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A beverage produced by the fermentation of grapes.
The scientific study of wines and wine-making.
The use of the senses of sight, smell, taste, and touch tolearn about
In the earliest, ancient Mediterranean civilizations, winewas the first drink of the commoncitizen
False. Wine was the drink of priesthood and of the wealthy.
Scholars who have studied the origins of alcohol abuse agreethat the American pattern of
prohibiting exposure to alcoholic beverages until age 21 isone of the most effective ways toprevent alcohol abuse
.False. The Italian pattern of introducing children todiluted wine at
an early age in a family setting coupled with a socialdisapproval of drunkenness is most
Demographic studies have shown that wine drinkers are bettereducated and earn more thatnon- wine drinkers
Although wine has a 4000-year history of therapeutic use, itis not considered useful intoday’s hospital setting in the US
False. A survey of in US urban hospitals found that wine is
used as an appetite stimulant and as an aid to sleep insteadof tranquilizers.
The people who should be most concerned about sulfites inwines are sulfite-sensitive,steroid-dependent asthmatics
Medical researchers define moderate alcohol consumption asabout how many 4-ounceglasses of wine daily?
The research reviewed by Dr. Keith Marton showed thatcardiovascular mortality increase
with heavy alcohol use and that moderate drinkers have areduced risk of cardiovascularmortality compared to non- drinkers.
Boffetta’s and Garfinkel’s study showed that at 3 or moredrinks per day, there is an
increased risk of death for drinkers compared tonon-drinkers, particularly for livercirrhosis
Although Dr. Marton’s review of the research literatureshowed a 50% increase in breast
cancer for moderate drinkers compared to non- drinkers,there are a number of reasons why
our understanding of the relationship between moderatedrinking and breast cancer is lesscertain than it is for cardiovascular disease
About 90% of women whoare active alcoholics during pregnancy will deliver a child whoclearly suffers from Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
False. About 1 0% will.
Women have to weigh the increased risk of breast canceragainst the cardio protective
effects of moderate drinking, as well as possible effects onthe fetus if they are pregnant.
Perception refers to an organism’s immediate neurologicalresponse to a stimulus in theenvironment
False. Sensation does that.
Stimuli can also be thermal
The smallest concentration ofa wine component required for ataster to name it “By Jove,that’s sweet!” is called the
Given that “residual sugar 1.2% by weight” is about 1.2grams per loo mL, this wine wouldtaste sweet to about
50% of people
False. In wine tasting,
we take advantage of a large of our capacity to distinguish awide range of colors from
yellow-greens to brick reds and purples.
Wine sensory components such as color, which evoke pleasurein and of themselves, are saidto have a hedonic quality
What sensory quality would not be expected from the clue “Awhite wine is very pale andnearly colorless”?
Intense fruit aromas.
Flavors are actually odors or “in-mouth smells” that reachour olfactory epithelium when wehold the wine in our mouths
. The maximum sensitivity of our sense of smell has beenestimated at one part perlO,000.
False. It’s one part per million to several parts pertrillion.
False. We can
learn about 1,000 odors. Wine has about200 odors.
The sensory organ for the sense of smell is located at thetop and rear of the nasal cavity andabout 5-10% of the air reaches ft in normalbreathing.
passage way from the rear of the mouth and rear
nasal passages to the olfactory epithelium.
We can only smell volatile molecules that can evaporate fromthe surface of a wine at therange of temperatures in which ft is customarilyserved
Which winetasting activity is not done to enhance a taster’sability to experience the wine’sodors?
Holding the wine against a white background.
Winetasters may findthat a wine’s odors are stronger and more pleasant when they are
experienced in the mouth as flavors than as odors enteringthe olfactory area in inhaledair.
. A solid substance must be dissolved
in saliva to be tasted. Without saliva, we could onlyexperience touch sensations with our
On the tongue’s top
We should question the accuracy of the taste bud map of thetongue because we don’t tastesweet, sour, bitter, or salty in Just one place.
When the stimulus alcohol is present in high amounts in awine, you can expect toexperience both a taste and a tactile (touch)sensation, which are
Adaptation is a chance in sensitivity that occurs in responseto different levels of stimulation.
Winetasters learn to work with offactory adapation byresting 15-45 seconds between sniffswhen evaluating wines
An example of taste adaptation is the fact that we areunaware of the taste of our ownsaliva.
Refer to the label: William Hill 1989 Willamette ValleyOregon Dry White Riesling. Howwould you expect this wine to taste and smell tomost people?
sweetness and with an aroma that has an element that is likeroses.
PTC tasting is a well-documented example of how dramaticallypeople can vary in their
ability to taste something bitter, and it accuratelypredicts a person’s sensitivity to bitternessin wines
Anosmia can refer to the loss of a person’s ability to smellall odors, and the term “specific
anosmia” is used when someone cannot detect a particularscent, but otherwise has a normalsense of smell
You just served 2 glasses of DeLoach Vineyards EstateBottled Russian River Valley
Gewurztraminer 1987 Early Harvest to a friend. One glass iscolder and the other is warmed.When she tastes them, the warmer wine will seems
The National Geographic Smell Survey found that olfactorysensitivity is reduced duringpregnancy and that odor perception declinesduring aging
Blind tastings, in which the wines are identified only by aletter or numerical code, are
designed to eliminate stimulus errors, which occur whenirrelevant criteria are used to judgewines
Our ability to recall wine odors can be reduced by givingthe odor a verbal structure, such asour associations with the odor and dictionary-styledefinitions.
