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Frontal,Nasal, Spheniod, Zygomatic, Maxillary, Mandible
What is the function of the conjunctiva?
What is the white part of the eye called?
What is the function of the retina?
It receives impulses and transmits them to the brain through the optic nerve.
Snellen eye chart, penlight, cobalt blue light, small mirror, fluorescein strips, eye shield, eye patch, tape, sterile irrigation solution, sterile gauze, sterile cotton swaps, contact lens case, Steri-Strips, Phone numbers for ophthalmologist
What is a diagnostic test that can help an ATC assess for a corneal abrasion?
What are some mechanisms that can cause a hyphema?
What is a quick remedy that an ATC can use to temporarily relieve the symptoms of a stye?
Anatomically why can’t the athlete look-up during an orbital blow-out facture of the eye?
Because the Inferior Rectus muscle gets stuck in the floor of the orbit (entrapment).
Where is the location of the soft and hard palate in the month?
The soft palate is farther back (behind the uvula) and the hard palate is at the top/front of the mouth.
Protection (they really don’t do anything)
What are some clinical signs of tonsillitis?
What is the medical term for ear wax?
50/50 solution (water/ Hydrogen Peroxide or vinegar)
What are the clinical differences between otitis media and externa?
The mechanism of the infection. Otitis Media: URI, airplane travel, seasonal allergies. Otitis Externa: Poor drying, over cleaning(removing the protective layer of wax), Growth of fungus and bacteria
What is the mechanism of an auricularhematoma?
What is the immediate treatment of an epistaxis?
Lean head forward and apply ice to the bridge of the nose.
What causes a Nasal Septal Hematoma?
What is a Malocclusion?
How can an ATC attempt to reduce a dislocated TMJ?
Why do you want to avoid wiping off debris off of an avulsed tooth?
What part of the meningeal lining is the outer most covering?
What is the function of the cerebrospinal fluid?
True or False, most MTBIs have no LOC?
What does AVPU stand for?
Alert, Verbal Stimulus, Pain Stimulus, Unresponsive
What posturing has all four extremities extended?
What are some mechanisms of unconsciousness?
Heatstroke, Diabetes (Diabetic coma), Cardiac Malfunctions, Direct Blow, Seizures resulting from Epilepsy
What is the difference between coup and contrecoup mechanism of injury?
Which mechanism of MTBI is more severe rotational or linear?
According to the CANTU grading scale what are the characteristics of a grade I mild concussion?
No LOC, less than 30 min of post traumatic amnesia (PTA), and less than 24 hr. of post-concussion signs/symptoms other than amnesia.
What is aphasia?
Difficulty finding or using words.
What is Battle’s Sign and what is it indicative of?
Ecchymosis around the mastoid process; A sign of a basilar skull fracture.
Why take a blood pressure of someone who has sustained a concussion?
To check their pulse pressure. A pulse pressure of greater than 50 mmHg may indicate increased intracranial bleeding.
What does the 3 C’s in terms of stress tests?
Cranial Nerve Assessment, Coordination, Cognitive Function
What is Otorrhea and Rhinorrhea?
Otorrhea: discharge from the ear (CSF). Rhinorrhea: discharge from the nasal membrane (blood or CSF)
What should be considered if the athlete is to be returned to play the same day following a concussion?
If the athlete is older than 18 yrs old, there was no LOC, no PTA, no other symptoms (including headaches) at rest and with exertion, and passes all functional tests.
What is the difference between post traumatic head aches and post-concussion syndrome?
Post traumatic headaches are not a concussion and post-concussion syndrome is concussion syndromes that haven’t gone away (cognitive impairments that result after a cranial injury)
What are some red flags of Intracranial Hemorrhaging?
Severe Headaches, nausea or vomiting, confusion or progressive or sudden impairment of consciousness, widen pulse pressure, falling pulse rate, irregular respirations, irregular eye tracking/movement, increased body temperature,drastic emotional changes
How does the transverse process in the cervical spine differ from other transverse processes of the spine?
What is the function of the Dens?
The dens decreases the movement of the head during forward and backward tilt.
Identify two reasons how C1 differs from C2 vertebra?
What is the name for C1 vertebra?
What motion does the ligament Nuchae mainly restrict in the cervical spine?
Restricts cervical flexion
What cervical nerve roots make up the brachial plexus?
Identify two mechanisms of injury to the cervical vertebrae.
Axial load, cervical spine hyperextension, cervical spine extension, cervical spine compression, cervical spine rotation, stretching of the upper trunk, a blow that forces the head to one side while the ipsilateral shoulder is depressed.
What is the mechanism of a brachial plexus stretch?
