PAGE PAGE 1 MODULE 1A: BASIC WORD STRUCTURE Readings: Chabner Chapter 1, pp 2 - 14 Practice Exercises: Chabner pp. 15 - 21. I recommend doing all the exercises in this chapter. MODULE 1 A LECTURE NOTES There are four types of word elements: WORD ROOTS COMBINING FORMS SUFFIXES PREFIXES WORD ROOT (Abbreviated ?WR?) 1. DEFINITION: -- it is the foundation of the word -- it is often the main part or stem of word -- it is often found in middle of word -- it often represents Greek or Latin names for a body part; for example: HEART (CARDI) STOMACH (GASTR) LIVER (HEPAT) KIDNEY (NEPHR) BONE (OSTE) Word roots are also used to indicate color; for example: RED (ERYTHR) WHITE (LEUK) BLACK (MELAN) YELLOW (JAUND) All medical terms have one or more word roots. A medical term with more than one word root is called a compound word. Examples of compound words include: ELECTR/O/CARDI/O/GRAM (WR) (WR) GASTR/O/ENTER/O/LOGY (WR) (WR) ESOPHAG/O/GASTR/O/DUODEN/O/SCOPY (WR) (WR) (WR) COMBINING FORM (Abbreviated as ?CF?) 1. What are the similarities and differences between a WR and CF?? Both are the foundation or main part of the word Both often refer to either a body part or color DIFFERENCE: A COMBINING FORM (CF) is a WORD ROOT (WR) + a COMBINING VOWEL (CV) (usually an ?O? and occasionally an ?I?) EXAMPLES: WR CF CARDI CARDIO GASTR GASTRO HEPAT HEPATO OSTE OSTEO NEPHR NEPHRO Word roots and combining forms can not stand alone. A suffix must be added to complete the term. Often, a combining vowel may be needed to connect the WR to the suffix. SUFFIX (abbreviated as ?S?) DEFINITION: A suffix is a word ending. COMMONLY USED SUFFIXES: RELATED TO PROCEDURES -ECTOMY excision or removal -CENTESIS surgical puncture for fluid removal -SCOPY the process of visual examination **note that this takes place using an instrument called a scope ARTHROSCOPY (ARTHRO = CF meaning joint) **ARTHR is a WR for joint Definition: The process of visual examination of a joint (using an ARTHROSCOPE) HYSTEROSCOPY (HYSTERO = CF meaning uterus)**HYSTER is WR for uterus Definition: The process of visual examination of the uterus (using a HYSTEROSCOPE) BRONCHOSCOPY (BRONCHO = CF meaning bronchus)**BRONCH is WR for bronchus. Definition: The process of visual examination of a bronchus (using a BRONCHOSCOPE) GASTRECTOMY (GASTRO = CF meaning stomach) **GASTR is a WR for stomach Definition: removal of the stomach NEPHRECTOMY (NEPHRO = CF meaning kidney) **NEPHR is a WR for kidney Definition: removal of the kidney THORACOCENTESIS (THORACO = CF meaning chest) **THORAC is a WR for chest Definition: surgical puncture to remove fluid in the chest. **This word is usually spelled THORACENTESIS, rather than THORACOCENTESIS. AMNIOCENTESIS (AMNIO = CF for amnion (sac surrounding the embryo) **AMNI is the WR for amnion Definition: surgical puncture to remove fluid in the amnion. ARTHROCENTESIS (ARTHRO = CF for joint) Definition: surgical puncture to remove fluid in a joint. SUFFIXES RELATED TO ?ABNORMAL CONDITION? -ITIS inflammation GASTRITIS (GASTRO = CF meaning stomach) **GASTR = WR for stomach. Definition: inflammation of the stomach NEPHRITIS (NEPHRO = CF meaning kidney)**NEPHR is WR for kidney. Definition: inflammation of the kidney -ALGIA pain ARTHRALGIA (ARTHRO= CF meaning joint) **ARTHR is the WR for joint Definition: pain in a joint. . MYALGIA (MY= WR for muscle) **MY/O is one of three CFs for muscle Definition: pain in a muscle. NEURALGIA (NEUR= WR for nerve) **NEUR/O is the CF for nerve Definition: pain