False. It enhances our
ability recall its name.
The wine aroma wheel was designed to enhance the accuracyof communication about wineodors among members oft he wine industry.
The higher the alcohol content of a wine, the thicker thestreams produced when the winefalls back down the side of the glass after it isswirled.
False. The streams are thinner.
In white table wines, this color is a sign that the wine hasbeen exposed to too much air inproduction or has been bottle-aged too long.
Within the normal color range for white table wines, darkercolors are associated with oakbarrel aging and/or later harvests
Among red wines, a purple hue is associated with older,bottle-aged wines, and the brick redhue is characteristic of young wines.
False. Purple wines are younger and get more brick-
red with age.
Because their detection and prevention is of central concernto winemakers, a very large
number of of fodors have been linked to particular diagnosticchemicals such as acetic acidand ethyl acetate, which can be found bylaboratory as well as sensory analysis.
In wine usage, --------- refers to the odors that come from thegrape, and ------- is used for
smells that come from fermentation and aging in oak andbottle.
For a wine to have perceptible varietal aromas requires aparticular grape variety, propergrowing conditions, and careful winemaking
The term “flavor components” is used for the chemicalsresponsible for a wine’s taste andtactile sensations.
False, the correct term is “structural components.”
What sensation would you expect in your mouth when thestimulus tannin in the wine is lowor absent?
You are tasting 2 White Riesling wines. They are identicalexcept for sugar content. Wine A
has 3x as much sugar as Wine B. When you taste the 2 wines,you expect wine A to havemore body than Wine B
Great wines are distinguished from ordinary wines by theirgreater complexity, harmony,and the power to stimulate the emotions.
Serious wine tasters do not smoke during tasting and do notcome to them wearing perfume,after-shave, or with recently-brushed teeth.
This group of wines is sewed at the coldest temperature, bothin the restaurant and tastinglaboratory.
. To inspect a wine for color, hold ft up to a bright sourceof light such as a clear light bulb orcandle
Winetasters begin the olfactory stage of evaluating a wineby swirling the wine in the glass 6
or S revolutions and putting their noses into the glass andtaking 4 or 5 quick, deepsniffs.
False Winetasters begin the olfactory stage by sniffingwithout swirling, and in
the 2nd stage they swirl the wine I -2 revolutions andsniff 2-3 times.
Winetasters draw some air through the wine so that all theirtaste buds can come into
contact with the wine, and the tactile receptors in theirmouths can sense its sweetness andtartness
Winetasters “chew”the wine so that all of their taste buds come into
contact with it.
A winetaster who is evaluating the quality of a wine willtake time to notice, among other
things, if the wine has a lot of odors and flavors or just afew, how well the individualizedparts fit together, and if it pleases him or her.
A winetaster who is evaluating the qualfty of a wine willtake time to notice, among other
things, if the wine has a lot of odors and flavors or just afew, how well the individualizedparts fit together, and if it pleases him or her.
A clone is a subgroupof a grape species and is distinguished from other clones byeconomically important hereditary traits such asits climatic adaptation.
False. The correct
term is “grape variety “ Clones are ‘sub-varieties.”
Varietal wines are made mainly from a single variety ofgrapes that should impart acharacteristic aroma and flavor to the wine
The wine type refers to a winemaker’s characteristic wayof combining and balancing the
sensory features that distinguish a particular wine tocreate an individualistic expression ofthat wine.
False. The correct term is “ wine style.”
. You would expect a warmer glass of wine to have moreintense aromas compared to a colderglass of the same wine.
What grape variety would be most consistently used forpremium wines rather than jugwines?
Weather refers to the generally prevailing weatherconditions in a region such astemperature, wind speed, rainfall, etc.,averaged over a series of years.
False. The definition
is for climate.
. The degree to which a grapevine’s foliage and fruit areexposed to light can determine theamount of distinctive flavor compounds in itsgrapes.
If the amounts of the chemicals responsible for thecelery/fresh vegetable, herbaceous, or
grassy character of Sauvignon Blanc are reduced, fruityflavors of grapefruit, pineapple,melon, and fig will emerge
According to the grape growers surveyed, which vineyardfactor does not promotegrassines s in Sauvignon Blanc ?
When grapes ripen, they get bigger and softer, their greencolor fades, aromatic compoundsincrease, sugars increase, and both total acidconcentration and acid strength increase.
Both total acid concentration and acid strength decrease.
important sugars in grape juice are glucose and fructose.
The amount of sugar in grape juice is estimated by measuringits density in units called“degrees BI1X,” which correspond to the percentageby weight of sugar in the juice.