When the head is forced laterally while the opposite shoulder is depressed. The resulting force places traction on the nerves on the side opposite the lateral bending of the neck.
What is swimmer’s ear medically known as?
a. Otitis Media
b. Otitis Externa
c. Auricular Hematoma
d. Cauliflower ear
B. Otitis Externa
Which of the following indicates a TMJ pathology?
a. Mastication of the teeth
b. Malocclusion of the teeth
c. Occlusion of the teeth
d. A fractured tooth
B. Malocclusion of the teeth
A patient’s superior row of teeth are fixed within what structure?
a. Alveolar process
b. Maxillary Bone
c. Zygomatic Process
d. Mastoid Process
e. Mandible bone
B. Maxillary Bone
What is an infection of the inner ear known as?
a. Otitis Media
c. Otitis Externia
A fracture to which of the following may cause eye movement to be asymmetrical?
a. Parietal Bone
b. Sphenoid Bone
c. Zygomatic Bone
d. Nasal Bone
C. Zygomatic arch
How is the palpation of the posterior aspect of the TMJ done?
a. Place the index finger over the TMJ in front of the external auditory meatis and have the athlete open and close their mouth.
b. It cannot be done
c. Place your little figure in the patient’s ear and have them open and close their mouth.
d. It is done from inside of the mouth.
C. Place your little finger in the patient’s ear and have them open and close their mouth.
If a tooth is avulsed and cannot be reimplanted, which of the following is an appropriate step?
a. Clean and scrub the debris off the tooth, rinse with saline, and place the tooth in gauze inside of the mouth.
b. Store in skim milk
c. Sterilize the tooth, then store in a biocompatible storage environment.
d. Store in whole milk if emergency tooth preserving kit is not available.
D. Store in whole milk if ER tooth preserving kit is not available
A tongue blade test is used to rule out which of the following?
a. Maxillary Fracture
b. Mandibular Fracture
c. Nasal Fracture
d. Zygomatic Fracture
B. Mandibular fracture
What is the thin mucous membrane that covers the eye and lines the inside of the eyelids?
What is the collection of blood within the anterior chamber of the eye called?
d. Subconjunctival hematoma
A patient who states they are seeing double is suffering from which of the following?
What might a patient be suffering from when they complain of flashes of light, halos, or blind spots within their normal field of vision?
a. Detached Retina
c. Subconjunctival hematoma
d. Corneal abrasion
A. Detached Retina
What is a common viral condition that results in redness of the conjunctiva?
a. Red eyes
b. Pink eye
d. Corneal abrasion
B. Pink Eye
How should a chemical burn to the eye be treated?
a.) Cover both eyes &transport to the hospital. (b.) Cover the affected eye only, to allow for monitoring of the unaffected eye, & immediately transport to the hospital.(c.) Thoroughly irrigate the eye w/ H2O, patch one eye & have them stare straight ahead w/ other eye closed, transport to ER.(d.) Apply occlusive eye dressing to both eyes & transport to ER.
C. Thoroughly irrigate the eye with water, patch one eye and have the victim stare straight ahead with other eye or close it or patch both if they’re having difficulty keeping the affected eye closed, and immediately transport to the hospital.
Which of the following would describe an athlete who is sensitive to light?
Which condition describes an infection of a ciliary gland?
d. Corneal abrasion
What mechanism can cause retinal detachments?
b. Blow to the lateral aspect of the head
c. Hit in the head with a baseballd. All of the above
D. All of the above
What is a fracture of the medial wall or floor of the orbit called?
a. Blow-out fracture
b. Blow-up fracture
c. LaForte I fracture
d. LaForte II fracture
A. Blow-out fracture
What type of injury results when a patient’s relatively stationary skull is hit by an object traveling at a high velocity, like a hockey puck?
c. Subconcussived. Cervical disk herniation
What is the outermost meningeal covering of the brain called?
a. Dura Mater
b. Acrachnoid Mater
c. Pia Mater
d. Subarchnoid space
During inspection of a patient with suspected head injury, what is ecchymosis under or around the eyes medically called?
a. Battle’s Sign
b. Raccoon Eyes
c. Halo Effect
d. Circle of Willis
What test is used to determine whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is present in fluids leaking from a head injury patient’s nose or ear?
a. Halo Test
b. Battle’s Sign
c. Rhomberg’s Test
d. Babinski’s Test
What is the inability to recall events before the onset of a head injury called?
a. Anterograde amnesia
b. Retrograde amnesia
c. Pyschogenic amnesia
d. Post-traumatic amnesia
What would be the pulse pressure of a patient whose blood pressure is 140/80 mmHg?
