- East Carolina University
- Physician Assistant
- Physician Assistant 1234
- HEAD (HYGA)
Last Modified: 2011-06-30
1) frontal, 2) occipital, 3) ethmoid, 4) sphenoid, 5) paired parietal bones, 6) paired temporal bones
These contain the foramina and fissures through which blood vessels and cranial nerves are transmitted
Both are clinically important when increased intercranial pressure in one compartment causes the brain to herniate.
Anterior and Posterior ethmoidal foramina
(as a result, CN VII is relatively unprotected as it emerges from the stylomastoid foramen until 2 years of age)
missense mutation affects fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (which normally inhibits bone growth)
premature craniosyntosis, midface hypoplasia, ocular proptosis
-superior auricular muscle
it branches into anterior and posterior branches
Meningeal dura of the posterior cranial fossa is innervated by the C1, C2, and C3 spinal nerves and by CN X.
-seperated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid space (CSF-filled; enlargements are subarachnoid cisterns)
-projects arachnoid villi into the cranial venous sinues
-cerebral arteries penetrate as they enter the brain, reflecting it onto the surface of the cerebral artery as the tunica adventitia
-Group B strep, E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, S. pneumo, N. meningitidis
-pain, fever, headache, nuchal rigidity, Kernig sign
-decreased glucose, increased protein, numerous neutrophils
-CSF shows numerous lymphocytes, normal glucose levels, increased protein levels
-Fever, headache, nuchal rigidity, Kernig sign
2) inferior alveolar artery
occlusion can result in monocular blindness
occlusion results in contralateral paralysis and contralateral anesthesia of the leg
occlusion results in "paralytic stroke" w. contralateral hemiplegia & poss. contralateral hemianesthesia
due to hypertension or atheroschlerotic occlusion since these arteries branch at right angles
-supply motor and sensory cortex for the face & arm
-occlusion results in contralateral paralysis & contralateral anesthesia of the face & arm
-most common site of an aneurysm; if ruptured would result in a subarachnoid hemorrhage & bitemporal lower quadrantanopia (due to proximity to optic chiasm)
-second most common site of an aneurysm; if ruptured, would result in subarachnoid hemorrhage & possibly oculomotor nerve (CN III) paralysis
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