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1. In which case did the Supreme Court say that "fighting words" could be limited by the government?
a. Chapinsky v. New Hampshire 1942
a. Gitlow v. New York (1925)
1. The constitutional justification for incorporation of the Bill of Rights comes from the:
a. due process clause of the 14th Amendment
the Pentagon Papers
1. The __________ has been construed to provide protection for the individual from the actions of a repressive state government.
1. A state establishes a school voucher program where students or parents can choose to give the voucher money to either secular or religious schools. The Supreme Court is likely to rule this state program
1. Although prosecutors dropped charges against Michael Hardwick, his case came before the Supreme Court because
1. The establishment clause of the First Amendment
1. Most protections outlined in the Bill of Rights now apply to the states as a result of the Supreme Court’s interpretation of the _________ clause.
1. The Supreme Court case Lawrence v. Texas overturned the previous decision of
1. A Seventh-Day Adventist declined a job that required him to work on a Saturday, which is the holy day for Seventh-Day Adventists. Because he declined a job, the federal government denied him federal unemployment benefits. The Supreme Court would rule this decision by the government was
1. The case Cohen v. California dealt with a man who was prosecuted for wearing a jacket in a Los Angeles courthouse with the following words emblazoned on it:
1. The most important obstacle to the adoption of the Constitution by the states was
1. If you were to identify a branch of government that championed the rights of blacks in the immediate aftermath of the Civil War, it would be
1. De jure segregation is segregation that is
1. Affirmative action programs seek to
achieve not just equality of opportunity but also equality of outcome.
1. Language protecting women from employment discrimination was added to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act
1. Jefferson’s view that women should be excluded from mixing in men’s business to prevent harm to women’s morals is an example of
1. In Grove City College v. Bell, the Supreme Court
frustrated enforcement of civil right laws.
1. Which provision prevented the collection of money from individuals (primarily black Americans) in order to be eligible to vote in primary and general elections?
1. The civil rights guarantee of “equal protection of the laws” is located in
24. Which of the following is most clearly supported by a majority of Americans?
Equality of opportunity
25. Recently, Native American tribes have begun ambitious social and educational programs for their members largely because of
legalized gambling operation proceeds.
An unstated liberty that is on the fringe or in the shadow of a more explicitly stated right is called a(n)
In which case does the Supreme Court rule that the Bill of Rights only applies to actions of the federal government, but not the state government?
In which case did the Supreme Court uphold Missouri's refusal to allow abortions to be performed in state-sponsored hospitals or by state-funded doctors and nurses?
Under the Supreme Court’s clear and present danger test,
the proximity and degree of harm speech may provoke must be considered by the Court.
In the Lemon v. Kurtzman decision, the Supreme Court proposed a test for determining the constitutionality of government programs and laws; this test included
In Griswold v. Connecticut , the Court struck down a state law
The First Amendment within the Bill of Rights, “Congress shall make no law … abridging the freedom of speech” can be seen as guaranteeing
Abigail Fisher brought her lawsuit against the University of Texas arguing that the inclusion of race in university admissions violates
the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
The Supreme Court decision United States v. Leon established the good faith exception which allowed
the state to introduce evidence at trial if that evidence was seized on the basis of a mistakenly issued search warrant.
imposed limits on the national government but not on the state governments.
The exclusionary rule holds that
evidence obtained from an illegal search and seizure cannot be used in a trial.
The disabled rights movement stems from
disabled World War II veterans returning home to a country insensitive to their needs. (see pg 466 )
A purchasing or contracting provision that reserves a certain percentage of funds for minority-owned contractors is best defined as
The national government switched policies towards Native Americans at the beginning of the twentieth century by
banning the use of native languages and religious rituals
sending Indian children to boarding schools and giving them non-Indian names.
(Options A and B are true.)
What women’s rights activist first persuaded a U. S. California senator to introduce a constitutional amendment calling for the right of women to vote?
Which of the following tactics were used by white southerners to keep blacks from the polls in the years after the Civil War?