If you were buying Chardonnay grapes for your winery, whatcomposition would you likethem to have?
22.9 degrees Brb 0.80 total acid.
Why can grapes from 2 vineyards with the same hot daytimetemperatures have differentacid compositions?
On cool nights, the grapes need less energy and use up lessmalic acid.
Locations with cooler nighttime temperatures produce fruitthat is higher in malic acid
than that produced in sites where it stays warm all night.
The weakening of acid strength during ripening is moreimportant for wine quality than is
the decrease in the total amount of acid, because wines withstronger acid strengths have
brighter colors, require smaller amounts of sulfer dioxideto protect them, and more easilyresist spoilage.
Refractometers are used to estimate the degrees Brix ofproperly collected vineyard sampleand can also be used to measure thedisappearance of sugars during fermentation.
Hydrometers can do both ofthese measurements.
This winemaking step ideally involves only breaking theskins of the grape berries to allowthe juice to flow out without any damage to theseeds or stems.
The mixture of skins, seeds, stems, juice, and pulp producedwhen the skin of the grape isbroken and the juice flows out is called
Sulfur dioxide is added at the crusher to slow down thegrowth of microbes that can spoil
wines and to protect the juice from reactions with oxygenthat can lead to both browning ofpigments and deterioration of aroma and flavor.
dioxide levels are monitored throughout winemaking, and smallamounts are added
whenever they are needed.
For premium white varietal wine production, skin contactmeans that the chilled must ispumped into a tank to sit for several hours.
Free-run juice has more sugar and less acid and tannin thanpress-run juice because press
juice is extracted at higher pressures from mustcontaining a higher proportion of stems,skins, and seeds
juice per ton of grapes. This is made up of about 3x as muchpress-run juice than free- runjuice.
False. It’s about3x more free-run than press-run.
A juice with about 20 degrees Brix will yield a wine withabout 10% alcohol throughfermentation by yeasts, primarily from the genusSaccharomyces.
Because carbon dioxide gas is produced during fermentation,fermentation tanks are
equipped with one-way valves that allow CO2 to escape whilepreventing air fromentering.
Wild yeasts are not used by most wineries because they canproduce off odors and typicallywill stop fermenting around 6-9% alcohol
Why does the degrees Brix not drop much during the earlystages of a white winefermentation?
Because while the yeast cells are metabolizing with the aidof the dissolved
oxygen in the grape juice and increasing in number, they havenot consumed enough
glucose to change the density of the juice.
What additional evidence of yeast growth and metabolism,besides the drop in degrees Brix,do wineries measure during the active stageoffermentation?
Another indication of the
increased fermentation activity of the yeasts is the warming ofthe fermenting juice.
False. It’s one that stops by it self before all the glucose has been used up.
A probably fermentation temperature for premium qualitywhite table wines would be aboutdegrees
Wines of2-3% residual sugar can be made by slowing downtheir fermentation's before all
the sugar has been used up by chilling them at about 4- 8degrees l3rix and then centrifugingto remove the cold-inactivated yeast.
You are having dinner at a friend’s house and drinking adelicious bottle of white wine. The
label says “Callaway Vineyard and Winery 1990 Calla-leesChardonnay in the Classic Sur LieStyle.” What does “sur lie style” mean?
In some cases, most commonly for Chardonnay, the
winemaker may wan t to add a yeast character similar tochampagne bouquet to the
wine and will allow the wine to remain in contact withthe yeast for weeks or months.
The malolactic fermentation reduces the acidity in thefermenting grape juice and finished
wine because ft converts the malic acid from the grape juiceto lactic acid, which is lesstart .
What additional changes [besides those mentioned in theprevious question) occur in winesthat undergo the malolactic fermentation?
In addition to reducing acidity, the MLF causes
other organoleptic changes. It produces gas and causes thewine to be Iess fruity and to
have transient cheesy off odors, but it also allows them todevelop greater complexity,
including a buttery flavor, with aging.
The malolactic fermentation is most often used to reduce theacidity of warm-region orwarm- to-hot- season grape juices.
It is critical for winemakers to control the timing oftheMLF to be sure that it is completedbefore bottling.
Because most of the world’s white table wines emphasize thearoma of the grapes and the
MLF reduces fruitiness, most winemakers take precautions toprevent the MEF altogether inthese wines.
The process of transferring wine from one vat containinglees to another vat which is clean iscalled
lf wine can be made perfectly clear simply with settling andracking why do few wineriesrely on these methods?
Wineries do not use these slower, “natural” methods becausethe
wine would be too old for contemporary tastes by the time itreached the market
. In filtering the wine is forced through media that vary in“tightness” from those that trap
and remove just the very largest particles chunks of grapeskins) to those that take out tinymalolactic bacteria
. Fining is a clarification process that is used to alterother important organoleptic propertiesof wines in order to clarify them.
Fining agents such as gelatin and egg albumin react with thespecific wine components( tannins) that are to be removed and formparticles that can be removed.
A wine is neither heat- nor cold- stable if it becomescloudy when exposed to high
temperatures, and it forms crystals when subjected totemperatures around 32 degreesF.
