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-Motion picture that use narrative elements to tell a story.
-Intended to entertain and generate profit and lasted for at least an hour.
- Used famous actors to promote other films.
Opposed in height and class to some superior man/object
- Comedy of space
- Foibility of machines - man vs. technology
Editing designed to create a great deal of continuity or linear chronological “smoothness” in a scene. makes films EASY
An art movement begun in the 1920s that depicted dreams and visions of the irrational unconscious and was inspired by Sigmund Freud's theories
The earliest projected motion pictures were made possible by the exposure of photographs onto:
Which Frenchman provided an important precursor of motion pictures with his invention of a photographic gun?
A) Étienne Jules Marey
B) Louis Lumière
C) Augustin Le Prince
D) Georges Méliès
Which influential early camera also doubled as a projector?
Edison's Kinetoscope viewing box was initially highly profitable, but its popularity declined:
A) Because of competition from amusement parks.
B) Because Edison oversaturated the market with the devices.
C) Because other inventors found ways to project films onto a screen.
D) Because Edison lost a patent infringement suit filed by American Mutoscope.
The Vitascope, a projector manufactured and marketed by Thomas Edison, was invented and initially exhibited by:
A) Norman Raff and Frank Gammon.
B) Otway and Gray Latham.
C) Herman Casler and W.K.L. Dickson.
D) C. Francis Jenkins and Thomas Armat.
Short travelogue films offering views of distant, “exotic” lands were originally known as:
Which of the following nations was not one of the three primary film-producing countries during cinema's first decade?
A) The United States
What type of motion picture did not help to revive audience interest in American films around 1898?
A) Prizefight films
B) Passion Plays
C) Spanish-American War actualities
D) Exotic dance films
Which Edwin S. Porter film used printed intertitles for what is believed to be the first time in American cinema history?
A) Jack and the Beanstalk
B) Life of an American Fireman
C) Uncle Tom's Cabin
D) The Great Train Robbery
Locally-produced motion pictures began appearing in each of the following countries prior to 1900 except:
The cinema was one of the first significant technologies pioneered during the industrial revolution, later followed by the telephone and the automobile.
There is no single inventor of motion pictures; the cinema instead came about through an accumulation of contributions from inventors worldwide.
The 35mm film gauge pioneered by W.K.L. Dickson in the 1890s remains the standard theatrical gauge today.
The fiction film was the most well received type of motion picture until roughly 1900, when it was supplanted in popularity by the actuality.
Most films created during the 1890s contain between five and ten shots.
The first exhibitions of projected motion pictures in many of the world's countries were put on by Lumière representatives.
Georges Méliès was an early master of sophisticated stop-motion effects.
Copyright laws passed in the late 1890s helped curb the illegal duplication of film prints and enabled the top U.S. film producers to gain control over the circulation of their movies.
Which of the following was not a significant factor in the expansion of the French film industry in the middle 1900s?
A) The expansion of the largest motion picture firms
B) The popularity of imported American films
C) The targeting of more affluent audiences
D) Increased leisure time for French citizens
The French screen comic Max Linder was important to early film history because:
A) He was the most successful of the Chaplin imitators.
B) He started the trend of French comics working in Italian films.
C) His caricature appeared in the first French animated picture.
D) His films reflected the French film industry's bid for middle-class respectability.
Which type of film was not characteristic of Italian cinema of the 1910s?
A) The multi-reel picture
B) The historical spectacle
C) The "neorealist" film
D) The comic series
In the late 1900s Pathé dominated film production not only in France but also in:
From 1897 on, the Edison company tried to force its competitors out of business by:
A) Importing multi-reel foreign films.
B) Suing them for patent infringement.
C) Producing films with more risque or salacious content.
D) Hiring away their biggest stars.
Although the Motion Picture Patents Company tried to limit the number of foreign films released in the U.S., it did admit as members:
A) Méliès and Pathé
B) Cines and Ambrosio
C) Nordisk and Méliès
D) Itala and Cines
The first distributor to effectively defy the MPPC trust and start his own production firm—the Independent Motion Picture Company—was:
A) William Fox
B) J. Stuart Blackton
C) Carl Laemmle
D) Harry Warner
Multi-reel films were uncommon in the U.S. in the nickelodeon era because:
A) Exorbitant production costs made them unprofitable.
B) The MPPC's release system only allowed for single reels.
C) Audiences could not follow the plots of many longer pictures.
D) Studios could not convince seasoned playwrights to come work in Hollywood.
By the late nickelodeon era, every aspect of film style came to be used to:
A) Enhance narrative clarity.
B) Beautify a film's female lead.
C) Showcase the talent of the actors.
D) Emphasize spectacle.
