the equipment used in anchoring and in mooring with anchors
what equipment is identified as ground tackle?
anchors, anchor chain, wire rope, synthetic line, or a combination of these materials, when used with anchors; and appendages consisting of connecting shackles or links, detachable links and end links, bending shackles, mooring swivels, anchor buoys, etc...
what are the 5 groups of anchors used in the Navy today?
2)lightweight-type anchors (LWT)
3)two-fluke balanced-fluke anchors
4)navy-type stock anchors
why were the stockless anchors adopted by the navy?
because they are easy to stow
what are the 3 designs of stockless anchors in use on naval ships?
3)the Mark 2 (MK 2)
which type of stockless anchors has the greatest holding power?
the MK 2 with its long flukes, but it made only in 60,000 lb size for use aboard aircraft carriers
which type of stockless anchor has the least holding power?
the short, commercial type flukes
what are the 2 types of lightweight anchors used on Navy ships?
the MK 2 LWT, and the wedge block LWT
what advantages does the stockless feature of these anchors provide?
ease of handling and stowing and in allowing the anchor to be hoisted directly into the hawsepipe and secured, ready for letting go
how do lightweight anchors gain their holding power?
by digging deep into the bottom rather than lying as dead weight
where are the two different types of lightweight anchors used?
they are used as bower and stern anchors and may also be used as stream or kedge anchors
how is the crown of the LWT anchor designed?
to lift the rear of the flukes and force their points downward into the bottom
where is the two-fluke balanced-fluke anchor used?
for anchoring surface ships and the newer submarines and is normally housed in the bottom of the ship
when is the two-fluke balanced-fluke anchor used for anchoring surface ships?
when the ship's conventional anchors interfere with the ship's sonar dome
where are mushroom anchors used?
by some elder submarines and for special purposes, such as mooring for buoys and torpedo-testing barges
what type of anchor is normally used in groups of 3 or more, surrounding a central mooring point?
who is responsible for ordering all anchors in excess of 100 pounds?
The Naval Sea Systems Command
what is assigned to each anchor weighing over 100 pounds ordered by the Naval Sea Systems Command?
a serial number, which is cast or cut into the anchor before it is delivered
where can the serial number on the anchor be found?
on the crown of the old fashioned anchors, on the flat of the crown of the stockless anchors, and on the shank of the LWT anchors
who has the responsibility of recording the anchor serial numbers?
the Boatswain's Mate, who must record these serial numbers in the anchor log of the ship
what material is used to construct a Navy anchor chain?
die-lock chain with studs
how is the size of the link of an anchor chain designated?
by its diameter, called wire diameter
what sizes are listed in the Federal Supply Catalog for the links of the anchor chain?
from 3/4 to 4 3/4 inches
how is a wire diameter measured?
at the end and a little above the center line of the link
what is the length of a standard link used for anchor chain?
6 times its diameter, and its width is 3.6 times its diameter
what is the function of the stud on the Navy die-lock chain?
prevents the chain from kinking and the links from pounding on adjacent links
what are shots?
the lengths of chain that are connected together to make up the chip's anchor chain
what is the length of a standard shot?
15 fathoms (90 feet) long
where is a serial number stamped on each shot of the chain?
it is either stamped or cut at the time of manufacture, on the inner side of the end links of each shot
what action should be taken if an end link is lost or removed from a shot?
the identification should be either cut or stamped on the new end link of the altered shot
how are shots of anchor chain joined?
the Navy type detachable link
what constitutes the Navy type of detachable link?
a C-shaped link with 2 coupling plates, which form one side and stud of the link. a taper pin holds the parts together and is locked in place at the large end by a lead plug
why are matching numbers stamped on the C-link and on each coupling plate of the detachable link?
to ensure identification and proper assembly because detachable link parts are not interchangeable
what does the detachable link toolbox sets contain?
tools, including spare taper pins and lock plugs, for assembling and disassembling the detachable end links
what device is used to attach the anchor to the chain?
what is slush?
a preservative and lubricant which is a mixture of 40% white lead and 60% tallow by volume
what is the purpose of chain swivels?
they are furnished parts of the outboard swivel shot to minimize kinking or twisting of the anchor chain
what does the outboard swivel shots consist of?