in a nerve. CEPHALALGIA (CEPHAL= WR for head) **CEPHAL/O is the CF for head Definition: pain in the head. - EMIA blood condition ISCHEMIA (ISCH = WR means to hold back; back) **ISCH/O is CF meaning to hold back; back. Definition: This is where a medical dictionary is beneficial since the word means a lack of oxygen rich blood to a body part. ANEMIA (AN- = Prefix meaning without) Definition: Again a medical dictionary is helpful to understanding the word since it means a decreased number of red blood cells and hemoglobin in the blood. LEUKEMIA (LEUK= WR for white) Definition: Refer to the medical dictionary. This is a cancer of white blood cells. RULES FOR USING A COMBINING VOWEL (abbreviated as ?CV?) A combining vowel is used when the suffix begins with a consonant. A combining vowel is not used when the suffix begins with a vowel. A combining vowel is always used to connect (2) or more word roots. EXAMPLES: 1. CARDIOLOGY: CARDI /O/ LOGY (WR (CV) (S) ** A CV is needed here because the suffix, logy, begins with a consonant. 2. ELECTROCARDIOGRAM: ELECTR / O / CARDI / O / GRAM (WR) (CV) (WR (CV) (S) 3. GASTROENTEROLOGY: GASTR / O / ENTER / O / LOGY (WR) (CV) (WR) (CV) (S) 4. ESOPHAGOGASTRODUODENOSCOPY: ESOPHAG / O / GASTR / O / DUODEN /O/ SCOPY (WR) (CV) (WR) (CV) (WR) (CV) (S) **CV are needed in examples 2, 3, and 4 because there are two or more word roots that must be joined together. 5. CEPHALALGIA: CEPHAL ALGIA (WR) (S) 6. GASTRITIS: GASTR ITIS (WR) (S) * Note that combining vowels are not needed in examples 5 and 6 because the suffixes, -algia and -itis, begin with a vowel. COMBINING FORMS The following chart identifies some of the most common combining forms (CFs). Additional combining forms will be given with each of the body system chapters. Remember that a combining form always has a combining vowel (CV), which is usually an ?O? but occasionally an ?I? or an ?E.? WORD MEANING WORD MEANING abdomin/o, lapar/o abdomen path/o disease Bio life ped/o child, foot pod/o foot angi/o, vas/o vessel phag/o eating, swallowing arthr/o joint phleb/o, ven/o vein Bronch/o Bronchial tubes carcin/o cancer cardi/o heart rhin/o, nas/o nose cephal/o head colon/o, col/o colon Chondr/o cartilage sten/o narrow, constricture cerebr/o cerebrum crani/o cranium, skull thromb/o clot, platelet Cysto Urinary bladder; a sac or a cyst Orth/o correct , straight, normal, cyt/o cell dermat/o, cutane/o, derm/o skin thorac/o chest Electro electricity tox/o, toxic/o poison encephal/o brain trache/o trachea gastr/o stomach Entero Intestines (usually small intestines) tympan/o, myring/o Tympanic membrane, eardrum hem/o, hemat/o blood ur/o urine hepat/o liver ot/o ear hydr/o water Jaund/o yellow hyster/o, metr/o, metri/o uterus cyan/o blue lip/o, adip/o, steat/o fat erythr/o, erythem/o red lith/o stone, calculus leuk/o white hist/o tissue melan/o black mast/o, mamm/o breast Necr/o, mort/o death my/o, myos/o, muscul/o muscle phas/o speech nephr/o, ren/o kidney neur/o nerve pulmon/o lung ophthalm/o, ocul/o eye or/o, stomat/o mouth viscer/o internal organs, viscera Oste/o bone cost/o ribs PREFIX (abbreviated as a ?P?) DEFINITION: It is always found at the beginning of the word; however, not every word element which occurs at the beginning of a medical word is a prefix. For example, in the above word, electrocardiogram, notice that ?electro? is a combining form and not a prefix. (The word above is broken down into a WR plus CV which makes it a CF. It is often the first part of