Monday Sept. 6, 2010 --> Concerning Leaves: -cut out your bias towards accuracy --> As you're reading, you should be interested in things. Make little notes in the columns and take ten or fifteen minutes take time to go back over these things. Make yourself experts on a handful of things. The Iliad bks. 1-4 How does the war start? Helen. Paris steals away Melenaus, but Priam still has quite a bit of respect for her in Troy. It his not her fault though this is over her. Unwritten laws, the norms of society. What happens when the need to follow societal laws and the need to defend honor clashes? Respect: when it comes to deliberation, only one person may stand at a time; enforced order. On the battle field: every man for himself. Hand in hand with this is the scepter?you could beat someone over the head with it, but it is for a sign of restraint until Odysseus hits the ugliest of Achaeans , who says the same thing to Agamemnon that Achilles said [but who didn't get beaten for it] **You don?t kill the messenger*** A priest's robes are a symbol of divine authority. You cannot hurt them while they are wearing the robes?but you can once the robes are off. Sacrifice is an act of calm, not violence?and Agamemnon was trying to get Achilles, called "the most violent man alive" to lead the sacrifice. ..the inherent snub that follows this. *common themes in Greek life: interaction with nature, constant public competition Hellenocentrism: some people have to be the best, and it must be the Greeks. THERE ARE THE GREEKS AND THERE IS EVERYONE ELSE, WHO SUCKS. How do you make a god happy? By praising him all day and giving him hamburgers. Then you hope that he will back you up one day. Book One opens with a quarrel on the mortal realm: Nestor is wisest. Agamemnon is the most powerful. Achilles is the most dangerous. Nestor rebukes both, says that both sides must give and let it go. Book One closes with a quarrel on the immortal realm: between Hera and Zeus. Hephaestus stands up between the two, tells Zeus 'you're most powerful' and Hera 'shut up'. This is not the diplomacy you see on the mortal realm. Justice v. Power Pick six little themes [anger, war, love, justice, etc] to mark . It'll make Friday's discussion a lot more fun. Wed. September 8, 2010 Wednesday, September 08, 2010 10:18 AM Why bother writing? So what does writing do for/to me? Voice! Not the standard essay?wanna know what really interests you/\. The Iliad bks. 5-8 Fight b/t Zeus and Hera parallels that between Achilles and Agamemnon Zeus protects diplomats and suppliance. So Menelaus cannot kill his prisoner in that position?so he knocks him out of that position and Agamemnon kills him. RELIGION AND PROCEDURE *War is the great leveler?everyone dies* Jokes: we laugh at these horrible things because of our own precarious position in life Agamemnon is freaking out over Menelaus ' wound: "if you die, it will be hard for me because everyone will want to go home!" But Menelaus is fine and finally tells him to stfu. Two different kinds of heroism: Hector: "attaboy" all about the encouragement Agamemnon: "you suck" all about the stick You can't say no to the gift of the gods. But they all bring ruin..even the good gifts Hector really shows his character?he is always polite, respectful, understanding. Really a good guy. Goes to his wife, tells her he must fight for fear of his wife's future as a slave. He fears shame; shows empathy. Compare this to Agamemnon when he thinks his brother is going to die. Aristeia: when the hero is at his best/absolutely berserk. Diomedes reaches this, allows for him to discern gods from humans thanks to Athena. Diomedes, attacker of gods. Closure appears in book 6 [6.142]?Glaucous and Diomedes meet, prepare to face off, but Glaucous tells his whole life story, Diomedes realizes that their grandfathers were friends and therefore they cannot kill each other. Instead, they trade armor. "Like the generations of leaves, so the lives of men." *his name doesn't matter. His family, his tree, does. What is divinity/humanity? What are the rules written/unwritten of society? How do we coexist? How is authority conferred? What does it mean to be Greek? Where and why does honor give way to peace? How do individuals relate to the group? For Friday: Put down the book/line number about your three favorite passages of the book and be prepared to say why. Also, Leaf 02 Monday, September 13, 2010 Monday, September 13, 2010 10:24 AM Writing is catharsis. Polis: Fortified stronghold Defensibility. 