Which of the following is not true of intertitles circa 1914?
A) They sometimes suggested characters' thoughts.
B) They were typically inserted before the shot in which the character delivered the
C) They could signal time gaps between scenes.
D) They were often written in the third person.
B) They were typically inserted before the shot in which the character delivered the
Which of the following shot combinations is best described as a shot/reverse shot?
A) Shot A shows a character looking offscreen; Shot B shows what that character is looking at but not from his or her optical point of view.
B) Shot A shows a character looking offscreen; Shot B shows another character looking in the opposite direction at the first.
C) Shot A shows a character's interior state; Shot B shows that character in his exterior surroundings (or vice-versa).
D) Shot A shows a character looking offscreen; Shot B shows what that character is looking at from his or her optical point of view.
Pathé developed a hand-stencil coloring system and was using it to add color to all of its releases by 1905.
During the U.S. nickelodeon boom, most films shown in nickelodeons came from abroad.
The Motion Picture Patents Company was an oligopoly because its member firms cooperated to control the U.S. market and block the entry of new companies.
In the earliest years of the cinema, film actors' names were not publicized because fame would allow them to demand higher wages.
World War I severely curtailed filmmaking in which two important movie- producing nations?
A) Australia and New Zealand
B) France and Italy
C) The United States and Germany
D) Germany and Russia
Which European film of the middle 1910s was renowned for its slow tracking shots, so much so that similar types of camera movement subsequently were described using this film's title?
Which of the following was not a distinctively Italian film genre of the silent era?
A) Diva films
B) "White telephone" films
C) Strongman films
D) Frock-coat films
Which of the following was not a reason for the development of the continuity script?
A) To allow a producer to estimate how much a given film would cost.
B) To settle the matter of which writers received screen credit on a film and under what designation.
C) To guide the editor in putting the film together.
D) To allow film practitioners working in separate departments to coordinate their efforts.
Most of the films produced under the auspices of the Soviet state in 1919 were:
A) Historical epics and literary adaptations.
B) Military training films.
C) Short newsreels and propaganda films.
D) Topical comedies.
With film stock extremely scarce in the Soviet Union during the War Communism years, the students in Lev Kuleshov's workshop at the State Film School prepared for future filmmaking efforts in each of the following ways, except:
A) Reediting old films.
B) Writing elaborately detailed continuity scripts.
C) Shooting and assembling footage in short editing experiments.
D) Putting on plays that were staged as much like films as possible.
Modern-day exposure to and understanding of European cinema of the 1910s is limited, partly because of a 1941 fire that destroyed the negatives of the silent-era pictures produced by:
A) Svenska in Sweden.
B) Ufa in Germany.
C) Nordisk in Denmark.
D) UCI in Italy.
A) Svenska in Sweden.
Upon its formation in 1914, Paramount was instantly notable as:
A) The exclusive distributor of Italian historical epics in the United States.
B) The first new firm invited to join the Motion Picture Patents Company since its
inception in 1908.
C) The home studio of three of the world's most popular movie stars: Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks.
D) The first national distributor in the U.S. devoted solely to features.
Around 1917, Paramount was releasing about 100 feature films per year and requiring theaters to show all of them in order to get any, a practice known as:
B) Full slate scheduling.
C) Block booking.
D.W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation (1915) was extremely controversial because:
A) It was rented to exhibitors at exorbitant rates, ensuring a loss for theaters that did not book it for a run of several months.
B) It was released without a National Board of Review seal of approval.
C) Its multiple stories were intercut in a manner all but incomprehensible to
D) Its racist account of the role of African Americans in the post-Civil War South.
Keystone, the studio famous for its slapstick comedies and for introducing movie audiences to Charlie Chaplin, was headed by:
A) Thomas Ince.
B) Mack Sennett.
C) Ben Turpin.
D) Hal Roach.
Following World War I, film industries in other countries found that it was usually cheaper to buy an American film than to finance a local production.
In European films of the 1910s, individual scenes within a single space were likely to be broken into several shots.
In the classical Hollywood cinema, the chain of cause and effect is rooted equally in social forces and character psychology.
Which of the following is not a reason for the growth of the German film industry after World War I?
A) The diminishing of anti-German sentiment in enemy countries.
B) A government ban on imported films.
C) A robust post-war economy.
D) Exchange rates unfavorable to the German mark.
The first major German film director hired to work in Hollywood was:
A) G.W. Pabst
B) Paul Leni
C) Fritz Lang
D) Ernst Lubitsch
Which narrative technique of German Expressionist literature was adopted by scriptwriters for Expressionist films?