Making sure wines are microbiologically stable is designedto prevent gassiness and the
development of off odors and flavors from bacteria andyeast growth during barrelaging
Sterile filtration followed by aseptic bottling are keystrategies in creating microbiologicalstability
Because vinegar bacteria can spoil wine only in the presenceof oxygen, winemakersminimize air contact with wines in bulk storage.
Because nearly all white table wines are valued principallyfor their youthful, fruit
characteristics, the vast majority of white wines are aged inneutral containers only for as
long as it takes to clarify and stabilize them, Only a tinyminority of the world’s white winesare candidates for aging in oak containers.
Alcohol and water evaporate
through the sides of the container, concentrating the wine.Some oxygen dissolves in the
wine, allowing oxygen-dependent maturation reactions tooccur slowly. Substances such
as color, odor, and flavor components and tannins from thewood are extracted into the
Oak has become the
traditional wood for aging premium wines because the treesare large enough to make
wine containers of useful sizes, the wood is tight-grained.strong, and resilient and can
be worked into the curved shapes needed for barrels, andthe flavors extracted are
desirable in wines.
American oak barrels will impart more oak or vanilla flavorto wines than will European oakbarrels.
Under what aging conditions will the components of the winein a barrel becomeconcentrated
The barrels are stored in a relatively dry environment suchas an above-
ground warehouse in California.
Describe the aging regime you would use for White Rieslingor other wines to which youwant to add very little or no oak flavor
Such wines are either aged in stainless steel tanks
or large, typically oval-shaped oak barrelsofSOO-2000gallons capacity.
You are going to make your mark in the wine world bycreating a rare style of dry CheninBlanc with a lot of oak character. What agingregime would you use?
You could begin by
fermenting Chenin Blanc juice in oak barrels and add more oakby aging the wine for
several months in new 60-gallonAmerican oak barrels.
Many California wineries have found that oak chips or oakstructures added to wines in
stainless steel tanks can satisfactorily duplicate allaspects of the barrel aging process andare much cheaper
There are certain conventions based on flavor and structuralcompatibility that are followed
by many producers when making varietal blends. For example,Chardonnay and CheninBlanc are often blended.
False. Chardonnay and Pinot Blanc are more often blended.
The bottle shape and color are chosen for a particular winebased on the traditional shapes
and colors used in the European wine. Clear Bordeaux bottlesare often used for SauvignonBlanc and Semillon varietal wines.
The date that bottles in the case were filled is stamped onthe box. This is useful forestimating the approximate drinkability of wineswithout vintage dates
You have been hired by Chateau Prestigious Wine Cellars toprotect their cash flows in the 1st
year of operation. Based on your extensive knowledge of thewhite wine making process, you
calculate that the 1st income from the sale of their oak-aged Chardonnay wines could come atabout how many months after the harvest?
Based on your extensive knowledge of the white wine makingprocess, you calculate that
they could expect to first earn income from the sale oftheir Jus’ Plan Mountain Chablis wines
about how many months after the harvest
California’s coastalwineries store bottled wines an average of 4 months at the winery untilthey are released for sale.
The best wines will improve indefinitely after bottlingif kept under the properconditions
For premium white varietal grapes grown in California,cooler growing regions producewines with greater aging potential.
and moderated tartness.
California wineries use sensory evaluation in qualitycontrol, and the average tastingsituation involves 5 tasters examining no morethan 10-30 wines per day.
False. It involves 5
tasters who examine 30 wines per day in I -3 sessions.
Which components of whfte table wines 1. Originate from thegrapes, 2. Are fermentationend products, 3. Are developed during aging
1. Color, sugar,acidity, varietal aroma, and
flavor. 2. Alcohol and carbon dioxide. 3. Malolactic fermentationand/or oak barrel
and/or sur lie aging flavors.
What winemaking steps would you use to make a SauvignonBlanc withoutgrassiness?
Harvest at 22 degrees Brix or above, no skin contact,ferment in barrels and
at warmer temperatures, age in oak sur lie, and blend withSemillon or Chardon nay.
In 1990, white table wines, roses, and blush varietalsconstituted 53% ofthe shipments fromCalifornia wineries to domestic markets.
False. They made up 85% of the shipments.
. White varietal wine whose grapes predominate in thevineyards of the Rhine and Moselvalleys of Germany.
Whíte (Johannisberg) Riesling.
White varietal wine whose neutral-flavored grapes are highlysusceptible to Botrytiscinerea.
White varietal wine whose grapes are used to make Champagneand White Burgundy winesin France.
. Aroma and flavor descriptors for this white varietal wineinclude bell pepper, green olive,and herbaceous.
White varietal wine blended with Semillon to makeSauternes-style, Botrytis-affected late-harvest wines.
. Grapes for this white varietal wine rank with FrenchColombard as one of the mostcommonly planted varieties in California.
You would have to pay the highest price per ton for grapesto make this white varietal wine.
You are preparing a plate of appetizers for dinner. You willserve a dry Gewurztraminer withthem. You do not include green apple slices onthe plate because
eating the apple will bring
out the acid in the wine.
