personal affinity for a political party, usually expressed by a tendency to vote for the candidates of that party.
A general decline in party identification and loyalty in the electorate.
conventional political participation
Political participation that attempts to influence the political process through well-accepted, often moderate forms of persuasion.
unconventional political participation
Political participation that attempts to influence the political process through unusual or extreme measures such as protests, boycotts, and picketing.
The proportion of the voting-age public that votes.
Voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election.
A voter's evaluation of the performance of the party in power.
A voter's evaluation of a candidate based on what he or she pledges to do about an issue if elected.
A system of government that bases its rule on force rather than consent of the governed.
The citizens eligible to vote.
A command, indicated by an electorate's votes, for the elected officials to carry out their platforms.
Election in which voters decide which of the candidates within a party will represent the party in the general election.
A primary election in which only a party's registered voters are eligible to vote.
A primary in which party members, independents, and sometimes members of the other party are allowed to vote.
Participation in the primary of a party with which the voter is not affiliated.
An organized attempt by voters of one party to influence the primary results of the other party.
A second primary election between the two candidates receiving the greatest number of votes in the first primary.
Election in which voters decide which candidates will actually fill public offices.
An election option such as the initiative or referendum that enables voters to enact public policy.
An election that allows citizens to propose legislation and submit it to the state electorate for popular vote.
An election whereby the state legislature submits proposed legislation to the state's voters for approval.
An election in which voters can remove an incumbent from office by popular vote.
The tendency of states to choose an early date on the primary calendar.
A traditional party practice under which the majority of a state delegation can force the minority to vote for its candidate.
Delegate slot to the Democratic Party's national convention that is reserved for an elected party official.
Representatives of each state who cast the final ballots that actually elect a president.
Member of the Electoral College chosen by methods determined in each state.
The reallocation of the number of seats in the House of Representatives after each decennial census.
The holding of an office.
Redrawing congressional districts to reflect increases or decreases in seats allotted to the states as well as population shifts within a state.
The legislative process through which the majority party in each statehouse tries to assure that the maximum number of representatives from its political party can be elected to Congress through the redrawing of legislative districts.
An election that takes place in the middle of a presidential term.
A proposed system in which the country would be divided into five or six geographic areas and all states in each region would hold their presidential primary elections on the same day.
That part of a political campaign aimed at winning a primary election.
general election campaign
That part of a political campaign aimed at winning a general election.
The process by which a campaign reaches individual voters, either by door-to-door solicitation or by telephone.
get out the vote (GOTV)
A push at the end of a political campaign to encourage supporters to go to the polls.
The individual who travels with the candidate and coordinates the many different aspects of the campaign.
A professional who coordinates the fund-raising efforts for the campaign.
A professional who takes public opinion surveys that guide political campaigns.
A professional who supervises a political campaign's direct mail fundraising strategies.
The person who develops the overall media strategy for the candidate, blending free press coverage with paid TV, radio, and mail media.
The individual charged with interacting and communicating with journalists on a daily basis.
The campaign staff that makes use of Web-based resources to communicate with voters, raise funds, organize volunteers, and plan campaign events.
A private-sector professional who sells to a candidate the technologies, services, and strategies required to get that candidate elected.
A professional who produces candidates' television, radio, and print advertisements.
Political advertisements purchased for a candidate's campaign.
Coverage of a candidate's campaign by the news media.
Advertising on behalf of a candidate that stresses the candidate's qualifications, family, and issue positions, without reference to the opponent.
Advertising on behalf of a candidate that attacks the opponent's platform or character.
Ad that compares the records and proposals of the candidates, with a bias toward the sponsor.
Television advertising on behalf of a candidate that is broadcast in sixty, thirty, or ten-second durations.
Advertising that attempts to counteract an anticipated attack from the opposition before the attack is launched.
Forum in which political candidates face each other to discuss their platforms, records, and character.
political action committee (PAC)
Federally mandated, officially registered fund-raising committee that represents interest groups in the political process.
Donations from the general tax revenues to the campaigns of qualifying presidential candidates.
Donations to presidential campaigns from the federal government that are determined by the amount of private funds a qualifying candidate raises.
527 political committees
Nonprofit and unregulated interest groups that focus on specific causes or policy positions and attempt to influence voters.
Nonprofit and tax-exempt groups that can educate voters about issues and are not required to release the names of their contributors.
The entire array of organizations through which information is collected and disseminated to the general public.
Media providing the public with new information about subjects of public interest.
A form of newspaper publishing in vogue in the late nineteenth century that featured pictures, comics, color, and sensationalized, oversimplified news coverage.
A form of journalism, in vogue in the early twentieth century, concerned with reforming government and business conduct.
The traditional form of mass media, comprising newspapers, magazines, newsletters, and journals.
Television, radio, cable and satellite services.
Technologies, such as the Internet, that blur the line between media sources and create new opportunities for the dissemination of news and other information.
An association of broadcast stations (radio or television) that share programming through a financial arrangement.
Local television station that carry the programming of a national network.
An electronic delivery of news gathered by the news service's correspondents and sent to all member news media organizations.
Targeting media programming at specific populations within society.
Web-based journal entries that provide an editorial and news outlet for citizens.
The collecting, reporting, and analyzing of news content by ordinary individuals.
Government attempts to regulate the substance of the mass media.
equal time rule
The rule that requires broadcast stations to sell air time equally to all candidates in a political campaign if they choose to sell it to any.
A document offering an official comment or position.
A relatively restricted session between a press secretary or aide and the press.
An unrestricted session between an elected official and the press.
Information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to a named source.