A) The "alienation effect"
B) The frame story
C) The dangling cause
D) The "lying" flashback
In German Expressionist films, the narrative often pauses or slows briefly while:
A) Sets are torn down and assembled in "real time," as in the theater.
B) Elements of mise-en-scene align into eye-catching compositions.
C) Characters tell stories or describe troubling dreams.
D) An "unfastened" moving camera replicates the perceptual subjectivity of
Which was not a common tactic for blending the elements of mise-en-scene in a German Expressionist film?
A) The use of elaborate tracking shots.
B) The juxtaposition of similar shapes.
C) The use of stylized surfaces.
D) The use of symmetry.
Which of the following directors was not a major figure of German Expressionist cinema?
A) F.W. Murnau
B) Fritz Lang
C) E.A. Dupont
D) Robert Wiene
Camera movements and high or low angles were relatively rare in German Expressionist film, because:
A) Most German studios were not technically equipped to handle these demands.
B) Many directors had started their careers in German Expressionist theater, and they
were accustomed to arranging the action in a single location.
C) During the war German filmmakers had access only to Swedish and Danish movies, and they were influenced by the static compositions that dominated the style of those films.
D) Many Expressionist sets used false perspective to form an ideal composition when seen from a specific vantage point.
Which of the following was not typically true of German Expressionist narratives?
A) They were set in exotic locales.
B) They were told from the viewpoint of a mad narrator.
C) They involved elements of horror or fantasy.
D) They were set in the past.
During the 1920s, Hollywood cinematographers and designers visited German studios in order to pick up tips on the use of:
A) Color processes.
B) Zoom lenses.
D) Artificial lighting.
The Last Laugh (1924) and Variety (1925) were both internationally renowned for their:
A) Spectacular camera movements.
B) Rapid montage sequences.
C) Highly stylized performances.
D) Tragic endings.
After nearly going bankrupt, the Ufa production company was bailed out by a loan from:
A) Germany's most successful theater chains.
B) The National Socialist (Nazi) Party.
C) Head of production Erich Pommer.
D) Hollywood movie studios.
One of the significant factors in the decline of German Expressionist cinema was:
A) The onset of World War II.
B) The departure of Expressionist filmmakers to Hollywood.
C) An unofficial ban on German imports by exhibitors in England and France.
D) The failure to keep pace with the increased budgets of mainstream German
In order to export their films to major markets outside Germany, the big German production companies made films in the mid- to late 1920s that:
A) Featured performers who looked and acted like certain American movie stars, such as Charlie Chaplin and William S. Hart.
B) Contained no intertitles.
C) Emphasized their "German-ness," via the adaptation of classic German literature
and the use of famed German monuments and landmarks as settings.
D) Stylistically appeared virtually indistinguishable from Hollywood pictures.
During the inflationary period of the early 1920s, the larger German production companies found it relatively easy to finance historical epics.
By the end of the 1920s the coming of sound, combined with greater control over the film industry by conservative forces, created an emphasis within German cinema on light entertainment.
Early English cinema became famous for its:
A) Special-effects cinematography.
B) Primitive star system.
C) Literary adaptations.
D) Religious spectacles.
Doesn't recognize artistic/aesthetic qualities of medium
Patents on motion picture technology
Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC, aka, The Trust)
Movies when they were shown in vaudeville theaters
White vs. blue collar
Cheap admission = immigrants
Edison used his superior capital to threaten lawsuits on his patent. (Fair market?)
Too much fighting over patents to produce enough films.
Stabilized the industry.
Some were angry.
begins developing around 1909, pretty much complete by 1917
Editing and POV
Space and time
built upon continuity editing or invisible style. The camera and sound recording never call attention to themselves.
French film journal 1951+
Andre Bazin, Truffaut, Godard, etc
interested in auteur, experimental film
influenced new wave
first journal of film criticism
A cut within the continuous action of a shot, creating a spatial or temporal jump or discontinuity within the action.
ex: citizen kane in castle
After the Bolsheviks gained power in Russia in late 1917, their first move regarding the Russian cinema was to:
A) Abolish foreign imports.
B) Create a new regulatory body to oversee the cinema.
C) Nationalize the film industry.
D) Subsidize the construction of permanent movie theaters.
Surviving scenes from Lev Kuleshov's 1918 film, Engineer Prite's Project, suggest that:
A) It was completely assembled out of footage from existing American and German films.
B) Kuleshov understood the principles of "intellectual montage" years before Eisenstein first applied the idea to his own work.
C) In the years immediately following the revolution, even "revolutionary" Russian filmmakers continued to stage action and edit shots in the manner of the early Russian directors.
D) Kuleshov employed Hollywood-style continuity guidelines.
