–face greater challenges in accessing timely and need health care services. -They are at risk for –poor physical, psychological and/or social health -Their vulnerability is due to: –Unequal social, economic, health and geographic conditions
–an integrated approach to studying vulnerability -Vulnerability –denotes susceptibility to negative events In health care, vulnerability is the–likelihood of experiencing poor health or illness -Vulnerability is determined by a convergence of: l–predisposing –enabling –need
Characteristics of vulnerability model
–1.It is comprehensive, lincluding individual and ecological attributes of risk. –2.It focuses on the attributes of vulnerability for the total population lrather than on vulnerable traits of subpopulations. 3.It emphasizes the convergence of vulnerability.
Attributes that predispose vulnerability
–demographic characteristics, beliefs systems, and social structures variables. – These attributes influence vulnerability status – –They are associated with social position, status, access to resources, health behaviors and variations in health status
In 1997 –The U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) included race and ethnicity to reflect diversity. OMB included 2 ethnicities: –Hispanic and Latino Minorities have poor access to health services compared with white counterparts
The office of minority health
–coordinates federal agencies and the minority health initiatives however, it reflects a somewhat fragmented approach to addressing disparities in minority health and health care.
Women and children
Women in the U. S. enjoy a life expectancy almost eight years longer that of men, but they: have a higher prevalence of health problems over their lifetime develop more acute and chronic illnesses –resulting in more short and long-term disabilities
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