8th century: change. There is an explosion of evidence pouring from the 8th century. Something happened. Obvious explanation? -> population [ more cities on the ground, more villages, more people] -> social controls on fertility -> dramatic changes on burials during this century -emerging fashion as to how you decorate the tomb above the dead -burial outside of city -general reduction of valuables inside the casket Greek temple, altar and not much else -rectangular, easy to expand. A Greek God statue was inside the temple. The "god" was public property because temples were built by communities, not individuals Dedications, statues Games: competition held in honor/celebration of gods. Presided over by priests Still major individualism. Civics v. religion: which came first? Two sides of the same coin. Pleasing a that is a community god will bring about major changes to the ancient audience. The two came together. Recap: polis, temples, dedications, staves, & games Gods, internal threats, external threats Grave material things became popular as religion became more and more outspoken. [ie dedicating a tc..] very concerned with public displays Wed. Sept 15, 2010 Wednesday, September 15, 2010 10:28 AM Moral Codes: #1: Heroes must be heroes, and the only way to be good is kill all in your path. #2: That's not working too well. Scene: Achaeans are crushed.. Agamemnon sent embassy to Achilles to try to buy his favor back?as long as Achilles bows to Agamemnon's authority. But Ag. sends stallions, women, gold, one of his own daughters. Achilles: Go fuck yourself. Pheonix: please, remember your family. "Don't lock yourself in your bedroom." Achilles: I have no family. Agamemnon: Retreat. Hera: Nooooooooooo?-thinks to self- gotta get that magic bra and bribe Sleep to knock hubby out after hot, nasty sex. Wonder if he'll take my daughter?- Success. Alliance. Cha-Ching! Zeus: all you damn gods, stop fighting or I'll fucking kill you. Now who wants a story about what is going to happen next? Hera: Hey is that Ares's son with Hades? Ares: what? Hera: oops... Ares: IMA CUT SOME MOTHAFUCKAS----- Hera: STFU or Zeus will kill us all. Scene: everyone's sons are dying. Gods: Fuck. Petrocalus: -thinks to self- I've got Achilles' armor. Fucking invincible.- RAWR I CRUSH TINY TROJANS! Wait, what? Spear? WHO DA FUCK STUCK ME! *Apollo cackling madly* I may be dying, but Hector you're fucked too! Death. Hector: HAH. Bitch. -decapitates Petrocalus.- *violence-induced illusion* For the next leaf: write no more and no less than 1 pg. in which you try to imagine what a document from the war would look like [letter between commanders, love letter, etc.]. Should be plausible in a historical way. Keep it close to the Iliad. Write good! Monday Sept. 20, 2010 Monday, September 20, 2010 10:16 AM Bk s 17-20 Roles are beginning to be reversed--the Achaeans are being besieged by the Trojans, and the Trojans are on the offensive. Hector is starting to become Achilles in a way, thinking himself almost invincible, daring to believe he can defeat Achilles. Achilles has accepted his fate, particularly after the insult of Patroclus. The snake/eagle omen?Hector won't follow omens. Case in point, communication with the gods is improbable if not impossible because of all ambiguity and openness to interpretation. "When in doubt, salute." He's ignoring divine sight, advice, reason, etc. 18.331-360 --notice that he really sounds like Agamemnon at this point. "The god of war is impartial." Indeed?.every one is going to die at some point Hector turns his back on civilization, his city, to refuel and instead chooses to camp on the field like the Achaeans. Law & Religion Religion moved from the palace to the village, but the structures remained basically the same. Temple--Altar--Image Personnel. Anyone can sacrifice to the gods, regardless of social class and gender "Anyone can pick up the phone and call Zeus"--"emergency religion" "the solidarity of mortals in the face of immortals" against them?not with them. Dogma: never deterministic. No ritual. No fixed outcomes. Greek religion/gods recognize procedure, not moral purity and not ethics Law: Assembly; physical