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The Embargo Act of 1807 was a general embargo enacted by the United States Congress against the United Kingdom and France during the Napoleonic Wars. The embargo was imposed in response to violations of U.S. neutrality, in which American merchantmen and their cargo were seized as contraband of war by the European navies. The British Royal Navy, in particular, resorted to impressment, forcing thousands of American seamen into service on their warships. The United Kingdom and France, engaged in a struggle for control of Europe, rationalized the plunder of U.S. shipping as incidental to war and necessary for their survival
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists (1780s)
Fed- led by Alexander Hamilton, strong central govt. led by industry and the wealth, emphasis on manufacturing, shipping and trade, loose interpretation of the constitution, favored the national bank, favored protective tariffs and pro- British
Dem Rep- led by Thomas Jefferson, strong state govt. led by the “common man”, emphasis on agriculture “Cultivators of the earth are the most valuable citzens.” Thomas Jefferson, strict interpretation of the Constitution, opposed the national bank, opposed protective tariffs, pro-French
(1803), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution. The landmark decision helped define the boundary between the constitutionally separate executive and judicial branches of the American form of government.
of 1798, these acts were passed in Congress (slightly controlled by Federalists) and technically were designed to impose severe penalities on those who criticized the standing govt. and those in top leadership –threatened fundamental American rights such as freedom of speech
Penalties- arrests, incarcerations and deportations (thankfully never enforced because violates Bill of Rights- Adam lost a lot of favor because of these Acts even among Federalists)
early in the war, delegates from New England met in Hartford Conn to discuss regional relations and how to handle war –lots of official talks occurred during concention and a lot of unofficial ideas lifted proposed: 1) needed to be const. amendment in order to go to war, needed 2/3 vote in congress 2) federally requested quotas of funds in war efforts- unofficial dicourge in Hartford since New England didn’t want war: 1) talk about secession from union 2) some said to rejoin Brit (unofficial but not attempted
(1803) The Louisiana Purchase was a mere 15 million doubling the size of the U.S., background: Spain gave land that had belonged to France back to France (Louis. Ter.) in 1801 through a goodwill treaty. French leader Napoleon Bonaparte was needing quick cash to finance his wars of ambitions. At the time, he saw little value in having Louis. Back in French hands -828,000 square miles consisting of lands west of Miss. River and east of the Rocky Mountain range
(36 degree 30 degree line) Henry Clay (kent. Southerner/slaveholder) slavery in new areas below 36 degree 30 degree south slavery- above not allowed, didn’t apply to old states, Missouri-slave state Maine- free state- compromise avoided civil war for about 40 years
as a way to ease tedious and painful labor for slaves invented the cotton gin (1793) this makes cotton picking easier (cotton was in high demand) slavery increases because of gin and new easy process (gin took place of 20 slaves)
military dictator president, in 1836 Santa Ana marched an army of as many as 5,000 into Texas to put down rebellion- a little later in March 1836 Texans declared independence and drafted a Constitution and set up a govt.
Battle of Baltimore was a key American victory- one of the turning points of the war as the US military repulsed sea and land invasions of the port city of Baltimore, MD and killed the commander of the invading british army forces
Battle of Washington DC (Aug 24,1814) where Brits ransacked the city and wound up burning a good number of public buildings in their effort to seek revenge for when Americans had raided looted and burned sections of York, Canada (1813)
President (1809-17) Madison was a close compatriot of Jefferson and devout member of the Democratic-Republican Party. Thus, he was pro-France. (He was a leading ‘Federalist’ during the developmental phase of the Constitution. But again this shows that there was a difference between what it meant to be a ‘Federalist’ in the late 1780s and a ‘Federalist’ in the early 1800s.) The War of 1812, marred Madison’s Administration. Above all other events, this war took precedence during his time in office.
