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-Ornamental stonework for holding stained glass in place
-characteristic of Gothic cathedrals.
The workshop system in which master artists would train younger apprentices, in return for the students' help on commissions.
A painting technique in which water-based pigments are applied to a surface of wet plaster
FlatnessChalice and fountain – can seewater/wine
Saint Apollinaire → Bishop ofRovena (at bottom)Orant, sheep at bottom is congregationor disciples
Church of holy wisdom, Justinian wanted something NEW, predentives, Turks converted it into a mosque and covered a lot of mosaics with Islamic stuff (merging and medallions of Arabic writing) -> museum
Last Judgment Tympanum Sculpture
RomanesqueGod judges people on JudgmentDay (damned or saved), SAVED on the RIGHT SIDE of Jesus, on left side: helpers who help people attain good fate, weighing souls; souls lined up at bottom, waiting to be pulled up, Jesus on throne
AbbeyChurch of St. Denis
Flying buttress, dedicated to Virgin Mary,Really important pilgrimagechurch. Claimed that it had piece of Mary's gown when she gave birth toJesus (relic), relic didn't get destroyed during fire -> good sign to build bigger church
EnthronedMadonna and Child
Iconic/symbolic - FLAT
4 OT people at bottom
Typology in border - symbolism less prominent, more depth
Throne has depth, grounded, humanized faces, Jesus holding scroll
ArenaChapel Fresco Cycle
Scrovegni Enrico's dad was an usurer, Giotto paints Last Judgment scene giving chapel as a gift to saints and begging for forgiveness, Coming of the New Law - stories about Mary and Jesus, NT in border
Pleurants → weeping ones
Leaves the viewer space to comeinto the painting
Front and back are painted, hangs above altar, front -> he's honoring Virgin Mary in symbolic way, Byzantine gold background, little panels are the stories of Christ
Iconic, glance isn't really at her
Naturalistic, blue sky, hand reaching out to her, other characters, looking at her - connection
Gabriel announcing that Mary's going tobe the mother of Christ, holding a branch of olive leaves –symbol of Christ, God's message of peace, White lily is symbol of Mary'svirginity, Triangular space above and between Mary→ Holy Spirit in form of a dove, raised in golden light, surroundedby angels
For city hall inSiena, portrays diff elements of thecity that thrive b/c Siena has such a good gov, Construction, dancing, education. Allegory of security btwn cityand country, scripture says if you mess with us, you're introuble
She-wolf in corner as referenceto Rome and the classics and its gov, and how Siena isfollowing the traditions
Man in a Red Turban Jan van Eyck ----- self portrait
Motto: the best that I am capable of doing
No religious significane
Doesn't idealize himself, wrinkles and all
through learning to speak/write well, learn to make moral decisions. walk through something --> sold problem --> better understand morals of decision
church: belived moral/ethical behavior dictated by scripture
humanists kickstarted protestant reformation
-octave (eight lines): "abbaabba" narrative, states proposition, raises ?
-sestet (six lines): "cdccdc" drives home octave by general commentary or answering ?
1. Using oil paint in panel painting vs. Tempra paint of italy: build up layers of paint (glazes), more COLOR.
2. rendered acurate DETAIL (included light)
3. concerened with SYMBOLISM, integrated paintings with symbolic code
joseph in his carpentry shop
1. window behind him is a mouse trap: birth of Christ is bait in a trap set by God to capture the devil
2. He is drilling holes into drain board (used to make wine): central right of the church which is communion
more negative space. issace and abraham are makign eye contact w/ teh angel. forceful: SOTP. a lot of force
1st orphanage. first time the care of abandoned children was a public concern. the silk/goldsmith guild funded this thing. they put it in a plaza that was close to the cathedral that pilgrims came to, to see Virgin Mary. her maternal instinct would carry over to the children.