Mild cheeses such as baby swiss are enjoyed with winesbecause they reduce the perceptionof the wines’ acidity.
. The most important step in red wine production fordetermining the style of awine
Management of the extraction fermentation.
What wine component protects red wines during the longeraging periods that allow them todevelop complex bouquets?
Name 2 grape varieties of French origin and 3 from Italythat are used to make red varietaltable wines in California.
From France: Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon. From Italy:
Zinfandel, Barbera, Grignolino, and Sangiovese.
Its inherent qualities make Pinot Noir a good candidate forBlanc de Noirs wineproduction.
Cooler growing conditions produce red wines with morepleasing colors because their juicesare of a stronger acidity, meaning lower in pH,than hot region juices.
One thing a grower or winemaker does not have to worry aboutin Pinot Noir production isusing the right clone
In general, the results of canopy management studies forCabernet Sauvignon have shownresults like those for Sauvignon Blanc.
What soil conditions in the Napa area were found inpreliminary studies to be associatedwith more cherry or beny flavors in CabernetSauvignon wines?
Older, typically hillside
soils with a higher percentage ofgravel and less ability tohold water were correlated
with smaller crops andfruitier wine flavors.
In California, red grapes for varietal table wine making areharvested at higher “degreesBrix and lower total acids than are white grapesfor varietal table wine making.
During red wine fermentation, the ---- on the fermenting mustbe kept wet by “punching
down” or “pumping over?’ in order to prevent the growth ofundesirable microorganisms and
to promote ------- from the skins.
Pumping over circulates about 1% of the volume of juice overthe solid on the top of thefermentation about once a week.
False. 10400% of the juice will be sprayed over the cape
Red wines often benefit from some exposure to air afterfermentation and during barrelaging
The longer the extraction goes on during fermentation, themore varietal flavor, odor, andtannins from the skins end up in the juice.
The average maceration time for California Napa Gamay isabout 4 days, and for Cabernet
Sauvignon is 7- 8 days. This means that the average CabernetSauvignon is intended formore aging than the average
Pinot Noir has naturally low concentrations of lighterpigments and is low in tannins, so
California winemakers commonly collect the stems at thecrusher and add them to PinotNoir fermentations to produce premium wines.
False. Winemakers who tried this found
that peppery, green, stemmy flavors can result in the wines.
One simple, straightforward rule that can be stated for redtable wine making is that the
longer then skins are in contact with the wine, the harsher,bitterer, and more astringent thewine will be
. The alcoholic fermentation in red wine production is -----,------,------- than for
white wine production.
The malolactic fermentation is both more common and morecrucial in premium red tablewine production than in premium white table wineproduction
Why is producing cold stability immediately afterfermentation not a concern for many redwines?
Because they will age through I or2 winters at the winerybefore bottling the
cooling that occurs will often cause tartrate crystals toprecipitate, and tannins will
react with and remove the heat-unstable proteins.
The barrels would be
sealed tight, rotated 30 degrees to wet the bung and tightenthe seal, and not opened
until the aging was complete.
Refer to the Kendall-Jackson Cardinale Meritage CaliforniaRed Table Wine label What grapevarieties do you expect to have been blended tomake this wine?
Cabernet Franc, and Merlot.
California wineries age their red wines -------- in the bottle before releasing
Hígher tannins, lower pH, lower
storage temperatures, more uniform temperatures, darkness,and larger bottles.
On the average, the overall process of making red wines fromgrape to bottle takes longerthan the overall process of making white wines.
Intensely fruity red wines can be produced by creating ananaerobic environment that
modifies the metabolism of the grape cells so that they formalcohol without the need foryeasts. This process is called
The conventional, yeast-catalyzed alcoholic fermentationplays no role in the carbonicmaceration method of winemaking.
. In the carbonic maceration method of winemaking, free-runjuice is often used for highquality wines than press-run juice.
Pinot Noir wines are fermented at the lowest temperaturesfor red table wines, 60-65degrees F
winemaking techniques were developed in France and bothstart with uncrushed, whole
A fruity raspberry aroma is typical of this variety whenyoung. Originally fromItaly
Tilt the glass so that you
can look through a thinner layer of wine.
alcohol contents and stronger odors.
What element ofr ed wines will probably cause you to havepalate fatigue? How can youminimize it?
astringency from tannins seems to get stronger with each sip. Iftasters
wait 40 seconds or more between sip, the effect is lessened.
Descriptors from the floral and tropical fruit segmentsof the aroma wheel are used lessoften for red table wines than they are for whitetable wines.
When off odors, particularly the acetaldehyde odor ofoxidation,
Of the S wines listed in the article “Napa Pinot Noirs StillRank at the Top,” which would youpredict to have the shortest aging life in thebottle?
Of the 5 wines listed in the article “Napa Pinot Noirs StillRank at the Top,” which wine hasan off odor
Cambría Pinot Noir is described as ‘round and silky,” whileall others have
What odor descriptors would you expect to find in the bottlebouquet of a fine, well-aged1978 Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon?