The "Kuleshov effect" is based on the use of editing to:
A) Lead the spectator to infer spatial or temporal continuity from the shots of separate elements.
B) Create a new idea or argumentative position out of the juxtaposition of two completely dissimilar shots.
C) Smooth over the potential rupture for the spectator caused by a shift in time or location.
D) Replicate or suggest the mental activity of characters.
Which European city was the main conduit for films going into and out of the Soviet Union during the 1920s?
In 1923, what was the percentage of films in Soviet distribution that were foreign- made?
A) 1 percent
B) 30 percent
C) 65 percent
D) 99 percent
The first feature film completed by the members of the Kuleshov workshop was:
A) The Extraordinary Adventures of Mr. West in the Land of the Bolsheviks
C) Man with a Movie Camera
D) Old and New
Sovkino, a distribution firm created by the Soviet government in 1925, was charged with the responsibility of opening new theaters in cities and sending portable projection outfits to the countryside. The company paid for these operations largely by:
A) Importing and distributing foreign films.
B) Investing in overseas stock markets.
C) Exporting Soviet-made films.
D) Obtaining government subsidies.
For the artist working within the movement of Constructivism, art was:
A) To be wholly rejected in favor of political engagement.
B) Meant to fulfill a social function.
C) Intended to reproduce physical reality as closely as possible.
D) A source of enduring higher truths.
The Constructivists often compared the work of art to a:
12. In the stage productions of the influential Constructivist director Vsevolod Meyerhold, an actor's performance was supposed to be founded upon:
A) Carefully controlled physical movements.
B) Insults and even violent actions directed at the audience.
C) An aesthetic of distancing oneself from the moral or social implications of the
D) The expression of inner emotions.
13. Which of the following is not true of the Montage film Strike?
A) It was set and shot in a real factory.
B) It was the first major film of the Montage movement.
C) It was the first feature film directed by Sergei Eisenstein.
D) It was made to commemorate the tenth anniversary of the Russian Revolution.
14. Which Soviet director and theorist admired the succinct storytelling of American films and thought of Montage chiefly as techniques of editing for clarity and emotional effects?
A) Lev Kuleshov
B) Alexander Dovzhenko
C) Sergei Eisenstein
D) Dziga V ertov
15. According to Sergei Eisenstein's ideas on the "montage of attractions," a single shot should be thought of as akin to:
A) An atom, capable of existing independently or as a component of a larger entity.
B) A cell, formed by the collision of two elements in opposition to each other.
C) A word, which communicates meaning only when strung together with other
words to form a sentence.
D) A brick, which links together with other bricks to form a structure.
16. The source of causes and effects in a Montage film narrative was often:
A) A natural disaster or catastrophe.
B) The hero's quest for self-actualization.
C) Social forces.
D) Supernatural elements.
17. Using "overlapping editing" within a scene or sequence means that:
A) The editing rhythm is accelerating, to the point where shots are only a few frames long.
B) The depicted event is taking less time than it would in reality.
C) The same space is being shown from the same camera position in successive
shots, but the mise-en-scene has been changed.
D) The time a depicted action takes on the screen is noticeably expanding.
18. In the hands of Soviet Montage filmmakers, very rapid cutting within a film often:
A) Implies that human actions are socially determined.
B) Enhances the effect of explosive or violent action.
C) Conveys characters' subjective perceptions.
D) Suggests the relentlessness of class struggle.
19. In the plate-smashing scene from Potemkin, director Sergei Eisenstein creates a contradictory space by:
A) Mismatching a character's position from shot to shot.
B) Cutting in footage from an early, "classic" Russian film.
C) Originally shooting the scene in continuity style, then assembling the scene's
shots in purely random order.
D) Using temporal ellipsis to elongate the primary action was used for lyrical sequences.
20. In Soviet Montage filmmaking, intercutting was often used to:
A) Stage last-minute rescue scenes.
B) Break a space down into its component parts.
C) Link two actions for the sake of a thematic point.
D) Create parallels between story lines.
21. Which of the following was a common approach to lighting actors in Montage films?
A) Character appears against soft-focus background; fill and backlighting define the outline of the figure.
B) Character appears against black background; the front of the figure's face is dark while the sides are strongly lit.
C) Character appears against solid background; strong frontal lighting makes the figure appear "squashed" or on the same plane with the background.
D) Character appears in the foreground in silhouette; background is lit according to the three-point lighting system.
22. Montage films came under attack within the Soviet Union starting around 1927 because:
A) They were judged to be too formally sophisticated for the uneducated peasant population.
B) They were too imitative of American cinema.
C) They were losing money overseas.
D) They were critical of Stalin's economic policies.
