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the distress displayed by infants when a customary care provider departs
the intentional search for information about others’ feelings to help explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances and events; feeling what others feel; ex: baby sees 2 boys wrestling, doesn’t understand and looks to mom, mom is smiling so she imitates and smiles; occurs 8-9 months
knowledge and beliefs about how the mind works and how it affects behavior; explanations children use to explain how others think
a process in which infants’ behaviors invite further responses from parents and other caregivers, which in turn bring about further responses from the infants; in interaction with other infants children react positively, exposure to other infants is good for children
the sum total of the enduring characteristics that differentiate one individual from another
the notion that development is dependent on the degree of match between children’s temperament and the nature and demands of the environment in which they are being raised
the sense of being male or female; girls: dolls and stuffed animals, treated sweeter; boys: blocks and trucks, treated more independently and tougher
1/3 of families are single parent households
2.6 persons per household
Half a million of teen births
50% of children cared by other adults while parents are at work
1/3 of children live in low income households
The Growing Body, individual differences in height and weight, changes in body shape and structure, nutrition: eating the right foods, health and illness, injuries during thepreschool years: playing it safe, the silent danger: lead poisoning in young children, The Growing Brain, brain lateralization, the links between brain growth and cognitive development, Motor Development, gross motor skills, potty wars: when and how should children be potty trained, fine motor skills, handedness
many families living in poverty may be less stable and unable to provide consistent opportunities for intellectual stimulation that might serve to offset some of the cognitive problems cause by lead poisoning - lead poisoning is especially harmful to poorer children
exposing children to a wide variety of foods by encouraging them to take just one bite of new foods is a relatively low-stress way of expanding children's diets.
not only may they help children build up immunity to more severe illnesses to which they may be exposed in the future, but they also may provide some emotional benefits - some researchers argue that minor illness permits children to understand their bodies better - learn coping skills that will help them deal more effectively with future, more severe diseases - also gives them the ability to understand better what others who are sick are going through
some 14 million children are at risk for lead poisoning due to exposure to potentially toxic levels of lead - the US Department of Health and Human Services says lead poisoning is the most hazardous health threat to children under the age of 6 -
- a combination of genetics and environment is at work, as it is with many of our other human characteristics - we find that teasing out the relative impact of heredity and environment is a challenging task
descend a long stairway alternating the feet if supported, hop 4-6 steps on one foot; 5-year-olds start, turn, and stop effectively in games, can make a running jump of 28-36inches, descend a long stairway alternating feet, can easily hope a distance of 16 feet
ability to follow simple directions, ability to get to the bathroom and undress alone, discomfort with soiled diapers, asking to use the toilet or potty chair, and the desire to wear underwear - should also be physically and emotionally ready
Intellectual Development:Preoperational stage
according to Piaget, the stage from approximately age 2 to age 7 in which children's use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges, and the use of concepts increases
Piaget's answer is that language grows out of cognitive advances, rather than the other way around - he argues that improvements during the earlier sensorimotor period are necessary for language development and that continuing growth in cognitive ability during the preoperational period provides the foundation for language ability
Information processing approaches to Cognitive Developmentunderstanding of numbers
- the average preschooler is able not only to count, but to do so in a fairly systematic, consistent manner - preschoolers may demonstrate a surprisingly sophisticated understanding of numbers, although their understanding is not totally precise - by the age of 4 most are able to carry out simple addition and subtraction problems by counting, and they're able to compare different quantities
the support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth
instances in which new words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter - preschoolers acquire vocabulary at the rate of nearly one new word every 2 hours, 24 hours a day
poverty not only reduces the educational resources available to children, it also has such negative effects on parents that it limits the psychological support they can provide their families - the consequences of poverty are severe and they linger
encompasses changes both in individuals’ understanding of themselves and their understanding of others’ behavior.Society and culture present the developing person with particular challenges, which shift as people age.8 distinct stages, each characterized by a crisis or conflict the person must resolve (our experiences as we try to resolve these conflicts lead us to develop ideas about ourselves that can last for the rest of our lives)
more independent and autonomous(if parents encourage exploration and freedom) or shame and self-doubt(if restricted and overprotected)
-Children’s self concepts are not necessarily accurate (preschools tend to overestimate abilities)
-Pre-school age children’s view of themselves also reflects the way their particular culture considers the self.
Social learning approaches focus more on how the environment in which preschoolers operate produces prosocial behavior, helping behavior that benefits others (directly performed and reinforced, or indirectly by observing models)
-Abstract modeling: the process in which modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules and principles.
the capability to adjust emotions to a desired state and level of intensity
nonphysical aggression that is intended to hurt another person’s psychological well-being.
-Freud- psychoanalytic theory suggests we all are motivated by sexual and aggressive instincts
-Lorenz- animals and humans share a fighting instinct that stems from primitive urges to preserve territory, maintain a steady supply of food, and weed out weaker animals
Social learning approaches to aggression contend that aggression is largely a learned behavior (observation and prior learning)
-Social and environmental conditions teach individuals to be aggressive (direct and indirect reinforcement)
-BoBo doll experiment- Albert Bandura- children who watched the aggressive model play with the BoBo doll were more aggressive than those who had watched the calm, unagressive model playing with the Tinker toys
Children’s television programs actually contain higher levels of violence than other programs
-Longitudinal studies have found that children’s preferences for violent television shows at age 8 are related to the seriousness of criminal convictions by age 30
-The cognitive approach to aggression suggests that the key to understanding moral development is to examine preschoolers’interpretations of others’ behavior and of the environmental context in which a behavior occurs
-Kenneth Dodge suggests that some children are more prone that others to assume that actions are aggressively motivated
a chronic condition characterized by periodic attacks of coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. More than 15 million children in the US suffer from it. Pollution increases asthma.
Between ages of 5 and 14, the rate of injury for children increases and boys are more apt to be injured. The most frequent source of injury is car accidents
difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities
concrete operational thought (organized operational thinking)- limited due to incomplete knowledge
can take into account multiple aspects of a situation (distance and speed as determining time to reach a destination, height and weight of cup)
is fluid intelligence: information processing, reasoning, and memory. Working memory changes from decentration, definition above.
strategies for improving cognitive processing (rehearsal, and organizing into coherent patterns.
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