Forms the external surface of the body and blend with the mucous membranes at natural openings.
Protection against wear and tear and invasion of microorganisms, thermoregulation, prevention of water loss.
Three layers: Epidermis, dermis, and subcutis.
Superficial epithelial layer, continuously replaced, thickest where skin is exposed to most use, no blood or lymphatic vessels..
Tough CT layer of collagen and elastic fibers, vascularized and innervated, invaded by hair follicles and glands. Blisters form between the dermis and epidermis.
Loose CT and adipose, varies by region. In dogs and cats, can easily grasp and move (scruff). Useful site for SQ injections, fluids for dehydration, edema.
Unique to mammals. Different types.
Sinus "tactile" hairs
Characterized by a venous sinus filled with blood located between inner and outer layers of the dermal sheath, very sensitive to pressure. Different from body hairs and continue to nervous system. In cats, whisker length corresponds with body width.
Non-haired, philtrum (middle part). Nose print is individual in dogs, can be used for identification.
Groove between lip and nose.
Mental "circumoral" glands
Large glands found around the mouth/chin of cats. Used to mark territory.
Instead of cranial/caudal.
Short-headed breeds. Structures in nasal cavity are compressed. Ex: Bulldogs, pugs, etc.
Medium-headed breeds. Ex: Regular dogs, labs, retrievers, etc.
Long-headed breeds. Ex: Sight hounds
Refers to an animal which possesses more than a single type of tooth morphology. Have teeth of different shape/size for special function. i.e. molars, incisors, canines, etc.
Mammalian teeth formula
2 x 3 1 4 3 (I/C/PM/M)
Sensory Innervation to Oral cavity
Trigeminal Nerve (CN V)
Maxillary n. - Infraorbital n.
Inferior alveolar n.
Used for pain management during dental procedures.
Opening into nasal cavity, separated by nasal septum.
Extends from nasal aperture to the choanae. Contains concha/turbinates.
Opening from nasal cavities into nasopharynx.
Thin bones covered by mucosa, in the nasal cavity. Function to humidify the air during respiration.
Small ridge dorsally
Large portion of the turbinates
Caudally located near cribiform plate
Spaces between the choncha. There are 4.
Above dorsal choncha.
Between dorsal and ventral choncha.
Below ventral choncha. Site for placement of nasogastric tube.
Along the nasal septum, thus "common" to all the other meati.
Largest, divided into lateral, rostral, and medial portions.
Maxillary recess (sinus)
Behind ventral choncha, associated with maxilla and upper 4th premolar teeth, lateral nasal glands located in this recess. Tends to have abscess issues.
CATS! Located above the sphenoid bone.
Face Muscles (Muscles of facial expression)
Function to move lips, eyelids, nose, and ears. Innervated by the Facial Nerve (CN VII) EXCEPT FOR UPPER EYELID.
Eyelids. Inside of eyelid is covered by mucous membrane, the palpebral conjunctive which is continuous with the bulbar conjunctiva.
60% by lacrimal gland, 40% by superficial gland of the third eyelid.
Located at medial commisure
Everything ventral to the hard palate. Bounded dorsally by hard palate, palatoglossal arches.
Space between lips and teeth/gums.
Divided into root, body, and apex. Fibrous Lyssa in dogs. Papilla on tongue.
Attaches tongue to floor.
Parotid Salivary glands
Beside ear, duct crosses masseter m. to open over upper 4th PM. Calculis/tartar builds up here.
Mandibular salivary gland
Between maxillary and linguofacial vv., sublingual caruncle.
Sublingual salivary glands
Monstomatic and polystomatic.
Monostomatic sublingual salivary gland
Associated with the mandibular gland, opens at sublingual caruncle.
Polystomatic sublingual salivary gland
Opens along course under tongue
Located under zygomatic arch, near eye, open over upper 1st M.
Develops when there is leakage of saliva from the duct into surrounding tissue. Sublingual gland is most commonly affected.
Parotid Lymph Nod
Lies rostral to the parotid salivary gland. Afferent superficial head dorsal to eye and base of the ear. Efferent vessels go to medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes.
Mandibular lymph nodes
Rostroventral to mandibular salivary gland. Afferent vessels drain deep head and superficial ventral to eye. Efferent vessels to medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes.
Medial retropharyngeal lymph node
Caudal to mandibular gland and pharynx. Afferent vessels drain deep head, parotid, and mandibular glands. Efferent vessels unite to form tracheal lymph trunk.
Common to respiratory and digestive systems - air/food cross over each other. Begins at the termination of the oral and nasal cavity (~end of the hard palate).
Dorsal to soft palate. From choanae to palatopharyngeal arches. Auditory tube/Eustachian tube opens into here, communicates w/ middle ear to equalize pressure.
Ventral to soft palate. From palatoglossal arches (hard palate) to palatopharyngeal arches. Palatine tonsils within semilunar fold here.
Right behind soft palate. From palatopharyngeal arches to esophageal limen.
Beginning of esophagus.
Bones which function to stabilize the tongue and larynx by suspending it from the skull. From mastoid process of skull to thyroid cartilage of larynx.
Located between the vocal process of the arytenoid c. and the thyroid c.
From thyroid c. to cuneiform process of arytenoid c. (rostral)
Diverticulum of mucosa between vestibular fold and vocal ford.
Vocal folds, vocal processes of arytenoid c. and the rima glottis. This opening is where endotracheal tubes are placed
Opening into glottis.
Aid in swallowing. Named for attachments to larynx cartilages. Innervated by branches of glossopharyngeal and vagus nn.
Named for attachments, except for two.
Named for attachemnts, _____ to tongue. Innervated by hypoglossal n.
Muscles of Mastication
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