Group cohesion and conformity (Chapter 14) -Group ? two or more persons that are considered members, interact with one another, share goals, and share norms -Group cohesion ? the extent to which members of a group desire to remain in that group and resist leaving it -nature of group cohesion -may be motivated to join because of relations to members of the group, similar held values, or the group can provide something desirable -Social cohesion ? when members stay in the group primarily because they like one another as persons and desire to interact with one another -greater when members are similar -Task cohesion ? members remain together primarily because they are heavily involved with the group?s task -greater when members find the task intrinsically valuable, interesting, and challenging, or if the objectives are clearly defined -consequences of group cohesion -more cohesive groups communicate more, and more effectively -more cohesive groups have more influence between members -group structure and goals -Group goal ? an outcome viewed by group members as desirable and important to attain -group goals vs. individual goals -goal isomorphism ? the state where group goals and individual goals are similar in the sense that actions leading to group goals also lead to the attainment of individual goals -Roles ? set of functions that a member performs for the group or a cluster of rules or expectations indicating the set of duties to be performed by a member occupying a given position within a group -Task specialist ? the member who drives the group toward the attainment of its goal -Socio-emotional specialist ? the member who attempts to ease the tension and soothe hurt feelings in the group -Role differentiation ? when members divide functions (task and socio-emotion specialist) -status of group members -Status characteristics ? any social attribute of a person around which evaluations and beliefs about that person come to be organized -Diffuse characteristic ? attributes that provide an indirect indication of a member?s level of ability on the group task -Status generalization ? tendency for members? status characteristics to affect group structure and interaction is called status generalization -Expectation states theory ? the outset of interaction in a task group, members form expectations regarding one another?s potential performance. These expectations, which are formed through basic attribution processes, affect subsequent interaction among members -when creating a performance expectation from status characteristics, members behave as if the burden of proof is placed on demonstrating that these characteristics are not relevant to the task at hand -Conformity to group norms -Norm ? a rule or standard that specifies how group members are expected to behave under given circumstances -function of norms -fostering coordination between members in pursuit of group goals -provide a cognitive frame of reference from members to interpret their environment -define and enhance the common identity of the group -types -Return potential model ? suggests norms have two dimensions, the behavior dimension and the evaluation dimension. The behavior dimension indicates frequency of behavior regulated by the group norm. The evaluation dimension indicates the response to the behavior by other members -Conformity ? when individuals adhere to group norms and standards -Majority influence ? the process by which a group?s majority pressures an individual member to conform or to adopt a specific position on some issue -gives a group integrity and continuity over time -experiments by Asch (1951. 1955, 1957) -normative influence ? when members conform to expectations held by others in order to receive he social rewards or avoid the punishments that are contingent on meeting these expectations -Informational influence ? when a group member accepts information from others as valid evidence about reality -Sherif (1935, 1936) ? autokinetic effect to show convergence using others? beliefs as a frame of reference -increasing conformity -having a larger unanimous majority -having universal unanimity -high attraction among members -long term commitment to the group -if the individual member possesses skills and disagrees with the majority, they are more likely to not conform, as compared to someone who isn?t as skilled (perceived competence) -Minority influence ?if members of a dissenting minority are able to persuade or induce majority members to accept their viewpoint -Conversion theory of minority influence ? minority coalitions exercise influence through conversion, not compliance -minorities use persuasion or exemplification as compared to majority coalitions that use coercive pressure or threats -the minority yields a greater influence if its takes a distinctive position and holds it consistently in the face of pressure -minority coalitions are more influential when their position is consistent but their behavioral style is flexible and multifaceted -the larger the minority coalition, the more influential it becomes -Dual-process model ? believes that minority and majorities differ qualitatively in the ways they influence their targets
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