In 2003, the Supreme Court revisited the use of affirmative action by the University of Michigan and ruled that
7. The case Gideon v. Wainwright affirmed that the state must
10. In the New York v. Sullivan case, the Supreme Court declared that freedom of the press takes precedence when the defamed individual is
11. Which of the following statements concerning the Supreme Court, religious observance, and public schools is correct?
- Public schools must open their doors to after-school religious activities on the same basis as the other after-school programs.
14. In Near v. Minnesota, the Supreme Court
- Ruled that prior restraint almost always places an unacceptable burden on a free press.
15. Allan Bakke’s application to the University of California Medical School at Davis was rejected at the least in part because he
16. Why did the women’s suffrage movement aim at a constitutional amendment?
- The Supreme Court ruled against efforts to apply the 14th amendment to women
17. The Americans with Disabilities Act
- Includes deliberately vague language as to what constitutes a disability
18. Civil disobedience is
- The willful but nonviolent breach of “unjust” laws.
20. Homer Plessy attempted to challenge Louisiana’s racial segregation policies by
- Refusing to move from a “whites-only” Louisiana car.
21. Disabled Americans gained recognition as a protected minority in 1990 with the enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act that
- Options A and B are true- guaranteed them access to employment, transportation, and public accommodations, enacted laws that covered people with AIDS, alcoholism, and drug addiction
22. Native Americans did not receive U.S. citizenship until
23. The central crucible of the black civil rights movement were black
24. The 1965 immigration bill fundamentally changed immigration patterns to the U.S. because it
- Options A and B are true- allowed for greater legal immigration from Southern or Eastern Europeans, Asians, Africans, and Jews, and established new patterns of “chain migration”
25. As of 2012, Hispanics or Latinos constitute about ______ percent of the population and _____ percent of Congress
Which case upholds an Oregon law that allows doctors to prescribe drugs to terminally ill patients?
In what case did the Supreme Court say it is okay to advocate illegal action unless imminent lawless action in intended and likely to occur?
Powers and privileges guaranteed to the individual and protected against arbitrary removal at the hands of the government or other individuals are best defined as
In 2010, The Supreme Court in McDonald v. Chicago, ruled in a 5–4 decision that an individual’s right to bear arms
The Second Amendment of the Constitution refers to
Which president signed the Defense of Marriage Act, a law that defined marriage as a union between people of opposite sexes?
An American citizen’s ability to drive a car only with the possession of a valid license may be best described as a
When schools and businesses allocate admissions or jobs on the basis of race, gender, disability, or other criteria unrelated to ability, they are aiming at
Which of the following clauses is not located within the Fourteenth Amendment?
In 1973, armed __________ seized eleven hostages at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, and remained there for seventy-one days.
People who feel that they were unfairly denied their right to admission, employment, or promotion because an affirmative action program placed someone of another race or sex ahead of them claim
The Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act, a 2010 Arizona law targeting illegal immigrants,
made it a crime for an alien to be in Arizona without carrying legal documents, obligated the police to determine a person’s immigration status through reasonable suspicion, made it illegal to shelter, hire, or transport illegal aliens in Arizona. (Options A, B, and C are true)
Racial segregation that is not the result of government action (for example resulting from residential patterns) is called __________ segregation.
In Mapp v. Ohio, a case that involved the conviction of a woman for possession of obscene material found during an illegal search for a fugitive, the Supreme Court
extended the federal exclusionary rule to state courts.
The Supreme Court declared prayer in public schools unconstitutional in
The phrase “wall of separation between church and state” originated with
In a series of cases involving foreign detainees held in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, the Supreme Court has ruled that
prisoners at Guantánamo have a right to challenge their detentions in the federal courts.
The first law passed by Congress that attempted to guarantee blacks equal access to public accommodations (parks, theaters, and the like) was passed in the Civil Rights Act of
Preferential policies are
seldom explicitly legislated, and usually the result of administrative regulations, judicial rulings, and private sector initiatives.
(Options A and C are true. (see pg 477 ))
Which of the following statements best described the legal status of Native Americans before they became U.S. citizens?
They were considered members of tribal nations whose relations with the United States were based on treaties.
The __________ provides that “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude…shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”
Recent new justices on the Supreme Court and decisions such as Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 suggest
the court has moved in a decidedly more conservative direction and appears willing to strike down many affirmative action programs.(see pg 480 )
- Helping coordinate the Montgomery bus boycott
2. The event that served as the catalyst for the gay liberation movement in the United States was
Question : In which case did the Supreme Court say that "fighting words" could be limited by
The case Roe v. Wade
The safeguards embodied in the __________ to the Constitution specify how
government must behave in criminal proceedings.
