it involves the diffusion of dissolved particles from one fluid compartment into another across a semipermeable membrane, the client's blood flows through one fluid compartment, + the dialysate is in another fluid compartment
Functions of hemodialysis
1. Cleanses the blood of accumulated waste products.
2. Removes the byproducts of protein metabolism such as urea, creatinine, + uric acid from the blood.
3. Removes excess body fluids
4. Maintains or restores the buffer system of the body
5. Maintains or restores electrolyte levels in the body
Principles of hemodialysis
Semipermeable membrane is made of a thin, porous cellophane
Pore size of the membrane allows small particles to pass through such as urea, creatinine, uric acid, + water molecules.
Proteins, bacteria, and some blood cells are too large to pass through the membrane.
The blood flows through a dialyzer- the movement of substances occurs from the blood to the dialysate
Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to one of the lower concentration
Osmosis isthe movement of fluids across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower cont. of particles to an area of higher cont. of particles
Ultrafiltration is the movement of fluid across a semipermeable membrane as a result of an artificially created pressure gradient.
Interventions for dialysis-
Hold HTN meds, any meds that could be removed by dialysis- water soluble vitamins, antibiotics, digoxin
VS- pt's temp may elevate- warming of blood, notify MD for excessive temp. elevations
monitor lab values b4
assess for fluid overload b4 + fluid volume decicit after
weigh client before and after dialysis to determine fluid loss
assess patency of blood access device
monitro for bleeding- heparin added to dialysis
Hypovolemia + shock- blood loss or exccess fluid + E+ removal
Interventions for dialysis cont.
Adequate nutrition- eat before or during dialysis
Identify the pt's reaction to the tx + support coping mechanism, encourage independenc + involvement in care.