The evolution of the south korea we know today did not entirely reflect the will of the Americans or Koreans; a result of constant negotiations The way the Koreans responded to American influence was important Nationbuilding, why did US engage in nationbuilding in Korea American gov?t hoped to build a nation that would build American security interests in the emerging Cold War Eg. They did this without ignoring democratic values; tried to inculcate the democratic values More often than not security interests would prevail What is so distinctive Autocracy during the tenure of Syngman Rhee through Therefore, ?developmental autocracy? (PCH and CDH) They opened the way for democracy unintentionally ?their relentless determination to est an industrial state and integrate Korean economy into the global economy set the preconditions for democracy? Korean War theoretically was fought by the UN forces to defend the fledgling democracy in the south, but once the war was over, SMR gave priority to security (democracy didn?t have high priority) ?import substitution? ? domestic production is geared to manufacture goods that would have been imported otherwise BTWN 1953-1960 the economy grew 6.5% on average This wasn?t enough People were becoming rusty SMR wins through a rigged election All of these culminated into April 19th revolution, student uprisings Interregnum period: democracy in perspective of the people. But anarchy in that of military Many of them ignored the values and virtues of democracy (PCH in this category) May 1961 (May 16th revolution) in a bloodless coup, military takes over the government He was gradually moving towards autocracy He insists that the constitution be amended so that he gets the third term The amendment passed, and got his term, although he comes close to losing to Kim Daejung (the most prominent dissident) In reaction to the election, PCH tightened his grip on society and becomes full fledged autocrat and developmental autocracy is fully in place Yushin Constitution, Oct 1972 Turning point! Now he has the power to elect 1/3 of the general assembly Secret negotiations btwn the two governments Issued a joint statement on unification ?to ease tension? To have unity in order to have dialogue with the north? Society is becoming increasingly complex and rambunctious and difficult to govern PCH centralized the policymaking and policy execution into his own hands Outwardly little change Same people Faith in military-based autocratic gov?t Lack of conflict in decisionmaking 1979; director of KCIA assassinates PCH over domestic policy Economy under PCH Liberalizing autocracy PCH had no formal training of economics He observed the economy at work under the Japanese and SMR Had in common was business subordination to gov?t Not in common, during the period of SMR economy was anything but productive PCH once he assumed power, he applied what he thought to be best from what he gleaned from Japan He introduced central economic planning, heavy investments in infrastructure for key export industries Import substitution Bc Korea had important trade relations: Americans and Japanese Eg. small electronic items TVs, radios From light electronics to automobiles to shipbuilding Gradually, Korean shipbuilding industry surpasses the Japanese Eg. Samsung, Hyundai The objective was to economic growth of 7.1% 1962-63 the growth rate increased from 4 to 9.3% in less than 2 years The annual rate remained above 8% By mid 60s a well organized state Able to put into the factories a very able and enthusiastic and poorly paid workers Targeted industries and producing precisely what the gov?t wanted them to produce Meanwhile the DPRK stagnates While PCH was gripping economy and society, US gets jittery US is trying to find a way to encourage opposition Trying to get labor to become more politically active Attorneys to relax restrictions in legal profession Quietly and subtly ?A south Korean slipped into authoritarian nightmare? Democracy
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