23. Which of the following was not an objective set down for the Soviet film industry under the First Five-Year Plan?
A) To tailor films strictly to the needs of workers and peasants.
B) To increase film exportation to non-western markets.
C) To increase the number of movies produced.
D) To build equipment factories to supply all the industry's needs.
24. The February Revolution (of 1917) had relatively little effect on the Russian film industry.
25. "Agit-vehicles" were films designed to ease the stars of pre-Revolution Russian cinema into roles in films that championed Bolshevik principles.
26. Lenin's New Economic Policy, implemented in 1921, called for the limited and temporary reintroduction of private ownership and capitalist-style dealings.
27. After the Bolshevik Revolution, most Russian artists supported the new government.
28. Most non-Montage Soviet films of the silent period tended to be topical comedies or conventional literary adaptations.
29. Because of the primacy of editing in the art of Soviet Montage cinema, Montage directors paid little attention to the camera and rarely experimented with unconventional framings and angles.
30. Of the French Impressionist, German Expressionist and Soviet Montage styles, only the Soviet Montage style lasted into the sound era.
31. Warner Bros. initially considered converting to sound production as a way to:
A) Compensate for the lack of visual interest in its low-budget product.
B) Respond to audience demand for talking pictures.
C) Manufacture a pretense for terminating the contracts of high-priced foreign-born
D) Create a cost-cutting substitute for live entertainment on film programs.
32. Don Juan, the feature on the program at the first public Vitaphone screening in August 1926, had:
A) Live orchestral accompaniment but no recorded soundtrack.
B) Recorded music but no dialogue.
C) Recorded dialogue that was badly out of synchronization with the picture.
D) Four scenes in which the star sang and even spoke briefly.
33. Which studio, having lost out to Warner Bros. on signing big-name theatrical talent, exploited sound technology via newsreels?
C) First National
34. In the early 1930s, many American films were released in both sound and silent versions because:
A) Silent versions were exported to non-English-speaking markets.
B) Roughly half of the American movie audience continued to prefer silent films, at
least for a while.
C) If audiences did not like the sound of the lead actors' voices in a film, that film could be re-released as a silent.
D) Many small movie theaters could not afford to buy sound equipment, especially with the onset of the Great Depression.
35. If music was to be heard during a scene in a very early sound film:
A) The entire piece had to start and finish within a single unbroken shot.
B) Actors had to remain silent throughout the length of the piece.
C) The instruments had to play near the set as the scene was filmed.
D) It could be recorded onto a disc but not onto the filmstrip itself.
36. Because the microphones for early sound recording were insensitive, studios often insisted that:
A) All diegetic sound, effects and dialogue, be post-dubbed.
B) Actors take diction lessons and speak slowly and distinctly.
C) Dialogue be cut from scenes unless absolutely essential for spectator
D) Lengthy conversations be rendered through intertitles.
37. By 1929, many film producers decided that the best way to preserve foreign markets and the best solution to the problems caused by the language barrier was to:
A) Reshoot additional versions of each film, with the actors speaking different languages in each.
B) Eliminate dialogue in foreign versions and substitute intertitles.
C) Dub a new soundtrack in a foreign language for each film.
D) Show films abroad with no translation at all.
38. For several years starting in 1929, Paramount turned out dozens of films in as many as fourteen languages at their studio in:
39. The largest producing companies in Hollywood acted in concert during the conversion to sound because, since each firm's theaters had to show other companies' films, the lack of a common standard would hurt business.
40. Multi-camera shooting evolved because it was technically easier to observe the rules of the continuity editing system than to shoot all the action of a scene in a lengthy take with a single camera.
41. In the years immediately following the transition to sound moviemaking, American filmmakers avoided the constraints of multi-camera shooting by filming much of the footage silent and dubbing in sound later.
42. The most successful early sound films on the domestic German market were musicals.
43. Which of the following companies was not one of the Little Three?
A) United Artists
44. Paramount declared bankruptcy in 1933 because of money owed on:
A) The construction of and overhead for its studio in Joinville, France.
B) The remainder of Adolph Zukor's contract, which Paramount's board of directors
bought out in the early 1930s.
C) The production of several large-budget flops starring Mae West. D) The mortgages of its theaters.
45. Which of the following statements is not true about Warner Bros. during the 1930s?
A) It was known for its European-style productions, many of which were directed by European émigrés.
B) In total assets it was as big as MGM.
C) It concentrated on creating popular genres and then mining them.
D) Its stable of popular actors worked in more films than those employed at the other
46. Which firm stayed afloat in the late 1930s due to its distribution of Walt Disney's animated films?
47. From 1930 to 1945, United Artists was known for specializing in all of the following types of films except:
A) Slapstick musicals
B) 'B' Westerns
C) Prestigious British imports
D) Independent productions from David O. Selznick and Samuel Goldwyn
48. Which of the following statements is not true of Yiddish filmmaking during the 1930s?
A) Production was halted by the outbreak of World War II.
