Bio defense and Emergency Infectious Threats Selected emerging and reemerging infectious diseases (HIV, Lyme, etc) Balancing risk and benefit. Risk of Bioterrorism is low compared to other threats such as heart disease, cancer, MV accidents and homicide. However, consequences can be catastrophic as demonstrated by the hypothetical anthrax release over Providence. Quantifiable risk problems Bio threats -occult and frightening -inexpensive - Weapons of mass terror Biology meets policy Clinical latency period of days or longer before biological agents take effect. This makes terror potential high and reach broad. Difficulty in deciphering what is ging on. CDC highest priority concerns (have been experimented with and can cause significant morbidity and mortality) Category A (anthrax, botulism) Anthrax attacks, US 2001 -High mortality rate Small Pox -Greatest disease scourge of mankind -globally eradicated A spectrum of disease-bioterrorism-emerging infectious diseases Monkey Pox -Found in central Africa - A disease that never existed in our geography, can become introduced by animal reservoirs SARS Current Concerns -Yellow fever in Africa -New Arenavirus -Seasonal influenza Seasonal Influenza Emerging new strains require that vaccines be reformulated People who usually die are the young and the old Transmission -person to person spread by respiratory droplets -contact with infected secretions -aerosols Pandemic influenza -Occurs over wide geographic area or many epidemics occurring at the same time all over the world Novel H1N1 Virus, 2009 Science and Biology, public health and policy come together as one Challenges and Strategies H1N1-many times the illness and number of hospitalization to deal with moderate H1N1 compared to average capacity Problem? RI does not have the capacity RI is at surge capacity already, even without a pandemic Projected impact can be catastrophic What will be next? Does not really matter. Whatever it is, the same systems need to be in place to address it. Same concepts Duality of Bio defense Public health preparation intersects
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