1st piece of renaissance architecture: long, horizonal close to the ground/not meant to overwhelm you, be on your level/classical elements evident in way Brune used proportion/geometric shapes defined thru colors of marble. decorated w/ medalions of swaddled babies
7. was hung in a town hall in italy: it became an allegory for political gov.'s in the town hall. accounts of hwo the state/judges/lawyers would glance up at this image and be rmeinded to not be corrupted
4. plays w perspective: we are in the space in the gaurds (like Giotto), but you're looking at him straight on meaning he his all powerful. tres coming from the sides and forming a point towards Christ. 5. Brutto-Bello: "ugly-beautiful" used to emphasize Christ's power-his mouth has a tiny snear, hsi eyes and everyhting els elooks so tired and sad, reminds us that he died for us and humbles the view. 6. immortalized landscape: 2 dif sides of composition (landscape) offering the viewer a choice btwn good and evil. right-young trees, left-old/barren trees
Federico Montefeltro and Battista Sforza (The Duke and Duchess of Urbino), Piero della Francesca cont. 2 "triumphs"
triumphs: back of diptic-->both on carts. Federico: his cart deals with outside world. horses-sound judgment, courage, practical animals.
Battista: everything is good with the soul, he people. faigh and compasion. nurturing interior/wellbeing/soul. unicorns-->idealism/creativity, interior traits
Montefeltro Altarpiece, Piero della Francesca
insanely pianted thing ever. painted oculus in the Ducal palace. wealthy family had it painted. poitns towards the high renaissance b/c he was pushing the line of perspective. had "Di soto in su", "foreshortening", and "putti". funny humor in it: babies stuck, plant about to fall on us, baby holding apple/about to drop it. exploring the limits of perspective and playing w/ visual tricks
1. Principalities: different types of rule, bringing in exs of each and talking about their strengths and weaknesses.
2. military: role of military in a prince's rule.
3. how to handle others: the citizens and ppl that worked for you.
4. adressign the curren ruler (Medici) and praising italy: hence, ends with Petrarch talking about pride
he wrote 150+ sonnets, 3 dif characters in hsi sonnets:
-The Dark Lady: speculate very passionate and having darker morals at times.
-The Fair Youth: his patron who he respected, or his son who passed away
-The Rival Poet: Christopher Marlow-another playwrite in renaissance, one of his rivals
Love is flawed and painful and is always changing. but endures and is worth it because it gives meaning to life.
no emergence of females tho:
1. not humanisticallye ducated, so they didn't have the classical references so they couldn't produce same level of art
2. no studio access and couldn't paint nude men
3. didn't have ability to travel, stuck wherever they were born
-David by Michelangelo
-abandoned work of another artist
-cut from a single block of stone
-David before fight with Goliath,
-David become a symbol of strength of Florence
-Hand are so big because it was supposed to be on top of a cathedral
-symbolic reference to Florence's power
painted on a wall in the back. impressive mathematically and emotionally. positioned to parallel the people/viewers that would be in the dining hall eating. they'd be up on a riser. captures moment in time when Jesus says "one of you will betray me." everyone is reacting with shock. in past, painters made judas easily identifiable. here, you don't know who he is at first glance. one of DaVinci's interests in painting was to express their emotions and perosnalities.
used new experimental technique that sucked, paint flaked in his lifetime. Leo's fav painting, carried it around w/ him on daily basis. doesn't want it to leave his sight, didn't part w/ it until he died. 3 mysteries: 1. nobody knew who this woman was 2. she was in a background that was unidentifiable. 3. her smile was enigmatic (puzzling), smiling or not? in 2005 her identity was verified: woman named Lisa, wife of Florentine merchant. mona lisa=my lady lisa.
-1652 the monks took out a portion to put in a door for food service
-early 19th century, Napoleon's soldiers turned it into a stable
-1943 the place was bombed out but only the wall survived
-a lot of Leo's work suffered crazy circumstanes/disasters
1. those within your own state, always around you --> conspiracies
2. foreign powers
*had to identify those two so you can protect yourself completely
-born and died on good friday, compared to Christ
-his dad was a painter, but not that good so he had to find another painter to train Raphael. he exhausted new painter. by the time he was 20 he was working by himself.
