· Be able to identify the different types of research designs with regard to time: one-time, cross-sectional, longitudinal, sequential, and retrospective. ○ One-time data collection ▪ How many groups of people are there and how often do we talk to them ▪ Ask people in a group a question one time and never see them again ○ Cross-sectional research ▪ Multiple groups of people and you ask them questions one time and never see them again, this is more variety, ex freshmen through seniors instead of just freshmen ○ Longitudinal research ▪ One group of people and follow them through a period of time and collect data ○ Sequential research ▪ Combines cross sectional and longitudinal research ▪ Freshmen and seniors for the next 5 years or so ▪ Takes a long time ○ Retrospective research ▪ Rather then wait for change to happen, get people at the end of it and remember what it was like before ▪ Then you don ’ t have to wait 4 years to follow them ▪ Not always accurate ▪ We don ’ t remember things that well · Know the different types of data: self-report, other report, observational, physiological, archival, and meta-analysis, and be able to describe advantages and disadvantages for each. ○ Self-report ▪ Your perception f yourself ○ Other report ▪ Tell me about you someone else ▪ How much do they care for you? Etc etc ○ Observations ▪ Go watch yourself ▪ Its all based on the information you acquire and the observations you make ○ Physiological ▪ Study the physiological status ○ Archival material ○ Meta-analysis ▪ Study of all the studies on the subject that you are studying ▪ On average on all these studies, this is what typically is concluded · Know the different types of bias found in research: self-serving, social desirability, reactivity, and recall. ○ Self-serving bias ▪ Unintentional, we truly believe we are giving a true response ○ Social desirability ▪ Intentional, you are going to tell me what you want me to hear ○ Reactivity ▪ You act differently when you know you are being watched ▪ You wash you hands If you know that someone is watching you ○ Recall bias ▪ People don ’ t remember very well what happened exactly ▪ Different people will remember the same thing or even differently.