infrastructure -anyone could argue a case, anyone has an opinion -doesn?t guarantee that everyone gets the same floor time?but the concept is the same -solidarity of a community against itself -no codification of Greek law. Every city-state had its own law. Greek law was public and out among the people, not hidden and ephemeral. The goal to all of this: the restoration of order Honor and gold goes to the wisest judge?law as a public competition **Poem not about war, but about law, order, and religion in a world where war is the norm. We see this on Achilles' new shield, which has two cities hammered into it. The poem moves from war and chaos to restoration of order. Two levers pressed at one time: religion and law. Wed. Sept 22, 2010 Wednesday, September 22, 2010 10:21 AM The Iliad, bks. 21-24 The poem: it's about rage. The title says, the thing about Troy. But it's about Troy Rage: it keeps Achilles from fighting. Then it is what drives Achilles to fight, refusing to sleep and eat. Achilles: almost a god. Achilles has turned a point: he used to spare Trojans, especially those in suppliance. Now, he spares no one. Showdown between Hector and Achilles. All the other Trojans have fled into the city. Achilles chases Hector around the city 3 times before Athena tells him to sit and says that she will convince Hector to fight by pretending to be her brother. Achilles kills him. Refuses to hand over the body. Sacrifices people and stallions and dogs. Holds funeral games for Patroclus. Book starts with a fight over prizes. Begins to end with a fight of how much prize one can give! Turning into a city of peace where violence exists nonetheless. Achilles concedes that Agamemnon is the winner automatically in the spear throw. Thus ends the feud between Achilles and Agamemnon Priam shows up at Achilles tent to beg for his son's body back, and Achilles hands him over. Priam wants to see Hector but must hold back. Achilles wants to kill Priam but must hold back. This is a point where violence is easy, but it cannot come to pass. To die is easy, to live is hard. That is the ultimate message of the last three speeches done by the women. The funeral pyres are held for Hector at Achilles word that the fighting will stop long enough for the burial. Themes in The Iliad Monday, September 06, 2010 10:33 AM Men & Women 1.33-36 1,408 Law, Justice, Procedure Basileus/-eis Kudos Assembly 1,63,79,119,290, 357 Agora Scepter 2.211 1.272 2.262-282 Heralds 1.394 Priest 1.32 Sacrifice 1.153, 172 Nature Public 1.581 Agon/-ones Hellencentrism4.489 Xenos/-oi xenia Gods and Men 3.455-480 Beauty 2.247-255 Religion/Procedure 6.45-73 Jokes 5.662-76 5.76 4.629 Hero 4.175-211 4.389-478 6.125 5.541-67 3.70-81 6.410 6.522-555 Okios/-oi Aristeia Xenia 6.142 14.85 14.257 13.735 14.375 ff 14.569 16.523-43 16.915 ff 16.976 ff Law Structures Polis Boule Agora Dogma Procedure 9.19-32 ~ 2.130 9.187 ff Xenia 9.363-71 16.236-43 8.456-68 476-87 9.543-600 9.646-729 Oikos/-oi 10.525 Aristeia 11.777-961 15.435 13.839 13.935 18.331-360 Force/Self Help 4.47-60 9.772 12.489 19.70-170 3rd Party 16.1009-9 12.230,245,265 8.192,197 Religion Physical Structures Temenos/-e Personnel 1.153,3.330,1.370 6.310 Basileus/-eis Personanel Basileus/-eis Dogma Procedure Mon Sept 27, 2010 Monday, September 27, 2010 10:28 AM Herodotus Bk 1: You need to focus on the relatively recent events of history, say 150 years ago as opposed to deep ancient history [aka, myth] if you're going to find causal relationships Croesus and Fall Media, Persia Croesus takes up conflict with Persia and loses At this time, it was "the age of Persia" by which Greeks were defining themselves. What else would he choose to write about? Egypt and Cambyses Egypt/ Ethiopia; Cambyses --> Darius Darius and S. Russia/N. Africa Persia --> Greech --> Marathon 490 "The new D-Day" 7-9 2nd Persian war 480/79 Histor-judges Kleos- the reputation the follows any warrior History: educating later generations Herodotus is writing himself into history Early history as military history Early local histories: none survive. They're just referred to later. Hectataeus of Miletos: genealogies of people theoretically descended from heroes Cracks in the narrative: successions of kings..except for one. What happened here?; the naked queen plot [palace coup]; --as a historian, he is trying to tease out all these