Private Cults: Mithras, Isis and Collegia Key issue of Roman religion: Private Cults Mystery religion Not monotheistic but has a main god as the most powerful Can develop a close relationship with the god through the priest Mithras Mystery cult Developed in the late Republic by the Greeks in the Mediterranean Center around: Mithras has control of the entire cosmos Popular with the Roman soldiers, political figures, male and free slaves The group meets in a small group in a cave-like location The god is portrayed always slaying a bull with a dog in the scene Rankings within the cult Raven Nimphus Solider Lion Persian Sun-Runner Father Isis Egyptian goddess, originally mother goddess then evolved into creator, god/protector Get initiated through priest: develop secret knowledge The Golden Ass story about Isis These cults suggest demand for more intimate religion than civic cults Collegia (guilds aka clubs) Private clubs?members follow in the same occupation and have meeting Organize club meetings around a patron god/goddess Not a religion but has religious nature Primitive insurance?collect money from members and when they die use it for a proper funeral---good afterlife Other types of religious experience Magic Asceticism: practice of denying self things in order to get close to divinity (like early Christian monks) Philosophy ( skeptics of Roman Religion were upper class philosophers) Hadrian 117-138 CE Here?s what happened to the Roman Emperors after the death of Augustus to the beginning of Hadrian: Julio-Claudian Dynasty Connected to Augustus and Caesar 4 Emperors: Tibberius 14-37 BC Experienced commander, conservative Old man who retires to Capre around 26 Leaves minions to lead empire: badness happens Caligula 37-41 From a very popular family Become very ill at beginning of his reign: kind of crazy for the rest of his reign Assassinated in 41 Claudius 41 Member of the imperial family, but has a lot of health problems People think he can?t rule Does a pretty good job: improves port allowing more grain Seen as a weak figure and worried about legitamacy so he annexes new territory: Britain Nero died in 69 Comes to throne very young?almost too young Real interest: singing, writing, and competing Held epic concerts: no one could leave because it would disrespect the man in charge In 64 there was a massive fire: he tried to help people after the fire, then blames Christians for the fire. The wealthy people get mad at him for using the Christians as a scapegoat Anger with upper class Widespread rebellion Eventually killed himself Nero?s death in 69 AD lead to a small, bloody civil war. With the question, who is emperor next? The Flavian Dynasty Aspacian -79 Claim to authority is he won the civil war Good ruler, didn?t give many free chariot rides and other stuff like that Died due to illness Titus 79-81 Son of Aspacian Eruption of volcano Died of illness, replaced by his brother Demison 81-96 BC Less effective?ruled with an iron fist Assassinated in 96 because he thought even the laziest person was a threat his power Senate steps in and chooses the next emperor: Nerva Ruled for only 2 years Found a successor for himself: Trajan Trajan 98-117 Successful army commander? Good relationship with the senate Good things: new harbor, infrastructure His legitimacy was small so goes to war Expand the empire into Daschia and in the East, pretty successful but when the Roman army leaves, social uprising broke out Died with problems still in the East Hadrian 76 Long experience in the army: stay in many provinces Married Trajan?s niece Questor, Plebian, tribune, and counsel In several religious groups Overall in good standing with religion, politics and the army There is still a lot of unrest in Armenia and Mesopotamia and must deal with the immediate problem in the east Key thing: at beginning of his reign he abandons the new provinces, bold move, he goes back kto Rome to consolidate power Becomes consul then rules the empire better Policy of peace with defined borders: Hadrian?s wall in Britan, wanted to protect borders Travels a lot: to all of the provinces, invest in infrastructure in other places besides Rome, diverse fortification Pays attention to things by there are some problems: Problems Antinious 110 Young Greek bou Follow Hadrian on tours in Egypt drowns and dies. They are lovers and he is extremely upset Hadrian is very unhappy and gets excessive: insist Antinious become a god and gets worshiped Why important?! Good propaganda for the Christians Trouble in Judaea Tries to convert it to a new Roman City Jews revolt led by Bar Kokhba ½ million killed 1 million enslaved Surviving population forcibly removed Hadrian is eventually deified after he died: good emperor Provenices take cult seriously, Roman elites probably don?t believe
Want to see the other 3 page(s) in Hadrian?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!