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-80% of India’s population
-One of the oldest, largest, religions
-No founder, creed, teacher, or prophet
-Identify themselves by social class (caste), language, community, and religion.
-believe in the cycle of death and rebirth
-From the name of the Indus river, Sindhu
-Referred in ancient documents to people of “Hind”, the indian subcontinent
-Later refers to the dominant religion of the Indian people
-Generally applied to anyone who lives in India and accepts the Hindu tradition, which is not defined, in any of its forms or developments
-The liberation from the cycle of life and death that every soul is believed to undergo.
-Pass through every aspect of life “human experiences”
-ancient Indian language
-closely related to all the other tongues: Greek, Latin, and English
-Has a lot of text, orally based tradition
-presenting teachings in oral form or ritual performance, storytelling
-Most involved fire and cleansing water
-seek liberation from the cycle of life and death and introduced the notion of immortality as reality.
-really define moksha
-emphasizes that dharma should be preformed without expectation of reward but with devotion to one God.
-holiest books in the Hindu tradition
- “song of the blessed one”
-18 Chapter section of three disciplines
Vernacular Devotion-contributions to spread
1. Use of vernacular languages, rather than sanskrit
2. Appeal to across social classes
- “to be able”, meaning sacred force or empowerment, is the primordial cosmic energy and represents the dynamic forces that move through the universe. The concept or personification of divine feminine creative power, sometimes referred as “the great divine mother in Hinduism
-rides a mouse and also called Vigneshwara (he who overcame all obstacles)
-worship him before embarking on any task, project, or journey
-divine monkey devotee of Ramam an incarnation of Vishnu- in the epic Raymayana
-incarnation of the divine, whose fate is is to aid the hero Rama in the struggle against the demon king Ravana.
-descent, reincarnation of gods
- “crossing over downward”, a deity’s (especially Vishnu’s) descent into the world of human experience
-does not die at birth, human soul
-the “indivisible” and indestructible spiritual center of each being and the ultimate self underlying all reality.
Vishnu’s ninth incarnation “the dark one”
-one of the most popular hindu gods
-several traditions view him as the supreme deity
Vishnu: the preserver, several avatars, male
-Shiva: the destroyer, both threatening and benevolent, creator and destroyer. Male
-Devi: goddess, female
-Brahma- the creator
-second source of dharma. To remember.
1. Ramayana: “story of rama” Rama and Sita
2. Mahabharata: “great epic of india”/”great sons of bharata”. Worlds longest poem. War between two families.
Sri Baba- believed by his followers to be an incarnation of the deities Shiva and Shakti (the goddess)
Mahesh Yogi- the founder of Transcendental Meditation movement, popularly referred to in the West as "TM", who is known as the Maharishi or Great Seer.
-one of the most important theologists/teachers
-established 4 or 5 monasteries
-teachings based on unity of the soul and brahman
Three ways to liberation
1. Way of action: (karma yoga), path of unselfish action. A person must do ones duty (dharma), “detached action”. Unselfish good deeds.
2. Way of knowledge: (jnana yoga), by attaining scriptural knowledge one may achieve a transforming wisdom that destroys one’s past karma
3. Way of devotion: (bhakti yoga), most emphasized. Complete devotion to a god or goddess leaving oneself open to divine grace, only way to salvation
1. Patanjali yoga: involves moral, mental, physical discipline, and meditation. Eight limbs or disciplines
2. Raja yoga: mental discipline
3. Hatha yoga: focuses on bodily postures and control
-Shankara, Ramanuja, Madhva, and Chaitanya
-Swami Dayananda Sarasvati and Shri Purohit Swami
were major religious, cultural, and economic centers and were constructed according to elaborate rules to represent the whole cosmos
-most hindus attend a temple that has been in their family for generations
-human body is the temple of the supreme being
-like a “port of transit” a place where a human being may cross over the ocean of life and death
Rites of Passage
-must take place in front of sacred fire (agni). The importance of fire can be traced far back. Offerings are made to the fire during prenatal rites, when a child is one year old, during weddings, and when the man reaches the age of sixty and eighty. When a person dies his or her body is offered up to the flames
-Initial 4 broad varnas: 1. Priests (brahmins) 2. Rulers and warriors (kshatriyas) 3. Merchants and producers (vaishyas) 4. Servants (shudras)
-temples, churches. Temple are only for the divine image not gathering. Bring offerings ex. Flowers, coconuts.
-bodies can be temple
-The Ganga, Yamuna, Kaveri, and Narmada rivers are believed to be holy. Other cities include Ayodhya, Mathura, Maya, Kashi, Kanchi, Avatika, and Dvaraka.
-Rig Veda- contains hymns to be recited by the hotr
-Sama Veda-contains formulas to be sung by the udgatr
-Yajur Veda- contains formulas to be recited by the adhvaryu
-Atharva Veda-collection of spells and incantations, charms, and hymns.
-They comprise hymns and ritual treatises, together with Aranyakas (ascention forest) and Upanishads (sitting at the foot of father/teacher).
-Non authored by human beings
-remembered literature smriti
Stages of Life (brahmins)
2. Kshatriya- Marriage/Householder
3. Vaishya- Forward dweller/retirement
4. Sadhu- Ascetic
1. Shankara-human soul becomes a part of brahman, accomplish that through yoga. Brahman equals atman. Physical and mental control.
2. Devotion-(banuti) total devotion brahman does not equal atman. More understandable to christian audience.
“adoration”, “worship”. General name for a range of rituals which devotees engage in the temple. Or ceremonial act of showing reverence to a god
a guide or instructor in religious matters
a Hindu honorific title for males or females. Derived from Sanskrit and means “He who knows and is the master of himself”, “owner of oneself”, or “free from the senses”. It is a title added to one’s name to emphasize learning and mastery of Yoga, devotion to the gods, devotion to the swami’s spiritual leader.
the eternal, unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all matter, energy, time, space, being, and everything beyond this Universe. The soul (atman) is actually nothing but Brahman.
Hindu deity, one of the most important of the Vedic gods. God of fire and the acceptor of sacrifices. Messenger from and to the other gods. He is ever young because the fire is re lit every day and also immortal
an ancient Sanskrit epic. It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife and the ideal king
one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India. Its consideration of human goals is part of a long standing tradition which seeks to explain the relationship of the individual to society and the world and the workings of karma.
a work composed by poet Jayadeva. Describes the relationship between Krishna and the gopis and one in particular Radha.
Karma in H.
“action”, ritual or ethical conduct and the consequences thereof, one of the traditional paths to liberation.
three basic techniques: the mantra (oral recitation), tantra (use of the body and mind as physical instruments of divine realization), and the yantra (use of external objects, symbols or some mechanical means to worship divine)
“hearing, listening” describes the sacred texts comprising the central canon of Hinduism. One of the three main sources of dharma. Believed to be purely of divine origin.
Aspects of Divine
1. Supreme being (make contact have to have) 2. One god better than others 3. All gods equal but like only one
Hindus own identification
they identify themselves with reference to their caste, community, region, and language
some think that the images are actual incarnation of supreme being. Vishu, Shiva, and Goddess.
temple worship is the key to Hinduism. Group worship occurs on weekends. Meaningful part is experiencing seeing of deity.
tell them to everyone up till present. Committing them to memory. An elaborate discipline process many mnenmotic devices to ensure accurate pronunciation, rhythm and diction. Usually the epics.
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