surprising beginnings to ridiculousness Wed Sept. 29, 2010 Wednesday, September 29, 2010 10:24 AM Book One, Day Two Alogos: irrational. Also, a story. Suffering 1.34 1.85 1.90-91 Advice 1.27 1.71 Sardamis 1.207 Tomyris Massagetai Divine Input 1.53,55 1.07,108 1.59 1.32 Tricks 1.17 1.141 1.59-62 1.83 1.126 1.211 Persia Media Lydia Butterfly effect is really what Herodotus is stressing here. Croesus: misinterpretation of advice. This happens a lot. Experiental wisdom?it comes when you lose everything else. One piece of advice he DID take: don't cross boundaries. So he made an alliance with the Ionian Islanders. He became an advisor to Cyrus. Lesson of Herodotus: don't cross boundaries! It always ends badly. Striving beyond natural limits is a bad thing. Heirs: you want someone strong, but not so strong that he's going to supplant you before you're [a] ready to be ousted or [b] killed Nothing is certain except eventual death and probably failure. Herodotus sentiment: no man can be self-sufficient. What you can say about the individual, you can say about the state/nation/empire?.no man blessed until he's dead. No nation stays on top forever. No state can have everything. Interest in trickery and gimmicks?unheeded advice, misinterpreted oracles, dreams that cause drastic action?incorrectly. How history works: there's always a kink thrown in, either trickery or cannibalism, or some other ridiculous happening. We see a taint of Homer in here. The hero of Herodotus: not the strong man but the intelligent man Mon Oct 4, 2010 Monday, October 04, 2010 10:22 AM Midterm next Friday from the BHAG as well as brief straight-forward questions regarding the stuff we're reading.----------- Herodotus Book Two Day One Describing Egypt Religion= Cult 2.3 2.65 2.45 2.61 2.86 1.51 Syncretism Procedure 1132 1.159-160 1.34-45 1.29 1.84 2.48 2.54-8 2.60-3 2.64 2.52-3 Homer, Tragedy Oedipus Croesus Astyages Cyrus Pisistratus Sparta-1.66 -Cult: the process and procedure of religion. The steps you take in order to follow the religion. Religion is more the myth. -reluctant to define sacred and divinity; he doesn't want to offend the gods and cast the dice unfavorably -rituals in which it IS okay to depict the gods- ex. The coffin for mummified corpse made in the representation of Osiris. -is Herodotus being a bad historian or is it traditional piety? If you live in a world where there are infinite gods that may be walking around anywhere, able to overhear you, you have to practice piety to avoid pissing them off -Regarding Persians: their culture is significantly different from the Greeks. This sort of thing is also present when describing Egypt. -Bad things happen when you violate procedure. Consider King Mileus, who didn't carry the lion cub quite all the way around the walls, so there is a weak spot in the walls that allows for the walls to fall when attacked generations later. -Festivals, the parallels and the uniquities. Myth as explanation for cult. Rules, procedure, ritual?not so much in morality or belief. -Egypt: the first place, according to Herodotus, that forbade those who had just had sex to enter a sacred place. CLEANLINESS -Divinity: weird and incomprehensible. For much of the time, they weren't named or personified. Must be careful on which ground you tread. -Tragedy: the hero is his own destroyer. "Count no mad blessed til he's dead" Fate v Free Will. The quest for something and the inevitable failure of being unable to understand what this something is. -Almost everyone gets it wrong. Sparta actually manages to get it right. One guy figures out the oracle! How the hell does that happen?? Goes to prove that the Spartans are the smartest if not the strongest? Evidence is tricky and the human mind is weak. This is the essence of the tragic hero. Winning by outsmarting. Wed Oct 6, 2010 Wednesday, October 06, 2010 10:28 AM Ancient Near East Political history Great Men Solon Lycurgus Polycrates of Samos 3.60 Hdt. Ca. 484-424 Thales Anaximander Anaximenes Pythagoras Hippias of Elis Doric/Ionic Geog 2.20-26 Chron 2.4-2.142-5 Linguistics 1.172 Namos/Physis 3.38 2.35 2.104 3.12 1.155 1.71 9.122 2.2 1.58 1.115 The Persian state is the singlehanded creation of Cyrus, who is smarter and stronger than everyone else. This is Hdt. View Tyrants are good at getting stuff done Rudimentary mathematical science