1/20/12 1:46 PM RECONSTRUCTION ERA W.E.B Debuois called it ?splendid failure? -the goals and legislation put in place during the era were splendid?but in the end, reconstruction failed. -13th Amendment guaranteed emancipation but despite congress efforts rights were not protected -over 600,000 men die of wounded and diseases. This is more that all other wars combined. -Last year of war was total war?streets, fields, cities, etc. were destroyed. -Confederacy money was completely worthless because it wasn?t backed by gold or silver -Recognized this war became a war about slavery. To preserve or end it. The majority of southerners did not own slaves but still fought Presidential Reconstruction Two monumentally significant accomplishments *13th amendment-no slavery in the U.S 1776 fighting for freedom but not for everyone The doctrine of state sovereignty had created a system where states had power and yet the federal government was superior to states. The question about states? rights vs federal authority *It became THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Questions surrounding the nation How to reconstruct the south? To what extend? Who is a citizen and what are the rights of the citizen? Conflict between Johnson and congress Minimal plans to reconstruct Constitutional Convention States do not have the right to secede End Confederation Ratify 13th Amendment Southern Response State constitutional conventions Did not allow African Americans in meetings No right to vote for AA Limit Suffrage Black Codes-to maintain that African Americans second class citizens. Could not practice skills because they would be competing with white tradesmen and become economic independent. Hire them as cheap labor. Important for Slavery could have never happened if it wasn?t that Europeans believed Africans were clearly inferior and so different?they were considered cargo. Biologically there are no differences. After independence the northern states abolished slavery because they saw it was inconsistent with republican principles and it didnt affect them economically Southerners in the antebellum time even argued that slavery was a humanitarian thing because it was taking care of orphan children. Africans couldn?t take care of themselves without white masters. When congress saw what was going on?they extended the freedmen?s bureau. In north many AA couldn?t vote? There were prejudicial laws and discriminatory customs . They wanted to make sure the south didn?t get much strength as the north. In 1867 pass two legislations 5 Military Districts on conquered territory one of the preconditions to join the union?states had to ratify the 14th amendment ?Tennessee the first to do so. Congressional Reconstruction Continue Freedmen?s Bureau Civil Rights Act,1866 -a citizen is anyone born in the US 14th Amendment,1868-defines citizenship. Same rights and immunity. Equal protection and due process of the law Military Rule Union soldiers protected Freedmen *AA children started public education system. *Lure investors to the south to build railroads and timber companies to revitalize southern economy. Taxes went up, ppl angry Conservative southerners were against this Cause: African Americans voting and in office Effect: High taxes and corruption White supremacy-Religious belief?organized against reconstruction State Reconstruction Governments Freedmen voting and holding office Achievements, e.g. public education Failures and Criticisms -Cost -continued economic depression -corruption (?) The ?Holy Crusade? of White Supremacy; determination to restore white authority KKK terrorism Nathan Bedford Forrest founder of KKK Terrorism and lynching in the South. As a result Congress passed 15th Amendment-right to vote Compromise of 1877-The formal and unequivocal end of Reconstruction Reconstruction: A ?Splendid Failure? 1/20/12 1:46 PM 1/20/12 1:46 PM
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