B) Yiddish films centered on family crises and the clash between traditional values
and modern urban life.
C) The most successful Yiddish films were distributed by Big Five companies. D) Yiddish films feature frequent musical interludes.
49. Which of the following was not a tactic used by exhibitors to attract patrons during the Great Depression?
A) Double and triple features
B) Uniformed ushers
C) Prize giveaways
D) Food and beverages in the lobbies
50. Which composer's emphatic score for the movie King Kong (1933) was an influential early use of the symphonic approach?
A) Erik Satie
B) David Raksin
C) Bernard Herrmann
D) Max Steiner
51. For studio films during the classical Hollywood period, a scene in which characters ride in a car was typically:
A) Done using a traveling matte, or a composite special-effects process.
B) Done by filming the vehicle in a studio while the background landscape passes on
a screen behind the actors.
C) Shot on location using a camera mount fixed onto the hood of a specially constructed vehicle.
D) Filmed by a camera operator seated in the vehicle's back seat.
52. The "soft" cinematography style became more pervasive during the 1930s partly because:
A) Of the innovations devised by cinematographer Gregg Toland for the film Citizen Kane.
B) Of the introduction of filters and glass masks.
C) Of the introduction of orthochromatic film stock.
D) Studio laboratories typically processed film to make it look grayer and softer.
53. Several stage directors left New York to go work in Hollywood following:
A) The introduction of sound film.
B) The U.S. declaration of war on Germany and Japan.
C) The blacklisting of suspected Communists in American theater.
D) A prolonged strike by New York theater guilds during the early 1930s.
54. Preston Sturges is an example of a director who:
A) Specialized in prestigious literary adaptations.
B) Began his career in film as a screenwriter.
C) Emigrated to Hollywood from Germany after the Nazis gained power.
D) Joined the military during World War II and directed war documentaries.
55. Which subcategory within the musical genre died out early in the sound era?
A) Integrated musicals
B) Operetta musicals
C) Backstage musicals
D) Revue musicals
56. The effects of the Depression were frequently addressed within the early films in which genre?
A) Film noir
B) Screwball comedy
57. The horror films produced by Val Lewton at RKO in the 1940s were significant for:
A) The avoidance of graphic depictions of monsters and violence.
B) Transferring classic nineteenth-century horror novels to present-day American
C) Making stars out of Bela Lugosi and Boris Karloff.
D) The use of elaborate makeup and costume to depict monstrous characters.
58. Which 1930s American film used editing and framing to create images of collective triumph somewhat reminiscent of Soviet films of the same era?
A) I Was a Male War Bride
B) Angels With Dirty Faces
C) Our Daily Bread
D) I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang
59. Which of the following was not a narrative or stylistic influence on the development of American film noir?
A) German Expressionism
B) Hard-boiled detective fiction
C) Citizen Kane
D) German New Objectivity
60. Which of the following animated films made extensive use of the multiplane camera?
B) Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
C) Gulliver's Travels
D) The Three Little Pigs
62. An oligopoly is a small number of companies that cooperate to close the market to competition.
63. The Hays Office was a government agency, developed as a New Deal program, charged with monitoring the content of films receiving nationwide distribution.
64. In the 1930s and 1940s, color in film was thought to be non-realistic and was often associated with spectacle or fantasy.
26. Studios used an optical printer typically to save money by filling in portions of studio sets.
66. Most Hollywood filmmakers of the 1930s clustered actors together in a relatively shallow area and then cut among them using shot/reverse shot.
67. All of the deep-focus effects in Orson Welles' Citizen Kane were done in a single exposure, without the aid of special cinematographic effects.
68. The American war films of the 1930s reflected the growing militarism and interventionist mood of the American people.
Most scenes in Italian Neorealist films, even those set in interiors, were shot on location.
Hollywood's objective in Europe following the end of World War II was to:
A) Send over technicians to learn about European advances in camera technology.
B) Rebuild each country's domestic industry in order to resist inroads by communist
C) Make each country's domestic industry strong enough to support the large-scale distribution of American films.
D) Retard the resurgence of domestic film production while flooding foreign markets with American films.
West Germany's "economic miracle" of the early 1950s did not help reestablish an internationally competitive German cinema, primarily because:
A) Germany was forbidden from exporting motion pictures under terms of its 1945 surrender.
B) The old Ufi monopoly was revived, and industry growth was stunted by the reintroduction of an inefficient bureaucracy that monopolized film production.