being developed; geology Using the Olympic games as a "universal" time marker Hdt. Writes in Ionic, which is not his normal dialect. He grew up speaking Dionic. The idea that he was pitching this at an Athenian audience because he wrote in Ionic. The difference is like Portuguese and Spanish Egypt must have been existent before the creation of the Delta. Causes of the annual Nile floods. Chronology: first to spit the year into twelve months. Greece: every city state has its own calendar that was based on the lunar calendar. And they all kept getting outta whack. Nomos [law, custom,convention] and Physis [what comes after physics] Distinction b/t nurture and nature Egyptions raised two kids totally devoid of language and waited to see which word was said first. It was a Frigen word for bread. Thus the Egyptians believed that the Frigens were the first peoples. Hardwired for innate language Cyrus punishing a kid for disobeying with royal overtones when he was only ten. Wed Oct 27 Wednesday, October 27, 2010 10:21 AM Thuc Book 3 Revolution of Mytilene -Didn't go so well. Negotiating between peace with Athens and alliance with Sparta -"We are useful" to the Spartans -vote what is useful, not what is right Paches- conquers the entire island of Lesbos. What do we do with the people of Mytilene Logos Notium Stasis dike [dikaion] 3.36.2 Orge: "in the moment": kill all the men, enslave all women and children Paches will do this 3.36.6 Cleon "most violent man in Athens" Demos 3.37 popular 3.38 orge Gnome [Cleon: the best gnome is orge] Diodotus [argues against Cleon for the fate of the Mytilene people] Probably invented by Thuc as he is mentioned absolutely nowhere else Usefulness of Mytilene to Athens 3.44 logos [for reason, for the public good] 3.50 1000 die [stopped the massacre, but the "small number of ringleaders" were killed] 3.47 v 3.27 3.43 politicians lie [especially this one. Don?t discuss what is just but what is advantageous] 2.63.2 unjust [adikon] tyranny [v. Pericles. He is manipulative] 3.44.4 nomos physis -It is cheaper to not kill the people. Not a win for the forces of good, but for the forces of incredible pragmatism Plataea Thebes 3.67 deeds/words [public speech erodes real democracy] Exped./right [justice versus expediency] Maintain law [nomos] Avert stasis through public [demosia] Competitive [agon] Speech [logos]; promises, oaths, friendship, honor In support of sound plan [gnome] "Streamlined justice": we will ask you one question, and you will answer us and we will decide what to do with you. What good have you done for us? [nothing, actually] -the purpose of language is to hide wrongdoing Corcyra Demos/oligoi 3.82 words fail 3.81 nomoi fail 3.84 physis/ nomos Orgos/dikaion When nature or Nature strikes, human conventions get run down; irrelevant defenses against humankind's baser instincts Mon Nov 29 Monday, November 29, 2010 10:18 AM 411 --> oligarchy by 400 [lasted 4 months] --> oligarchy by 5000 [lasted 10 months] --making it illegal to take over the state by force Codifying all the laws in Athens and making them accessible Theramenes 406 Arginusal 405 Aegospotmi: Athens suffers major loss to Sparta; forced to capitulate within months Deal brokered by Theramenes Hetaireia = clubs, small groups of elites--return of the exiled 400 who start plotting something new Critias [picked 10] Lysander [picked 10] Extreme right wing [picked 10] This was the rise of the Thirty-- 404/3 403 --> democracy resists; people are dying, and the whole thing is kind of ridiculous. Spartan king Pausanias: you need to stop. Athens can have its democracy, and democracy is restarted. A new polis was created for the oligarchs some ways away from Athens. Democracy returns and amnesty ensues Mnesikakein "remember evils" it becomes illegal to prosecute anyone for crimes committed before the amnesty [they eventually go and kill the oligarchs' city and solve the problem] 399 Trial of Socrates Andocides: friends with Critias, oligarch. Citizen, old money. Lysias: metic, new money. Fierce democrat D thou Wed Dec 1 2010 Wednesday, December 01, 2010 10:26 AM Lysias 1 and Lysias 3 Athenian law: murder is justified if a man is "at" another man's woman [his wife, daughter, mother, slave?] What does "at" mean? Consensuality not mentioned Adultery not specifically defined here Lysias 1: wife not really