detachable links, regular chain links, a swivel, an end link, and a bending shackle
why are outboard swivel shots fitted on most vessels?
to attach the anchor chain to the anchor. they also make it possible to stop off the anchor and break the chain between the windlass and the anchor
how are the taper pins in the detachable links of the outboard swivel shot secured?
with a U-shaped, stainless steel, wire-locking clip (hairpin), which is inserted in holes drilled through the coupling plates, and engages a keyway or groove on the taper pin
what constitutes riding and housing chain stoppers?
a turnbuckle inserted in a short section of chain with a slip or pelican hook attached to one end of the chain and a shackle at the other end
what chain stopper is the assembly that is closest to the hawsepipe?
the housing stopper and it must be installed outboard of the swivel
how are riding and housing chain stoppers secured?
by the shackles to permanent padeyes on the vessel's deck
why are chain stopper used?
to hold the anchor taut in the hawsepipe, to ride at anchor, or to hold the anchors when the anchor chain is disconnected for any reason
when in use, how is a stopper attached to the anchor chain?
by passing the tongue over a link of the chain and securing it by engaging the bail of the Pelican hook and passing a toggle pin
although stoppers alone are more than adequate for holding the anchor, how should they be backed up?
with the wildcat brake
what is the difference between towing chain stoppers and riding and housing chain stoppers?
towing chain stoppers have locking plates added to prevent the towing chain stoppers from unscrewing when subject to the shock loading of the towing hawser
where are forged steel mooring shackles used?
to attach the anchor chain to mooring buoys
what is the standard size mortise (opening) in inches, on all mooring shackles, regardless of their size?
how are forged steel swivels, with 2 links attached at each end, used?
they are used to moor with anchors, and they are inserted in the chain outboard of the hawse and serve to keep the chain from twisting as the ship swings
why should mooring swivels be attached in the chain with the eye end outboard, or down?
to prevent them from hooking on the outer lip of the hawse when they are heaved back aboard
what constitutes a chain cable jack?
a lever mounted on an axle and 2 wheels
where is a chain cable jack used?
to handle anchor chain in sizes 2 3/4 inches and above, and to pick the chain up to pass a chain stopper
what is a clear hawse pendant?
a wire rope pendant, 5 to fathoms long, with a thimble at one end and a pelican hook attached to a length of open link chain fitted in a thimble at the other end
what is the function of a clear hawse pendant?
it is used in clearing a hawse fouled by the anchor chain
what are dip ropes?
a fiber rope pendant, fitted at one end with a thimble and a dip shackle large enough to engage a link of the anchor chain
what is the function of dip ropes?
they are used to moor or clear a hawse
dip shackles and proportional dimensions for the different sizes of chain can be found in what directive?
Chapter 581 of the NSTM
why is a short length of chain and/or wire rope pendant inserted between the anchor and the anchor buoy line ?
it prevents the anchor buoy line from chafing on the anchor and parting
why are detachable links of anchor chain painted red, white, or blue?
to indicate fathoms; red=15/60 fathoms, white=30/75 fathoms, blue=45/90 fathoms and so on
at the 15 fathom mark, what color is one link on each side of the detachable link painted?
red, and one turn of the wire is wrapped securely around each stud
at what fathom mark are the two links on each side of the detachable link painted white?
the 30 fathoms mark
why is each link of the entire next-to-last shot painted yellow?
this shot is a warning shot
what color is the last shot painted which shows the approach to the bitter end of the anchor chain?
red, which is the danger shot
how is the bitter end of the anchor chain secures to a padeye in the chain locker?
by a safety anchor shackle
the padeye, welded to a specially reinforced bulkhead in the chain locker, is rated at how many times the breaking strength of the shackle?
1.75 times. the strength of the shackle must approximate the weight of 20 shots of anchor chain hanging from the hawsepipe
how often are all anchor chains in sizes up to and including 1 1/2 inches, laid on deck and their entire lengths examined?
once each quarter, and more often if subjected to normal use
what should you look for when inspecting the deck pad eyes and chain stoppers?
cracks, deformation, and excessive wear
Want to see the other 69 Flashcards in Ground Tackle, Towing, and Salvage?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!