It was brought on by social, religious, economic and political differences between the new Mexican nation (its government) and the Anglo-American settlers of Texas. 1. Customs duties 2. Mexican attempts to limit the institution of slavery and 3. Violations (of the 1824 Mexican Constitution) made by the military dictator president Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana.
- It was est. in 1828 as one of the last acts put into effect under JQ Adams. This act pused trade rates up to 45% on certain manufactured goods coming in from Europe. While it helped the Northern economy, it gradually damaged the Sourthern economy due to trade relation problems with European countries. Jackson upheld the Tariff Act as something that would help the nation as a whole. He was viewed as a power hungry Nationalist. As a result, Calhoun became the leading architect of the South Carolina Expostion, which called the tariff unjust and unconstitutional.
strong executive branch, national judiciary, strong two house leg body (Congress), lower house chosen by people- based on population of state, upper house chosen by members of lower house- catered to large pop states- based on states pop, they get to send more reps (larger states get more votes)
In 1807, the impressment controversy reached a tragic climax with the Chesapeake-Leopard incident. The British suspected that the U.S.S. Chesapeake was harboring British naval deserters and thus the British liner Leopard fired on and boarded the ship. As a result, 4 sailors were removed from the Chesapeake of whom only one proved to be a British defector. To keep the peace, the British made some financial reparations to the U.S., but impressment continued. Therefore, Jefferson would now no longer allow British vessels in American ports. Moreover, his administration placed an embargo on European goods (in general).
in 1830, Congress passed the Indian removal Act under Jackson’s leadership- the act would effect the Native American population primarily in the Southern States- various Native American groups sued the federal govt. claims that they had legal rights to these lands- ended in supreme court- court sided with them- Jackson and other southerners were not happy- Jackson’s duty was to enforce laws as president but he did not agree, breaking the law- used militia men to drive out Native Americans -46,000 kicked out of their land (Indian Removal Act) to Oklahoma (Cherokee, Choctaw, Muscogee Cree, Seminole, Chickasaw) thousand die on their way to OK (why called Trail of Tears)
Vice president of the United States (1825–1832) under John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson. In his political philosophy he maintained that the states had the right to nullify federal legislation that they deemed unconstitutional.
supporters and opponents of the const. began to debate on to accept or reject b) federalists want to ratify it, anti-federalists did not want to ratify it c) when federalists promised to add a Bill of Rights and small states learned more about the details of Conne. Comprise, battle of ratification was over d) 1789 const. was largely accepted across young nation and in the same year new govt – George Washington elected (1789-1797) Bill of rights protect rights of citizens against govt
States added to the Union between 1790-1812
occurred in 1794- It was an insurrection in western PA over excise taxes est. in 1791 (imposed a tax on items like liquor) In western PA distillation was major source of income for backwoods farmers. Remembering the causes for the Revolution, some of these farmers rebelled against the Fed govt – this was the first real test of the new govts strength and Pres Washington’s executive authority- put the rebellion down (Washington put his own old Army and went himself to stop rebellion) Test of govt = passed
Baltimore Fort McHenry in battle inspired Francis Scott Key to compose the poem The Star Spangled…which later became lyrics of Nat Anthem- flag never wavered, though it was torn up
the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review by the judiciary. A court with judicial review power may invalidate government laws and decisions that are incompatible with a higher authority, such as the terms of a written constitution. (Marbury vs Madison)
Aaron Burr, Jr. was the third Vice President of the United States; he served during President Thomas Jefferson's first term. After serving as a Continental Army officer in the Revolutionary War, Burr became a successful lawyer and politician.
presidency was overall disappointing (1825-1829). He lived in the shadows of his “shady” election victory. As a result, he lost the confidence of many Americans and Jackson remained more popular among the commoners.