the word not all medical terms contain prefixes PREFIXES REPRESENTING POSITION OR LOCATION A. SUB- below SUBGASTRIC (GASTR = WR for stomach; -IC is a S meaning pertaining to) Definition: pertaining to below the stomach. **GASTR/O is the CF for stomach. SUBCUTANEOUS (CUTANE = WR for skin; -OUS is a S meaning pertaining to). **CUTANE/O is the CF for skin. Definition: pertaining to below the skin. B. EPI - ABOVE EPIGASTRIC (GASTR= WR for stomach; -IC = S meaning pertaining to) Definition: pertaining to above the stomach. **GASTR/O is the CF for stomach. EPIDERMIS (-DERMIS= S meaning skin) Definition: above the skin C. INTRA- WITHIN INTRAMUSCULAR (MUSCUL= WR for muscle; -AR= S meaning pertaining to) **MUSCUL/O is the CF for muscle ? note the ?O? at the end. Definition: pertaining to within the muscle INTRADERMAL (DERM = WR for skin; -AL = S meaning pertaining to) Definition: pertaining to within the skin. ** DERM/O is one CF for skin. ** Be careful that you don?t confuse INTRA with INTER. INTRA means within and INTER means between. D. PRE - BEFORE PRENATAL (NAT= WR meaning birth; -AL = S meaning pertaining to) Definition: pertaining to before birth PREOPERATIVE (-OPERATIVE = S meaning operation or surgery) Definition: before surgery. POST- AFTER POSTNATAL (NAT= WR meaning birth; -AL = S meaning pertaining to) Definition: pertaining to after birth. **NAT/O is the CF for birth. POSTOPERATIVE (-OPERATIVE = S meaning operation or surgery) Definition: after surgery. PREFIX INDICATING DIRECTION A. AB- AWAY FROM ABDUCTION B. AD- TOWARD ADDUCTION 4. A, AN - NO, NOT, WITHOUT ANEMIA (See above example) APNEA (-PNEA= S meaning breathing) Definition: no breathing 4. PREFIXES INDICATING NUMBERS/MEASUREMENTS PAIRED AS OPPOSITES A. HYPO- deficient, below normal HYPOGLYCEMIA (GLYC = WR for sugar; - EMIA = S meaning blood condition) Definition: A blood condition of below normal sugar HYPER- excessive, above normal HYPERGLYCEMIA (GLYC = WR for sugar; -EMIA = S meaning blood condition) ** GLYC/O is the CF for sugar?note the ?O? at the end! Definition: a blood condition of above normal sugar B. TACHY- FAST TACHY0CARDIA (CARDI = WR for heart; -IA = S meaning condition) Definition: condition of fast heart -- a heart rate above 100 beats per minute for an adult. BRADY- SLOW BRADYCARDIA (CARDI = WR for heart; -IA = S meaning condition) Definition: condition of slow heart ? a heart rate less than 60 beats per minute in an adult. C. HEMI- HALF HEMIPLEGIA (-PLEGIA= S meaning paralysis, palsy) Definition: paralysis in half of the body, usually right or left side WORD ANALYSIS TAKING A MEDICAL TERM APART TO DETERMINE ITS MEANING Break the word down into its component parts (WR, CF, S, P). Define or give the meaning of each component part. Start with the (S) or last part of term. Then define the first part of the term (P, WR, CF) Lastly define the middle part of the word if there is one. Put the word back together again in order of last part, first part, middle part. 4. Use a medical dictionary (the final authority!). EXERCISES ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM LAST PART = _gram__ (S ) record______ FIRST PART = electro_ (CF ) electricity__ MIDDLE PART = encephalo (CF ) brain____ DEFINITION = a record of the electricity of the brain HYPERGLYCEMIA LAST PART = emia ( S ) blood condition_ FIRST PART = hyper_( P) excessive__ MIDDLE PART = glyc (WR ) sugar_ DEFINITION: a blood condition of excessive sugar
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