Tobacco, coffee, chocolate, and soy.
What odor descriptors would you expect to find in a finebottle of 1992 Napa Valley CabernetSauvignon?
Bell pepper, eucalyptus, mint, maybe berries, and cassis.
Which odor descriptors would you expect to find in a bottleofNapa Valley CabernetSauvignon what was spoiled by vinegar bacteria?
Acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, and
A California wine made from Pinot Noir grapes wfth warmerfermentation temperatures andoak aging would be?
A Burgundian-style wine.
also have an aroma offresh ground black pepper.
Sparking wines are a kind of table or natural wine, whichcontain large amounts of dis solvedcarbon dioxide gas.
Trap the CO2 from a
second alcoholic fermentation.
You have just inherited a vineyard of Grenache grapes, a redvariety that has been used for
mass-market blush varietal wines by some producers, and youwant to make an inexpensive,
fresh, fruity sparkling wine. You hire a consultingenologist who recommends you build awinery for the
According to the legend, the methodechampenoise wasdiscovered by ------ sometime during the period ------
The term “champagne” may be used on the label for a winemade in any part of France as
long as the precise steps that prescribed by the French lawfor the methodechampenoiseprocess are followed
The term ‘champagne”for wines produced in the Champagne
district of France.
What grape variety is not likely to be used formethodechampenoise sparkling wineproduction in France or California?
To emulate the characteristics of grapes produced underconditions in France’s Champagne
district, ----- grape growing regions are preferred and thegrapes are harvested
----- wherever methodechampenoise wines are made.
Recognizable varietal aroma is not usually sought in grapesto be used for themethodechampenoise
Pressing whole clusters is one fruit-handling procedure thatwas originally developed tominimize color extraction from dark skinned PinotNoir grapes.
Why are the fruit-handling techniques developed to minimizecolor extraction from PinotNoir also used to handle Chardonnay formethodechampenoise?
Because those procedures
minimize tannin extraction as well.
In sparkling wine production, as in white table wineproduction, the wines produced from
the free-run juices are ofhigher quality, and those from theharder pressings aredistilled.
The most prestigious wine ofa sparkling wine producer may becalledtete de cuvee.
14. What is reserve wine and how is it used inmethodechampenoise sparking wineproduction?
Reserve wines are blends ofstill winesfrom previous vintagesthat are
added to cuvees to minimize vintage-to-vintage variation,especially in a producer’s
You would expect to see about the same proportionof vintage-dated wines among the
sparkling wines as among the varietal table wines on theshelves of your wine shop.False.17. What producer would encourage the malolacticfermentation?
vineyards are in the coldest regions and who specialize inthe driest, longest-aged, most
complex sparkling wines
The wines to be blended into a cuvee would not be veryattractive as still table winesbecause they would seem too tart, too low inalcohol, and lacking in varietal character.
Why is experience particularly important for winemakers whoare blending the wines for acuvee?
Because they must be able to envision what the wine will belike in 2-4years, after
it is fermented a second time and after a period of aging onthe yeast in the bottle.
. A cuvee blended from white grapes only is called -------- and ifonly red grapes are
used, ft is --------
Why are sugar and yeast nutrients added along with anactively growing yeast culture tostart the prise de mousse?
Because the wines blended to make the cuvee had been
fermented to dryness, there is no fermentable sugar in thecuvee Also, the yeast that
caused the alcoholic fermentation to occur probably depletedother essential nutrients
while converting the sugar to alcohol
The term for drawing off the cuvee with its yeast, sugar; andnutrients into bottles for thesecond fermentation is
Because the conditions are so different (low sugar, highalcohol, increasing carbon dioxide
pressure) from those of the 1st alcoholic fermentation, yeastfor the prise de mousse areoften of a different strain or species.
matures and gains the complexity that comes from bottle agingand yeast autolysis
(y east cells dissolve themselves), adding importantchampagne bouquet elements and
enabling the CO2 to remain dissolved in the wine longer.
After the yeast cells are collected, the bottles may bestored neck down until the yeast cellsare removed during
The sugar is adjusted in the methodechampenoise after theyeast is removed. This step iscalled
The neck o fthe bottles are frozen in the -------- step inorder to------ collectedby
You should wait 6-9 months after the yeast removal and sugaraddition steps to drink
methodechampenoise wines. This period is recommended toallow the added sugar tobecome integrated into the wine.
After the re- corking that follows the removal of the yeastand adjustment of sugar, sparklingwines develop in the bottle in much the same wayas do white table wines
. Most methodechampenoise sparkling wines are best if drunkwithin 2-3 years after they arereleased.
About ------ of sparkling wine made in the US is produced bythe methodechampenoise
it’s a method of producing sparking wines in which wines
undergo their second fermentation in bottles that are thenopened, and their pooled
wine is filtered to remove the yeast, receive a dosage, and bere bottled.
Sparkling wines made by the Charmat process reflect thefruity, youthful characteristics of
the grapes they are made from because the process can becompleted relativelyquickly.