a. 220 mmHg
b. 140 mmHg
c. 80 mmHg
d. 60 mmHg
Which of the following statements is true regarding recent history of concussion with another blow to the head?
a. The athlete maybe predisposed to second-impact syndrome
b. The athlete will have a delay in recovery
c. A history of concussions decreases the risk for subsequent concussions.
d. A and B
What is Battle’s Sign indicative of?
a. Basilar Skull fracture
b. Fracture to the temple
c. Occipital fracture
d. Ruptured tympanic membrane
Anisocoria can result from an intercranial hemorrhage placing pressure on which of the following?
a. Optic N.
b. Occulomotor N.
c. Trochlear N.
d. Trigeminal N.
To properly check CN Acustic, the examiner should check which of the following?
a. Hearing and swallowing
b. Hearing and balance
c. Sallowing and Gag Reflexd. Facial Movement
What structure allows for a partial supply of blood to reach the affected area of the brain if one of the cranial arteries is obstructed?
a. Circle of Willis
b. Choroid Plexuses
c. Subdural Space
d. Subarachniod Space
Which of the following can cause the presence of nystagmus the most?
b. Corneal abrasion
c. A ruptured globe
d. Pressure on the motor nerves of the eye
D. Pressure on the motor nerves of the eye
Which of the following would indicatea nasal fracture and/or a skull fracture? (Select all that apply): 1. Nystagmus 2. Raccoon Eyes 3. Bleeding from the nose 4. Bleeding from the mouth
a) 1 & 2
b) 3 &4
You come upon your unconscious athlete who just tackled with his head during a football game and you notice that he is violently extending all of his extremities and plantar flexing his ankles and is unconscious for a long period of time (greater than 15 min). From this observation, which of the following would be occurring?
a.) Decorticate rigidity (b.) Deceberate rigidity
c. Accelerate rigidity (d.) Decelerate rigidity
B. Deceberate Rigidity
What cranial nerve will not allow the athlete to move their eyes up and 360 degrees?
List 3 ways to elicit pain response to an unconscious patient?
Sternalrub, pinch traps, pinch fingers.
What is the top of the ear called?
What is the technical name for the inside lining of the mouth?
True or false: An unconscious athlete can respond to a stimulus.
What is the name of the cartilage at the tip of the nose?
AlarCartilage (Lesser and Greater cartilage)
What is the difference between antrograde and retrograde amnesia?
Retrogradeis memory before and antergrade is memory after.
If the sternoclidomastoid muscle permanently shortened?
2 ligaments that prevent flexion of the cervical spine?
Which cranial nerves are responsible for moving parts of the eye?
Trochlear, occulomotor, and abducens.
In order, name the sections of the neuropathways starting at the cervical:
Roots Trunks Divisions Cords Branches
What cranial nerve shows; "how many fingers I’m holding up?"
Explain why the eye cant look up during an optical blow-out fx?
The inferior rectus gets stuck in the obital bone
What is the nub of the ear called?
What is Scintillating scotoma?
What is the medical term for a nosebleed?
Why do you have to pull back on the helix when using an otoscope?
To see the external auditory canal.
Identify 3 red flags for skull fracture?
Battle sign, rhinorrehea, obvious deformity, “raccoon eyes”
Define Cheyne-stokes breathing?
Periods of apnea
What is the medical term for unequal pupil size?
An athlete sustaining a brachial plexus stretch on the right side, also sustaining damage to the radial nerve, what other clinical sign would they present for you to suspect this?
Confusion,dizziness, nystagmus, unilateral pupil changes, nausea. Occlusion of the cervical vertebral structures.
If there was a complete tear of the musclulocutaneous nerve, what muscles would not fire?
What is the name of the inner part of the vertebral disk?
When you ask an athlete to say “ah” what are you looking for?
For the soft palate to rise.
What is the DTR, dermatome, and myotome for T1:
DTR-none, dermatome-medial upper arm, myotome-abduction of the fingers.
An athlete has a possible deviated septum and broken nose, identify and evaluate a assessment procedure to identify if they have a deviated septum or broken nose:
Have them look at their nose in the mirror for any changes. Have the athlete plug one side of their nose and see if they can still breathe (repeat to opposite side).
Demonstrate where all the lymph nodes are located in the neck and jaw:
Identify a method you would use to evaluate trauma of a dislocated TMJ and for fractured mandible:
TMJ-pinky test in ear. Mandible-tongue blade test
Rotation of the head on the cervical spine occurs where?
Compression of the C7 nerve root reflex would diminish what muscle?
What ligament prevents extension of the cervical?
Anterior longitudinal ligament.
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