In 1817, Jackson defeated the Seminoles & eventually invaded Spanish Florida with a hidden agenda to take it away from Spain. His orders from President Monroe were vague yet supportive of such an offensive. On the record, he was to stop Seminole aggression that had gone on in southern Georgia as well as capture runaway slaves. In the end though, he wound up capturing a number of Spanish Forts. Spain wound up selling Florida to the U.S. for $5 million to avoid an unwanted war with the U.S. (admitted in 1819)
strict constructionism president does not have power to purchase so much land, loose constructionism says you can
Hamilton and Jefferson's views on politics, govt., strength & strict or loose constructionism
1) continued violations of rights and neutrality against American shipping – companies throughout the early 1800s 2) European wars were profitable for US because shippers and merchants did business with both sides 3) 1805 Brit court case decision about U.SS. Essex incident, held such broken voyages were not legal and therefore the on going Brit blockade on the US continental Europe was justified (US considered this blockade and treatment as illegal, Brits thought they were in the right)
1) poor reputation of the Adams Administration 2) Hamilton’s death 3) more than anything else, the fact that the Federalist Party failed to relate well with the common American
New national bank created to stabilize the economy and distribute scarce money across the country. President Jackson believed the bank had too much power, and he vetoed the rechartering of the bank in 1836
Gen in Texan army- the leader of the movement, but had some key subordinates that played an important role in securing freedom for Texas (William Travis, James Bowie, and Davy Crockett)
(Eaton affair and Black Tariff were causes of division) As a result of the opposition within Jackson’s own personal Presidential Cabinet, he developed a new inside group of helpers and supporters. Political enemies referred to this new group as Jackson’s “Kitchen Cabinet”. This (behind the scenes) body of “Yes Men” bureaucrats was made up of mostly mediocre government clerks. They were all products of the “Spoils System”.
the cotton gin took place of work for 20 slaves- by early 1790’s people were open to emacipation for slavery but with the cotton gin it made cotton picking a new easy process, making slavery back in fruition again (before gin either 13,000 bales sold and after gin 461,000)
Fought a heroic death, along with Jamies Bowie, William B. Travis- The main Texas army began to gather & get trained further north. So, in March 1836, forces in San Antonio at the Alamo and also at Goliad (southern Texas), distracted Santa Ana’s Army and basically fought to the death to buy Houston’s forces precious time to grow and organize. Siege of The Alamo (Feb. 23 – March 6, 1836).
Virginia Plan, New Jersey Plan- Small population states- weak ex. Branch, suggested president be multiple people, congress- 1 house legislative every state gets two delegates only, judicial branch with limited powers, every state only gets one vote Connecticut Compromise- best ideas from each plan- 1 pres, middle level powers, judicial court, leg branch (2 house) leg body with one house- based on # rep of pop of state, upper house has two reps 3/5s compromise- southern slaves with large slave pop would include slaves in population for rep to send to delegates (Northerners did not agree because slaves were only property so they were counted as 3/5ths of a person)
US viewed it as a victory because: 1) a very threatening hidden agenda of the Brit was never accomplished- if they could have pulled it off, Brit wanted to reabsorb Amer. (didn’t happen this is why referred to “second war of Indepnd”) 2) By end of war, Gen Harrison and Jackson did have some stunning victories 3) last reside of illegal Brit aliens in Amer west were flushed out, evacuated from territories legally recognized as result of Treaty of Paris (1789)
The years with Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe- tremendous growth, pride in America, land gains, came culturally different than Brit, very optimistic, good unity between North and South, sense of purpose, life was good
signed Dec 24, 1814 – the war of 1812 ended as a draw- no one gained land and no one lost –any form of surrender by either side was not offered or accepted or a lasting issue
the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review by the judiciary. A court with judicial review power may invalidate government laws and decisions that are incompatible with a higher authority, such as the terms of a written constitution.
5. Limited federal spending and cutbacks such as the measures taken within the military (small boat navy)
6. Louisiana Purchase
est. the first National Bank in 1791 when he was the Sec of Treasury for Washington- The purpose of the bank was to help establish a firm national economic system for the young nation and be able to produce national currency.
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