Charmat process wines have ------- yeast charactercompared to
One ofthe great advantages oftank fermentation for sparklingwines is low production
costs. This is one important basis for the fact that about ---- of US sparkling wine is made
by this methodby about -- large-scale producers.
An example if a sparkling wine made up by trapping the CO2from only one alcoholicfermentation is
A Brut Charmat Process wine will probably be drier than aBrut sparkling wine made by themethodechampenoise
Scrupulous rinsing of glasses is important to avoidaccelerated bubble dissipation whiletasting sparkling wines.
. To fully enjoy a sparkling wine, it should be sewed in aflute so its bubbles will be displayed
properl, and unlike table wine, the glasses would be fillednearly all the way to thebrim
rising from the wine carries volatile odor components outof the wine and into the air
Why is it detrimental to sparkling wines to swirl them whenmaking a sensoryevaluation?
Swirling makes the dissolved CO2 leave the wine prematurelyand makes a
proper evaluation of the bubble display and mousseimpossible.
Under appearance, the bubble display of sparkling wines isevaluated, and tasters look for
small bubbles that evolve from the wine over a long time andform a smooth, white foam onthe surface of the wine
Because they’re called Blanc de Noirs, we expect all sparkling wines made from red grapes tobe white, that is a very pale straw yellow toyellow color.
When the sparkling wine aroma wheel is compared to the moregeneral wine aroma wheel,
we find more spicy, floral, and fruity odors suggested forsparkling wines and fewervegetative and herbaceous odors.
What spice would you not expect to find in sparkling winesbut would be anticipated in (red)table wines?
Descriptive terms for champagne bouquet would be found inall but which category on thesparkling wine aroma wheel?
If you come upon a group of winetasters uttering thedescriptive terms “fresh bread, sour
cream, burnt chocolate, cocoa, hazelnut, and toastedgrains,” you have probably stumbledonto a tasting of tank-fermented sparkling wines
False. They would be bottle-fermented.
Among the positive structural organoleptic elements ofsparkling wines are tart acidity, softfinish, freshness, and dryness.
Dessert wines are ail sweet, and the category includes stilland sparkling natural wines aswell as fortified wines
Botrytis cinerea is a widely occurring destructive diseaseorganism that can attackgrapevines and many other plants.
A typical disease cycle of Botrytis begins with thegermination of spores that have
overwintered in ------ following ----- and canproduce shoots and leaves that
look like they’ve been scorched.
Because they contain plenty of nutrients, the------ are the best site for Botiytis to
A Botrytis infection cannot develop in the fruit unless theskins of the grapes are firstcracked or broken by some other agent.
False. It can penetrate intact grape skin.
What is not a general vineyard condition or culturalpractice that would encourage Botrytisgrowth on grape berries?
Removal of leaves to aerate the canopy
The difference between a normal I3otrytis disease cycle inwhich a grower could lose a large
proportion of his crop, and a limited infection thatproduces fruit suitable for making
exquisite sweet wines is determined in part by ------------ but hinges upon
A successful I3otrytis infection requires limited fall ------ or a series of foggy days to
initiate the germination of spores.
When Botrytîs grows on the surface of a grape, it penetratesthe skin, enabling water to
evaporate during a period of ------ weather.
. A successful Botrytis infection, from the point of viewof winemakers, is not one in which the
disease cycle is interrupted before the berries are brokenand secondary infectionsdevelop.
. In a typical Botrytis infection, all the berries in acluster become infected at the sametime.
Blanc, White Riesling, and Zinfandel. Least: Merlot andCabernet Sauvignon.
The change in sugar and acid composition following aBotrytis infection differs from the
changes of normal grape ripening because acid and sugar bothincrease inconcentration.
Both growers and wineries feel that for Botrytis-infectedfruit, the higher the sugar, thebetter.
Each cluster must be smelled to be sure it
does not have a secondary infection and handled carefully soit doesn’t fall apart. Also,
the vineyard is selectively harvested because not all fruit isinfected at once.
The water evaporation that occurs in a vineyard successfullyinfected with Botrytis canreduce yields to as little as 1/3 to /2 ofnormal
Even though vineyard yields are reduced by a Botrytisinfection, in the winery, the juice yieldper ton ofgrapes is the same as for non-infectedfruit
Fermentations of the high-sugar juices of Botrytis-affectedfruit are hard to start and slow toprogress.
Botrytis-affected wines made from ----- and ----- are more likely to be
aged in small oak barrels.
Although the cultivation of a vineyard can be modified toencourage or discourage the
growth of Botrytis, a successful infection cycle has neverbeen completed on harvestedfruit
Although the cultivation of a vineyard can be modified toencourage or discourage the
growth of Botrytis, a successful infection cycle has neverbeen completed on harvestedfruit.
For ordinary fortified wines, hot growing regions arebeneficial for both high vineyard yieldsand high sugar content grapes.
About half the fruit for dessert wine production goes toproduce the alcohol for fortification,making the per ton yield of finished wine
More distinctive grape varieties, many from Portugal, andcooler growing regions areassociated with what group of fortified dessertwines?
spirits can vary in their flavors depending on the startingwine and the method of
distillation, and those flavors need to be compatible withthe wine being fortified.
