· Be able to identify the different types of research designs with regard to time: one-time, cross-sectional, longitudinal, sequential, and retrospective. ? One-time data collection ? How many groups of people are there and how often do we talk to them ? Ask people in a group a question one time and never see them again ? Cross-sectional research ? Multiple groups of people and you ask them questions one time and never see them again, this is more variety, ex freshmen through seniors instead of just freshmen ? Longitudinal research ? One group of people and follow them through a period of time and collect data ? Sequential research ? Combines cross sectional and longitudinal research ? Freshmen and seniors for the next 5 years or so ? Takes a long time ? Retrospective research ? Rather then wait for change to happen, get people at the end of it and remember what it was like before ? Then you don ? t have to wait 4 years to follow them ? Not always accurate ? We don ? t remember things that well · Know the different types of data: self-report, other report, observational, physiological, archival, and meta-analysis, and be able to describe advantages and disadvantages for each. ? Self-report ? Your perception f yourself ? Other report ? Tell me about you someone else ? How much do they care for you? Etc etc ? Observations ? Go watch yourself ? Its all based on the information you acquire and the observations you make ? Physiological ? Study the physiological status ? Archival material ? Meta-analysis ? Study of all the studies on the subject that you are studying ? On average on all these studies, this is what typically is concluded · Know the different types of bias found in research: self-serving, social desirability, reactivity, and recall. ? Self-serving bias ? Unintentional, we truly believe we are giving a true response ? Social desirability ? Intentional, you are going to tell me what you want me to hear ? Reactivity ? You act differently when you know you are being watched ? You wash you hands If you know that someone is watching you ? Recall bias ? People don ? t remember very well what happened exactly ? Different people will remember the same thing or even differently.
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