Fifth and Sixth Amendments
Seventh and Eighth Amendments
Options A, B, and C are true. (see pg 434)
One of the key founders of the National Association for the Advancement ofColored People (NAACP) was
Which provision prevented the collection of money from individuals (primarily
black Americans) in order to be eligible to vote in primary and general elections?
The Twenty-fourth Amendment (see pg 460 )
In 2003, the Supreme Court considered racial preference policies _________ in
at a law school
of an undergraduate program
Options A and D are true. (see pg 480 )
What was the first piece of legislation President Obama signed after becoming
president that undid the 2007 Supreme Court decision making it more difficult for
plaintiffs to bring lawsuits over pay discrimination?
The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act
The strike and boycott led by Cesar Chavez had the effect of
attaining somewhat better pay, housing, and working conditions for farm
25. Question : Why did the Equal Rights Amendment fail?
Opponents to the ERA organized state-based campaigns.
Why did the Equal Rights Amendment fail?
Opponents to the ERA organized state-based campaigns.
ERA proponents exaggerated the amendment’s effect.
Opposition grew stronger from women who wanted to maintain their traditional
role in society.
Options A, B, and C are true
Traditionally the Federal Reserve has tended to be more concerned about __________ than __________.
periods of expansion and inflation alternating with periods of contraction and unemployment.
Which program ended in 1996 when President Clinton signed into law the Personal Responsibility and Opportunity to Work Act?
What percentage of the U.S. government budget goes to foreign aid?
Developing budgets by using last year’s budget as the base and adding an amount to cover the increased costs of doing business (inflation) and any new programs is called
President __________ embraced supply-side economics.
The fiscal year 2013 budget that Obama submitted applies to the twelve months beginning after
Which of the following events did not spur greater interest in federal aid to education?
The Soviet Union’s launch of the Sputnik satellite
Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society
The discovery by state governors in the 1970s about the link between schools and their states’ economic fortunes
The publication of A Nation of Risk
Part A of Medicare pays for _________; Part B of Medicare pays for __________.
President Reagan argued that instead of the federal government being responsible for guaranteeing the economic and social well-being of less fortunate citizens, such responsibility should be borne more by
Government programs designed to provide the basic living conditions necessary for all citizens are called
It may be in the best interest of the United States to provide aid to poorer nations because
great disparities in wealth may lead to political instability.
Since the last declared war, over __________ American military personnel have died in fighting in places like Korea, Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan.
In its history, the Senate has defeated __________ treaties.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was created in the aftermath of
The intelligence community is actually composed of _________ agencies in the executive branch.
Hayek’s “Austrian School” of economics would be especially favored by
Monetary policies are largely determined by
When John Maynard Keynes suggested deficit financing by the government to stabilize the economy, he was advocating the use of
The New Deal occurred under President
President __________ passed the Medicare drug program expanding welfare benefits for seniors.
The Johnson administration’s promise to end poverty in a decade did not come to pass, and critics who claimed President Johnson’s War on Poverty failed based their assessments on the fact that
poverty became more concentrated in rural and inner city areas.
President __________ proposed that individual workers be allowed to invest their own Social Security payroll taxes in the stock market.
Health insurance providers have become increasingly concerned with the amount of risk they assume by providing insurance, and as a result have
(B and C are True)
become more interested in covering healthy people who most likely need less care.
become less interested in covering people with a preexisting condition.
When government intersperses itself as a referee, setting rules as to what kinds of companies can participate in what kinds of market activities, it is engaged in
The 1997 environmental Kyoto Protocol set binding greenhouse gas reductions for industrialized countries, but exempted which two countries?
The United States withdrew from Vietnam
The 1947 National Security Act established which of the following organizations?
(C and D are true)
National Security Council
The period of warmer relations between the United States and the Soviet Union that began during President Nixon’s administration was called
The assumption underlying the massive U.S. military buildup after World War II was that
the Soviet Union was an aggressive, expansionist power.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was created in order to
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