blamed for affair [though it takes two] Rhetorical strategy? Easier to justify death Indications that wife can hold her own; she is not completely whipped Rape: crime punished by doubling fine [violation of woman's honor] Rape can be prosecuted under the charge of hubris (injury of dignity ) Adultery: crime punishable by death [violation of man's honor] Law doesn't require death of the man, but it is allowable and secure from prosecution. Social law v written law Alternative: public torture of the man committing adultery Women could not testify in court; they can appear, but they can't speak Female slaves can, just as any slave can [probably under torture] Almost in no case is there both sides of the case written out for us to examine Very little actual legal argument in the speeches presented Picking and choosing parts of laws that apply to your case [an issue in Athens where there were dozens of often-contradictory law] Friends as witnesses: if you have a friend that WON'T testify for you, chances are someone on the jury is going to know about it and realize something is up Lysias 3: not acceptable to have feelings for a whore, which the defendant had for the whore that he had under contract. This is why he would not bring up charges until Simon brought up charges against him In homicide cases and commercial cases where there is a contract-not allowed to bring outside details [usually on the opponent] to the case at hand Athens as a place of modern contradictions Modernistic jury that finds torture acceptable and even normal Rape a crime of fines v dignity punishable through more extreme measures Etc. Draco's laws: the only ones kept after Solon's revisions were Draco's laws on homicide. Erasing these laws means getting rid of Athen's oldest and most sacrosanct laws. Fri Dec 3 Friday, December 03, 2010 10:18 AM Hyperides, paragraph 16--what does the law have anything to do with the law of wills? You have to understand the law of sale. Anything that two people agree to is just is the law Epicrates is arguing. The actual law of sale states "anything that two people agree to." just, consensual, otherwise. No formal charge for breach of contract--you could sue for damages He is invoking the law of marriage and the law of wills to try to make an argument that law of contract should be just and binding as well Has no income tax system; but Athens needs money for military operations, putting on annual festivals, public works, etc. How do they do that? They tell some rich people to pay up. Someone says no, guy X is richer. Guy X and Guy Y duke it out; they exchange property completely [you're richer, no you're richer. Okay--*property trade ensues*] Jurors do not speak. Period. If convicted of false testimony three times, the witness is thrown out Case by case determines the number of jurors, not the type of court Mon Dec 6 Monday, December 06, 2010 10:32 AM Against Naerea High class call girls had access to dinners with huge names, lavish lifestyles; attended important functions--all of these that respectable women [wives] could not do If you're a bank, you cannot lend money against real estate because you cannot collect the property. All privately run. Out of state's control. The right to common cult, to participate in common cult, the right to be entitled to the good favor of the gods. All it takes is one person to fuck it all up 1 drachma = 1 daily wage 1 mina = 100 drachma *prostitution was a big money industry The Athenian govt kept no documentation on citizenship, marriage contracts, etc. Essay --> How does this look just like what we've seen before? Procedure Saving face Amateurism [represented by not lawyers but friends or self] Competitive public speaking Hubris Men are the players Citizens are the players Wealthy male citizens are the players Final Exam: 3 parts--cumulative, non tricky Short answers/fill in the blanks stuff Bring own essay question-typed out in advance and written in class Answer an essay question in class Wed Dec 8, 2010 Wednesday, December 08, 2010 10:21 AM Hellenistic period: 323-31BC--this is the beginning of the Hellenistic period Greeks v non-greeks instead of greeks against self Homogenization of greece--regional dialect dies, common dialect rises Literature--plays/whatever, working to offend NO ONE
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