Hostile: Pain or harm is the only goal.
Instrumental: Pain or harm is the mean to some other goal.
Ex.) Stopping a crime.
Situational Triggers of Aggression
Heat: Hotter temperatures are correlated with more violent behaviors.
(Possible misattribution or arousal)
Presence of A Weapon
Role Expectations: Bad guys where black.
De individuation: Mob behavior.
More violence among males from Southern U.S. than males from the North.
(Concern with defending honor)
Southern (white) males show more facial expressions of anger, elevated testosterone,firmer grip, and more are confrontational after an insult than Northern males.
Large gender differences in violent crime rates.
Possibly due to differences in hormone levels, social learning, or elevated tendencies.
Women are less physically aggressive but may be covertly aggressive.
Situation determines helping behavior.
Rural vs. Urban
Costs of Helping
Seizure Study: Failure to act because assumption that others will.
Smoke in a Study Room: Failure to act because no one else is.
Altruism: Desire to help another person with no benefit to oneself, even at cost to ones self.
Empathy: Ability to put oneself in another person’s shoes, to experience the same feelings and emotions.
Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis: Helping results from a concern for another person.Negative State Relief Hypothesis: Helping results from trying to relieve own distress
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