proposed a nativist definition of "hinduism" as devotion to "mother India . Affiliated member assasinated ghandi
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
incarnation of an RSS-allied political party
Transcendental Mediation (TM)
Hindu tradition that has attracted Euro-American converts since the 60s.
A collection of over a thousand hymns of praise and supplication addressed to the gods, the oldest of which is the Rig Veda. `
hereditary group of priests who chanted the Vedic hymns and performed rituals.
Concept of duty determined by one's caste and gender
Scripture worshipped by Sikhs
The Four Stages of Life
1. Student ( studies in the house of his teacher, learning about caste etc.)
2. Householder ( marriage; raise children etc. )
3. Forest Dwellers ( kid's start a family of their own;retreat to forest; renounce sec; living with bare necesseties)
4. Homeless wanderer ( wander alone; no rituals to be done; days devoted to visit holy sites and yoga practice)
The Four Aims of LIfe
1. ARTHA: material gain or worldly success
2. KAMA: " Sensory pleasure"
3. DHARMA: fulfilling the duty prescribed by one's caste
4. MOKSHA: Release from the cycle of future rebirth and redeath
Nonviolence, the idea of doing no killing, especially for its karmic effects. Used by ghandi
The hindu thought, the soul that resides in the heart, is the source of both life energy and spiritual awareness, and transmigrates after death.
Incarnation of the gods that descends to earth; avataras assume life-forms that aid creation, usually to defeat demons and overcome evil.
devotionalism to a divinity, a means to reach salvation from the world of rebirth
A ritual offering to a HIndu deity
Texts extolling the histories, theologies, and necessary rituals for expressing the Bhakti faith for the different Hindu deities
also called the 5th veda
Spiritual master in hindu tradition
"the world" or rebirth subject to the law of karmaand the inevitable reality of death, a religious understanding shared by Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and sikhism
"release" from samsara, freedom from future rebirth and redeath
law of action;
world spirit that arises at creation, which hindus hold is either in impersonal form ( Nirguna Brahman) or human form( saguna Brahman)
A term meaning "union" that refers to the various means of realizing union with the divine; earliest use of yoga refers to ascetic practices but expands to include the path of philosophical inquiry, bhakti, and tantra
dark age the world has now entered; when human spiritual capacity is thought to be diminished
also written in full rendition as AUM; repeated as part of almost every mantra for offerings and meditation
Om-kara and Sat Guru
"divine one" and "true teacher" sikh terms for God
founded by swami vivekananda to further the teachings of his guru; an influential Hindu missionary and reform organization that today runs hospitals, schools, and temples and has centers in over a dozen countries
an influential theologian who argued that the ultimate reality humans could relate to was saguna Brahman
Gandhi's central priciple of "grasping the truth". Gandhi required those opposing the government to confine their protests to nonviolent acts, to accept suffering for the cause, to love the opponent and to be disciplined in personal life
devotee of shiva
Hindu philosopher and monastic organizer, whose monistic interpretation of the upanishads became the most influential expression of nirguna brahman doctrine
esoteric tradition to Hinduism that employs practices that defy caste and gender orthopraxy to lead individuals to moksha
Appendices to the Vedas that record early Hindu speculations on brahman, atman, the means to realize their identity, and moksha
devotee of Vishnu or his incarnations
rulers/warrior caste; protect brahmins
merchant/business person caste
servant & laborer caste
a colonial indu sect, that promoted the "modern hindu's" adaptation to India's new economic and political realities. Merged the values of working hard, living honestly, saving rationally, and promoting altruism with the individual controlling personal desires. Along with Rammohan Roy they saw reformed hinduism now being led by the "godly householder" not the premodern elite of world renouncing ascetics
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