What style of port takes on its important sensorycharacteristics during long barrelaging?
Because producers of port must maximize color extractionduring fermentation so that there
will be enough color extracted by the time the must isfortified (after 24-48 hours to
preserve a substantial amount of sugar), procedures havebeen developed to enhance colorextraction. They include
double the frequency of pump over2-4 times per day, pump over
continuously, heat the must, or use red-pulped varieties.
Ports of different sugar contents can be combined
to give the desired final sugar concentration, andvarietal ports can be mixed to enhance
Port production from Portuguese grape varieties is beingdone on a small scale in California,only a lfttle over 200 tons ofthe mostutilizedvariety were crushed in 1990.
In California, ruby and vintage ports are aged in ------ barrels that do not contribute much
Sherries referred to as ------ will have 7.5-10% sugar.
Light brown sherries made with flor yeast and ranging fromdry to medium sugar are calledby their Spanish name
Oxidation without flor by ----- rather than aging for longperiods in barrels is a common
procedure for low-priced sherries and inexpensive fortifiedwine products called “Malaga,”
“Marsala,” and “Madeira:’
Yeast autolysis during aging, 2. Varietalgrape character not
desired, 3. Blending to create a wine that is modifiedduring special aging (the cuvee or
shermat process), 4. Vintage-to-vintage variation is reducedby blending older and
younger wines, including the reserve winesfor champagne andusing the solera for
sherry, S. Both originated in regions ofclimateextremesforgrapegrowing (very cold
for methodechampenoise, and hotfor sherry).
The system for blending a new vintage of sherry with olderwines so that variations fromyear to year are minimized is called a
Tasting dessert wines requires careful pacing because thesewines are all higher in alcoholcontent than table wines.
False. You can take bigsips if you spit, cleanse your palate often, andtake breaks.
You would expect a Sauternes-style California late harvestwine to be made from what grapevarieties?
Color that extends all the way to the rim reflects deepercolor intensity and is associatedwith greater overall flavor concentration andquality in ports.
repeated sniffing, the alcohol will interfere with your abilityto smelt
Young: astringent. Old:
Compared to a class ofplain water, an alcohol solutionshould seem sweeter, smoother,heavier, and warm.
The high alcohol
content can interfere with a winemaker’s odor perception,and diluting changes the
spectrum of perceptible odors.
reduce vigor because they do not replenish soil water. As aconsequence, wines depletetheir water supply and stop growing
A key factor that separates premium wine grape vineyardsfrom mediocre vineyardsis
When photographed, about
40% of the canopy surface of a thin canopy appears as lightpatches. The value is much
lower with thick canopies. The leaf layer number of thincanopies is 1.5 or lower.
grape composition, next year’s crop, and grape berry
The use of solar energy to synthesize sugar from carbondioxide
An increase in light intensity is accompanied by aproportional increase in the rate ofphotosynthesis.
The curve describing the relationship between lightintensity and photosynthesis rateplateaus when the light is
50% as intense as full sunlight on a clear summer day.
. The intensity of light per unit area of leaf is greatest ifthe leaf is perpendicular to the lightrays.
Because the essence of grape growing is converting sunlightinto wine, it follows that grapegrowers should maximize their vines’interception of sunlight
Randomly select a number of sites at
fruit cluster height along the vine row, pushing a rodthrough the canopy curtain at
each site, and recording the number of leaves it contacts.
interception by the vineyard.
The curtains of the Bordeaux and Burgundy vineyards areshorter and closer together thanthose of most New World vineyards
The curtains of the Bordeaux and Burgundy vineyards areshorter and closer together thanthose of most New World vineyards
Shoots that grow in the summer are termed “canes” after theylose their
leaves in the winter.
number of shoots do not compete for stored sugars, light, water,and mineral resources,
so shoot growth is not restricted by shortages of theseresources.
Severe pruning reduces the number of
nodes from which will emerge the shoots bearing the nextseason ‘s crop.
To prevent overcropping and its
accompanying loss of grape quality.
If canopies are thin, leaf layer numbers low, but shootgrowth is excessive, the pruner shouldleave more nodes next year than he left lastyear. Explain
Leaving more nodes will increase
the number of crop-bearing shoots the following year, and theincreased competition for
resources among the more numerous shoots will decrease theirgrowth.
Dividing a thick single-curtain canopy doubles the numberof curtains and decreases canopythickness.
If shoot spacing along cordons remains constant, thendividing a canopy curtain into 2fruiting tiers doubles the number of shoots percurtain.
The theory that increase node number per vine, but withlittle
change in nodes per meter of row, devigorates the vine.
Strong winds stimulate photosynthesis and speed theaccumulation of sugar by thegrapes
. Describe the calculation of degree-days for a day Subtract50 degrees from the day’s
If ice encrusts a shoot, the shoot will freeze.
decreases grape rots, lowers grape
Potassium, lowers grape pH.
If the sulfur
remains on the grape, it will be reduced during fermentationto stinking hydrogen
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