C) The most talented German filmmakers chose to remain in America and England rather than return to their homeland.
D) Hollywood controlled a large part of German distribution and was permitted to use blind- and block-booking tactics already outlawed in the U.S.
The Italian Neorealist filmmakers often used non-actors in central roles, in the manner of:
A) German Expressionism.
B) Classical Hollywood filmmaking.
C) French Poetic Realism.
D) Soviet Montage.
Faithfulness to objective reality was reflected in the style of Italian Neorealist films in all of the following ways except:
A) Using the long take to present events in continuous "real time."
B) Using point-of-view shots to represent what characters actually see.
C) Instructing actors to speak haltingly and deliver fragmentary and elliptical
D) Reproducing the minute details of an acoustic environment.
The influence of French Impressionism and German Expressionism was often evident in Italian Neorealist films' representations of:
A) Objective reality.
B) Exterior settings.
C) Sound recording.
D) Subjective reality.
The phrase "Italian Spring" refers to:
A) A post-Neorealist movement of fanciful and imaginative films by directors like Luchino Visconti and Federico Fellini
B) Benito Mussolini's plans for the expansion of the Italian film industry.
C) A six-month period in which all revenues generated by imported American films
were "frozen" and funneled into Italy's rebuilding effort.
D) The rebirth of Italy based on ideas implemented by a coalition government of left- liberal Italian parties.
Italy's Andreotti Law of 1949 effectively created preproduction film censorship by:
A) Providing loans to production firms that submitted film scripts with an apolitical slant.
B) Banning members of the Italian Communist Party from working in communications industries, including the cinema.
C) Discouraging domestic theaters from playing films deemed to be too critical of government policies.
D) Forbidding filmmakers from producing films about Italy's role in the recent world war.
The term "rosy Neorealism" refers to films that melded working-class characters with:
A) The populist comedy.
B) The diva genre.
C) The religious spectacle.
D) The strongman adventure.
Italian Neorealist films were typically edited in a manner based on:
A) Eisenstein's theories of intellectual montage.
B) The purely rhythmic relations between shots.
C) The norms of the classical Hollywood style.
D) Alternating graphic matches with graphic contrast.
The plot structure of Italian Neorealist films is perhaps best described as:
The death of Pina in Open City was unsettling for many viewers in 1945 for all of the following reasons except:
A) She had been established as the film's heroine.
B) Up to that point the film appeared to be a documentary.
C) The emotional tone of the scene had switched abruptly from comedy to suspense
D) Her killer's identity was never revealed.
Audiences in Europe and America in the 1950s developed a taste for Italy's peplum films, or:
A) Muscleman sagas.
B) Pacifist films.
C) Historical musicals.
D) Period comedies.
Which Italian postwar director was known for punctuating his films, such as Voyage in Italy, with empty intervals of characters simply sitting or walking and thinking?
A) Michelangelo Antonioni
B) Luchino Visconti
C) Roberto Rossellini
D) Federico Fellini
In many Italian films of the early 1950s, directors used slowly paced tracking shots to:
A) Draw the viewer's attention to all planes of the image.
B) Reveal characters who were momentarily concealed within a locale.
C) Acknowledge the influence of the first Italian superspectacle, Cabiria.
D) Explore characters' relations within a concrete environment.
Low-budget, "realistic" films exploring social problems began to appear in Spain in the early 1950s, in part because:
A) Its biggest production company had overinvested in high-budget productions and collapsed.
B) Of the collapse of Franco's dictatorship and the emergence of a leftist coalition government.
C) Of the screening of Hollywood social problem movies of the 1930s at the state- run film school.
D) Its most technologically advanced film studios had been damaged or destroyed during the war.
Which of the following was not a technological advance of the late 1950s and 1960s taken advantage of by "young cinema" directors?
A) Direct sound recording
B) Greater depth of field
C) Portable cameras
D) Film stocks that needed less light to create acceptable exposures
French New Wave filmmaker Eric Rohmer was best known for:
A) Films of abnormal lengths with plots about intricate, sinister conspiracies.
B) Offhand, affectionately parodic treatments of crime stories.
C) Wry studies of men and women struggling to balance intelligence with emotional
D) Juxtaposing staged scenes with documentary material, often with little connection to the narrative.
C) Wry studies of men and women struggling to balance intelligence with emotional
Which French New Wave filmmaker is credited with innovating the design of shots that seem astonishingly flat?
A) François Truffaut
B) Jacques Rivette
C) Jacques Demy
D) Jean-Luc Godard
Alain Resnais's use of flashbacks in Hiroshima mon amour was particularly jarring to spectators of the time because:
A) He frequently presented flashbacks within flashbacks.