-he looked by Michaelangelo and DaVinci for inspiration b/c they were older
triptic, overall subject is sin. Message: Damnation is the result of ignorane and folly and people can ensure their damnation throught he pursuit of pleasures of the flesh.
bosch's creation of the world, precedes the creation of humanking. earthly paradise, populated only by plants (bible story), no light to discern them yet. God is in the upper left,a nd he doesn't look happy. shy, hesitant, slightly worried.
hell panel, what will happen to you if you sin, super dark/threatenitng, no nature in it, its night.
-CITY: ravaged by war.
-BIRD MAN: lord of underworld, swallowing the damned, getting rid of them as excrement into an endless pit. other thigns happening too: miser is pooping gold coins into a pit, another guy vomiting into pit, prideful woman who has to look eternally into a mirror.
-man speared to table, nailed to table where he's lost his fortune
-HARP: guy is strung on it, a snake is biting his butt/blood dripping below, hear pain and discordinant sound.
-KNIFE BTWN EARS: saying "whoever has ears to hear, let him hear" meaning listen to word of God. Ppl in hell cannot hear, has been slayed
-TREE MAN: its a self portrait, Bosch looking back and contemplating his own morality, recognizing flaws in himself, he too has moral lapses, is questioning if anyone can truly be without sin.
-Lovers in a transparent bubble: reping famous Dutch proverb: means this kind of pleasure is very temperal/passes quickly, result: don't invest self. Man beneath bubble is foreboding taht if you invest yourself in lust/stuff, your future will suck and be full of death/disaster.
-Berries: in painting, used in sexual way, refernce to fertility and reproduction
-Strawberries: they will spread in garden, use runners to shoot out and grow. his idea tha thumans so quckly stray from ritcheous beahvior once you are lsut ful you keep going and get out of control
-Birds: all about prey, they are prey of their own desires
-experience of looking at the painting is mesmerizing and "trapping" and ironically the message is not to be dominated by these passions
very pleasing piece, nice aesthetic, the hunters are going home from a hunt. one in a series of hte cycle of thes easons. such a great landscape painter, they have awesome detail, believe you are in the winter, gives them more depth than it appears at first glance.
FIRST GLANCE: slice of everyday winter life --> hunters w/ dogs, women by fire, skaters on pond below.
-Deeper level: mans' search for truth and purpose in the midst of everyday life. Supporters of this theory --> dark figures/hunters striving towards light in distance, they don't stop by the fire, trudge along to find truth.
ARTISTICALLY: Bruegel sued aesthetic: have to be consistent bu at same time, give viewer suprirse.
-he does taht: use od diagnol, used more than once and surprising b;/c keep finding it the more you look at the painting. ex: tree branches, river, staffs of hunters, birds, mountains, houses/rooftops
Dedalus and Icarus story, Icarus dies
1. Take everything in moderation (Icarus didn't and he's dead)
2. Taking Flemish proverb, w/ literal spin and illustrating it: *life goes on, circle of life, kind of negative. *we are so consumed /w our working lives/own circle, tragedy cna happen all around us, we should be more aware of that to become a better human family. ex: shepehrd guy doesn't pay attention, nor plow guy. don't notice Icarus is dead in water until its too late.
1 of 18 children.
burin: used engraving tool
trained as a goldsmith, did engraving
1 of 3 engravings that he considered his master engravings. reps: creative melancholy of artist --> on verge of creating something, but not quite there yet. there's the tools to make it happen, but writer's block. Ppl say its a tribute to Michelangelo (ladder to paint chapel, melancholy)
*Magic Square: he did it on 1514 all of the rows add up to 34, but so do the four quadrant and the middle quadrant.
-Capurnicus: earth moved around the sun and Galileo: telescope validation.
-Invention of microscope: understand things on a dif level.
