m a n a g e m e n t 2e H i t t / B l a c k / P o r t e r Chapter 11: Groups and Teams Group versus Team Group A set of people, usually from 3 to 20 Some degree of interaction and shared objectives Team A type or form of group Higher degree of coordinated interaction Stronger sense of members? personal responsibility for achieving specified group outcomes High level of members? identification with the group vs. Individuals to Group-to-Group Team Continuum TEAMS demonstrate enhanced: Coordinated interaction Personal responsibility for group outcomes Individual identification with group Individuals Group Team Degree of Interdependence and Collaboration Commonality of Goal Adapted from Exhibit 11.1 Basic Types of Groups Product design teams Management information systems teams to develop upgraded computer systems Team project groups in university classes Temporary Specific limited purpose Group members are aware of temporary nature of the group Project/ Task Force Clerical units Manufacturing assembly units Local sales managers reporting to a regional sales manager One supervisor with a number of subordinates Relatively enduring Membership changes relatively slowly Command/ Supervisory Examples Features Type of Group Adapted from Exhibit 11.2 Basic Types of Groups (cont.) Budget committees Safety committees Promotion review committees Either permanent or ad hoc Meet only periodically Members have different permanent jobs and/or supervisors Membership typically does not represent an employee?s highest commitment Committee Examples Features Type of Group Adapted from Exhibit 11.2 Examples of Committees Governance Executive Steering Disaster planning Compensation Finance Safety Long-range planning Adapted from Exhibit 11.3 Overnight Audit Ethics Public relations Basic Types of Groups (cont.) Group of employees who lunch together on Fridays Van pool group The ?water cooler group? Group not originated by the organization Voluntary membership Obvious differences and boundaries between members and nonmembers Informal Examples Features Type of Group Adapted from Exhibit 11.2 What Influences the Formation of Groups and Teams? Organizational goals How does the group fit into the larger organization?s goals? Opportunities for interaction and sharing mutual knowledge Groups can meet face-to-face or virtually Psychological factors Security needs, social support, self-esteem needs, status needs Formation and Development of Groups and Teams Forming Storming Norming Performing Indicates progression Adapted from Exhibit 11.4 Structural Characteristics of Groups and Teams Size Composition Differentiated roles Differentiated status Structural Characteristics of Groups and Teams Size Social loafing: the phenomenon of reduced effort per person in large groups Process costs: increasing costs of coordination as group size increases Composition Homogeneous Heterogeneous or diverse Examples of Diversity within Groups and Potential Consequences Communication-Related Consequences Decreased frequency within the group Increased frequency outside the group Cognitive Consequences Innovation Amount and quality of new ideas Underlying Attributes Values Skills Knowledge and information Tenure Affective Consequences Satisfaction Identification with the group Conflict within the group Observable Attributes Race Ethnicity Gender Age Potential Consequences Types of Diversity Adapted from Exhibit 11.5 Structural Characteristics of Groups and Teams Differentiated roles Role ambiguity: the expected behaviors for a group member are not clearly defined Role conflict: a group member faces two or more contrasting sets of expectations Differentiated status Status: prestige that a person has in a group Behavioral Characteristics of Groups and Teams Norms Cohesiveness Behavioral Characteristics of Groups and Teams Norms: a group?s shared standards that guide the behavior of its individual members Characteristics of group norms Established for important issues Some apply only to certain members Vary in degree of acceptance Vary in how much deviation members are permitted Development of Group Norms Members observe the behavior of others to determine what is appropriate Norm is established Suggested behavior is tolerated even though disagree with Dissenting member withdraws from group New behavior is suggested Members decide if any past experience can contribute effective behaviors Group members meet Members agree on behavior Members disagree on behavior Adapted from Exhibit 11.6 Behavioral Characteristics of Groups and Teams Development of group norms Early behaviors First behaviors exhibited by members Imported behaviors Brought by members from previous groups Critical events A sudden challenge to the group, such as a crisis Effects of group norms Conformity: close adherence to the group?s norms by the individual members Behavioral Characteristics of Groups and Teams Cohesion ? the degree to which members are motivated to remain in the group Group cohesion Strengthens interpersonal attraction among group members Generates a record of high performance and past success of the group Fosters competition with other groups Effects of Group Cohesion Positive effects Increased quality and quantity of group interactions Strengthened adherence to group norms Increased effectiveness in achieving group goals Augmented individual satisfaction with group membership Negative effects Useful or creative ideas may be ignored if they deviate from established norms or values Increased probability of developing groupthink Potential decrease in intergroup cooperation Counterproductive norms may be emphasized Adapted from Exhibit 11.7 Prominent Groups and Teams in Today?s Organizations Adapted from Exhibit 11.8 Increased misinterpretation Lack of trust Difficult to manage Increased speed of communication Decreased costs Virtual Paralysis Inaction Failure Increased creativity from diversity of backgrounds Global Increased group conflict Increased creativity Dispersed knowledge Speed to market Cross-Functional/ New Product Not all employees want to manage themselves More team-like behavior Self-Managing Potential Disadvantages Potential Advantages Type Team Competencies Adapted from Exhibit 11.9 Team orientation Shared vision Team cohesion Mutual trust Importance of teamwork Adaptability and flexibility Mutual performance monitoring and feedback, self-correction Coordination and task integration Communication Decision making and problem solving Knowledge of team mission, objectives, norms Task sequencing Team role Interaction patterns Understanding team work skills Teammate characteristics Attitudes Skills Knowledge Dealing with Team Conflict Task (substantive): conflict conflict that focuses on differences in ideas and courses of action in addressing the issues facing a group Relationship (affective) conflict: interpersonal differences among group members Dealing with Team Conflict Interpersonal differences among group members. Relationship Differences of opinion about the procedures to be used by the group to achieve its goals. Process Differences in ideas and courses of action in addressing the issues facing a group. Task Description: Type of Conflict: Dealing with Team Conflict (cont.) Dissimilarities in the composition of the membership of the group Differences in the interpersonal styles of individual members Differences in values Relationship Ambiguities regarding the task Differences in goals, objectives, and perspectives among group members Scarcity (actual or perceived) of resources to accomplish the group?s goals Task and Process Caused by: Type of Conflict: Dealing with Team Conflict To manage intragroup conflict: Increase the ratio of substantive to relationship conflict Clarify and reduce task ambiguities Get the group to focus on goals that emphasize the common interests of all group members Avoid relationship conflicts Dealing with Team Conflict To manage intergroup conflict: Reduce unnecessary relational conflicts in intergroup interaction situations Increase the focus on substantive differences Emphasize organization-wide goals to increase cooperation and performance Characteristics of Highly Effective Groups Any product or service they develop is highly desired and valued by customers Increased cooperation among members is encouraged and achieved Group membership increases individual members? feelings of satisfaction, personal growth, and overall well-being Adapted from Exhibit 13.11: Characteristics of Highly Effective Groups Adapted from Exhibit 11.10 Ingredients Necessary for Group Effectiveness For a group to operate effectively, it must: Exert enough effort to accomplish its tasks at acceptable levels of quantity and quality Obtain sufficient knowledge and skills to carry out its work Use appropriate strategies to apply its effort, knowledge, and skills effectively Managers? Responsibilities for Encouraging Group Effectiveness Develop appropriate group structures Develop appropriate support from the organization Obtain appropriate coaching and consultation assistance Adapted from Exhibit 11.11
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