Information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to any source.
off the record
Information provided to a journalist that will not be released to the public.
on the record
Information provided to a journalist that can be released and attributed by name to the source.
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan
The Supreme Court concluded that "actual malice" must be proved to support a finding of libel against a public figure.
The influence of news sources on public opinion.
The constant process of forming the list of issued to be addressed by government.
The process by which a news organization defines a political issue and consequently affects opinion about the issue.
The myriad relationships that individuals enjoy that facilitate the resolution of community problems through collective action.
The tendency to form small-scale associations for the public good.
An organized group that tries to influence public policy.
The theory that political power is distributed among a wide array of diverse and competing interest groups.
The theory that interest groups form in part to counteract the efforts of other groups.
The theory that public policies are the result of narrowly defined exchanges among political actors.
population ecology theory
The theory that the life of a political organization is conditional on the density and diversity of the interest group population in a given area.
public interest group
An organization that seeks a collective good that will not selectively and materially benefit group members.
economic interest group
A group with the primary purpose of promoting the financial interests of its members.
Funds that an appropriations bill designates for a particular purpose within a state or congressional district.
Interest group representative who seeks to influence legislation that will benefit his or her organization or client through political persuasion.
A group that represents a specific industry.
The activities of a group or organization that seeks to influence legislation and persuade political leaders to support the group's position.
A person who finances a group or individual activity.
Something of value that cannot be withheld from a nonmember of a group, for example, a tax write-off or a better environment.
free rider problem
Potential members fail to join a group because they can get the benefit, or collective good, sought by the group without contributing the effort.
Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007
Lobbying reform banning gifts to members of Congress and their staffs, toughening disclosure requirements, and increasing time limits on moving from the federal government to the private sector.
writing letters, making political contributions, and voting
What are some examples of conventional political participation?
protests, boycotts, and picketing
What are some examples of nonconventional political participation?
True or false: Highly educated people are more likely to vote than people with less education.
True or false: Those with an income over 65,000 dollars a year are less like to vote than citizens with incomes under 35,000.
True or false: If you marry, have kids, and settle down you are more likely to vote.
True or false: Those under 30 are more likely to vote than those over thirty.
True or false: Women and men vote at very different rates.
True or false: African Americans vote more often than whites.
True or false: The Southern U.S. has had historically lower voter turnout than the rest of the country.
True or False: The voter turnout of Hispanic Americans is much higher than that of African Americans.
True or false: Individuals who are members of civic organizations, trade and professional organizations, and labor unions are more likely to vote.
True or false: People that attend church or religious services regularly are more likely to vote than those who don't.
Average number of U.S. voters that regularly vote?
Who regulates voter eligibility?
The most common reason for lower voter turnout is?
Make registration and absentee voting easier, making election day a holiday, and strengthening parties
What are some proposed ways to increase voter turnout?
Whites typically vote for which group more: Republicans or Democrats?
Minorities vote for which political party more?
Women largely vote for which political party?
Jewish people are more likely to vote which political party?
Catholics are more likely to vote for which party?
Protestants are more likely to vote for which party?
Liberals largely vote for which party?
Conservatives largely vote for what party?
The poor largely vote for which party?
The wealthy largely vote for which party?
The middle class votes for which party?
Social Institutions, Media, Membership in Social Groups, Education Level, and Political Conditions.
What are some agents of political socialization?
Political scientists have found that college seems to have what effect on political socialization?
Margin of error, Sampling error, limited respondent options, lack of information, and difficulty measuring intensity.
What are some limitations of public opinion polls?
The Golden Age
A period from 1874-1912 that had voter turnout of over 75%.
Progressive Movement and the New Deal
In the modern era parties were weakened by what?
Direct primary and Civil Service Laws
Some progressive reforms were?
1800-Jefferson, 1860-Lincoln, and 1932-FDR
What were some critical elections for party realignment?
Winner-take all system, ignored by media, don't get automatic place on ballot, don't receive much public funding.
Why do third parties never win elections?
President and Party National Committee
Party chairs are selected by who?
Historically which party raises more money?
Party in the Electorate
The weakest part of the party system is the?
True or False: Partisan ID is a reliable indicator of vote choice.
The south tends to be more linked with which party?
The northeast tends to vote more for which party?
The very youngest and very oldest voters tend to vote for which party?
Middle aged people tend to vote more for which party?
Married people vote more for which party?
Single, Divorced, Separated, or Widowed people vote more for which party?
Executives, Professionals, and white collar workers tend to vote more?
Educators, Lawyers, Labor Unions tend to vote more?
Winner-take all primary
Candidate who wins the most votes takes all states delegates.
Proportional Representative Primary
Candidate who receives a certain percentage of the votes gets delegates in proportion to the number of popular votes won if they get a certain percentage of the vote.
Party members that meet in small groups throughout the state.
Redistricting, Scandals, and Presidential Coattails.
Why do incumbents sometimes lose?
Quality of the Candidate and The Campaign Team
The most important part of any campaign is?
Be able to convey ideas, project their message, and raise funds.
Candidates need to be able to do what three things to win an election?
Isolate Candidate, Staged Media Events, Use Spin, or Appear on Talk Shows.
Ways campaigns control media?
Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA)
What act outlaws the use of soft money?
True or False: Most print media is not subject to govt regulation
1996 Telecommunications Act
This act deregulated segments of the electronic media and has resulted in the creation of multimedia corp giants like Viacom, Time Warner, and Comcast.
New York Times vs. The U.S.
What act made it so that the government couldn't prevent the publication of the Pentagon Papers?
Press has little effect on long term beliefs.
Is media influence successful?
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