-light was a natural phenomenon that could be refined
-motion could be measured
-this all made artist start to do dif things in their art
1. dynamic in their composition: MOVEMENT in it (form of diagonal)
2. TENEBRISM: super strong contrast of light and dark
3. emphasis of NATURALISM by using realistic detail
4. OPEN COMPOSITION: when you feel like you can step into painting and be included in the action
5. emphasis of theatrical DRAMA of the moment
-blood is not naturalistic at all
-women are weak
-maybe made blood look so face b/c he could never imagine a woman committing this act
-Sistine Madonna by Raphael
-little angels at the bottom are quite famous
-Young madonna, looks uneasy
-Jesus looks freaked out
-hung in a church across from a crucifix and they were looking into christ's future
-cloud babies/angels shows how close we really are to the spiritual world
-Brueghel, Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, Non-Italian Renaissance
-Story of Icarus: flies too close to the sun and falls into the ocean
-Shows Icarus falling into the water
-Moderation theme again
-Another theme: "Not a plough stands still when a man dies"
-circle of life, can't pay attention to death
-to be a better family: pay attention to death
-born to a very famous painter, trained her, cool b/c women were not schooled in art, stuck after her father b/c women could not be in formal acdademies.
-considered one of Caravaggio's biggest followers
-lived a life of many hardships: raped by her father's coworker (Tassi), father takes him to court because he took her virginity, thought she was lying, tortured her with a thumb screw, got a gynecological exam to make sure she wasn't a virgin
-blood is more realistic
-women look stronger and much more in-control
-3 people are in a pyramid, but flipped, so bottom is weakness
-stuffing the head in the bag
-Judith seems like she is saying "wait, I think I hear something"
-GAUNTLET: glove; reps symbol of Judith's challenge, right below her bare palm, she didn't need armor, just her wit
-trained by his father
-became proficient in marble by the age of 8
-trained himself by hanging out in the Vatican and sketching the ancient sculpture there
-began to create so much amazing work that the pope told his father to "watch out, for he is about to surpass his master"
-one of his sculpture was mistaken to be a classic greek sculpture, sculpted when he was a child
-first to have sculpture, architecture, painting as a whole
1. When you place a color next to another color it affects the color
2. Idea that shadows are not really black shadows are composed of color
3. Light is not just white or yellow, it too is composed of multiple colors
dutch Mona Lisa. so much mystery. Dutch costume of the day was a white head piece but this girl is wearing some exotic headpiece. don't know where she is, background is black. Her expression:
-she's looking directly at you, the look is aware that you're there
-so many interpretations, that's what builds the mystery
Time period background
protestant reformation in 16th century. people mad at catholic church. abuses and corruption, selling of indulgences. classic ex of rebelling against church is *MARTIN LUTHER: 95 thesis that he posted on the church door laying out why they were upset and what change they needed. there were many leaders in call for reform --> subgroup that popped up.
*Anglicans: created by Queen Elizabeth as official religion of the country
Time period background 2
*Queen Elizabeth: very popular, died in 1603. after she died Charles I took over England, was not liked at all by parliament or people which eventually lead to civil war. religious and economic struggle. 4 main reasons people didn't like Charles (next card) Charles overthrown and tried for treason, he was beheaded
1. he married a Catholci princess and ppl afraid of that, afraid he might try to reintroduce Catholicism
2. power struggle btwn parliament and king became very ugly. King felt that it was his God given right to rule and parliament was there for advice (didn't have to follow)
3. Disastrous military expeditions under Charles that people were not happy about
4. was responsible for brutal punishment of people who wouldn't obey laws. ex: known to order cutting off of ears of people who wrote pamphlets criticizing gov't
Time period background 3
-3 areas of focus
Metaphysics: philosophy that examines the nature of reality. It literally means "what comes after physics". they were all about carpe diem b/c death is near. Concerned w/ whole experience of life but has 3 areas of focus:
1. nearness of death and carpe diem
2. focus on love, both romantic and sexual/sensual
3. man's relationship w/ God and the internal perspective
poets rejected traditional poetry.
Metaphysical Poetry 2
poets rejected more traditional poetry. theirs was rough in SYNTAX: the way words fit together. was RIGOROUS & ENERGETIC, INTENSELY PRIVATE (feels like not something you should read), appeals to your INTELLECT, not just emotions, used UNEXPECTED ARGUMENTS for claims they make/ use IMAGERY reader must really THINK THROUGH/ use UNUSUAL METAPHORS known as METAPHYSICAL CONCEITS. term comes from critic writings to criticize John Dunne (Father of met.poet) who said it was too metaphysical