B) After a single flashback, the narrative never returned to the story's present.
C) His flashbacks were false representations of character subjectivity.
D) The shifts between objective and subjective realities were sudden and
D) The shifts between objective and subjective realities were sudden and
Which novelist and Left Bank director broke into the French cinema as the screenwriter for Alain Resnais's Last Year at Marienbad?
A) Marguerite Duras
B) Alain Robbe-Grillet
C) Jacques Rozier
D) Agnès V arda
In the early 1960s, each Hollywood studio's output stabilized at between:
A) 5 and 10 feature releases per year.
B) 12 and 20 feature releases per year.
C) 25 and 40 feature releases per year.
D) 70 and 90 feature releases per year.
Twentieth Century-Fox saw a loss of over $40 million on the production of which early 1960s blockbuster?
A) Tora! Tora! Tora!
C) The Sound of Music
D) How the West Was Won
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, banks forced the beleaguered Majors to do all of the following except:
A) Divest themselves of their distribution companies.
B) Partner with other studios in coproductions.
C) Trim their number of releases.
D) Avoid big-budget productions.
The long lens, which became fashionable for American cinematographers in the 1960s, tends to flatten the shot's space and:
A) Make warm colors appear to recede into the background.
B) Make lines at the edges of the frame appear curved.
C) Overexpose the image.
D) Soften focus.
Which American film, directed by Arthur Penn, popularized the use of slow motion to render extreme violence?
A) Straw Dogs
B) Alice's Restaurant
C) Bonnie and Clyde
D) Easy Rider
In the original MPAA rating system, implemented in the mid-1960s, an "M" rating designated:
A) Recommended for all ages.
B) No one under sixteen admitted.
C) Viewers under sixteen to be accompanied by parent or guardian.
D) Recommended for viewers over sixteen.
In the late 1960s, half of all American moviegoers were aged:
A) 12 to 16
B) 16 to 24
C) 25 to 39
D) 49 to 64
Hollywood committed itself to almost entirely color film production by the late 1960s, primarily because:
A) The television networks, having converted to color broadcasting, required color films.
B) Of the decline of wide-angle, deep focus filming.
C) Eastman discontinued its black and white film stock, the longtime industry
D) Many of the industry's veteran directors were retiring.
What was the brand name of a lightweight handheld camera introduced at the beginning of the 1970s and used for wide-angle compositions in films like Chinatown (1974)?
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the 1970s style of director Robert Altman?
A) Multiple-camera shooting
B) Semi-improvised performances
C) Static camerawork
D) Overlapping dialogue
The visual style developed by director Francis Ford Coppola and cinematographer Gordon Willis for The Godfather emphasized:
A) Actors moving through rich, often gloomy, interiors
B) Slow, hallucinatory dissolves
C) Flattened compositions with strong horizontals
D) A constantly panning and zooming camera
In promoting its summer blockbuster film Jaws, Universal followed the lead of exploitation companies like American International Pictures and:
A) Built word-of-mouth through a staggered, platform release.
B) Filled stores with Jaws-related merchandise.
C) Premiered a ten-minute segment of the film at the Cannes film festival.
D) Saturated television with ads for the film.
Which American director-producer tried and failed with Zoetrope Studios to create a production center for personal film projects?
A) Steven Spielberg
B) Francis Ford Coppola
C) Jeffrey Katzenberg
D) George Lucas
United Artists collapsed as a Major in the early 1980s largely because of cost overruns on director Michael Cimino's:
A) Heaven's Gate
B) Raging Bull
Because each 1970s studio could only afford to make two or three big-budget pictures per year, the rest of its annual slate was typically filled out with:
A) Imported European art films.
B) Genre fare revamped for young audiences.
C) Hong Kong martial arts pictures.
D) Action films targeted at minority audiences.
Director Brian De Palma became famous (or infamous) for his pastiches of the films of which classic Hollywood filmmaker?
A) Orson Welles
B) Howard Hawks
C) Alfred Hitchcock
D) Steven Spielberg
Which classic Hollywood film genre was not successfully revived by New Hollywood directors in the 1970s?
A) The musical
B) The horror film
C) The gangster film
D) Science fiction
Which of the following was not a factor in the rise of opportunities for independent motion picture firms in the 1960s and 1970s?
A) The rise of the "midnight movie" phenomenon.
B) Increases in major studio production.
C) The relaxing of the Production Code.
D) The rise of the teenage market.
Which 1961 "off-Hollywood" film, directed by John Cassavetes, ended with a title reading: "The film you have just seen was an improvisation"?
A) A Woman Under the Influence
B) The Cool World
C) Pull My Daisy
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