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What were the major factors that constituted the origins the French Revolution?
· Enlightenment, natural rights of man, Charles Alexander de Calonne – introduced a tax on nobility, a desire by peasants to abolish feudalism, constitutional monarchy or republic to replace the absolute monarchy
· King and Queen of France – absolutists, fled France on the onset of the Revolution and were captured and charged with treason, both beheaded @ different times, spent a lot of money and didn’t take a lot of things seriously
. Who was Charles-Alexander de Colonne and what was his significance?
· The financial administrator of France that proposed to tax the nobility with a property tax
· The peasants, the middle class (such as lawyers and doctors), “everyone else who wasn’t in the nobility or clergy
· The Third Estate
· High debt and growing unrest
· 1/3 – Nobility, 1/3 – Clergy, 1/3 The Third Estate. It was disproportional because the Third Estate was 90% of the population but only had 1/3 representation. It was a parliamentary body that was convened for the first time in 175 years by Louis XI.
· Louis didn’t allow the Estates-General to convene in their halls, so they re-met in a nearby tennis court, where they took the tennis court oath. They renamed t themselves the National Assembly. (New name of the Estates General.
· Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity
· Jacobins and the Sans Culottes
What was the Declaration of Pilnitz?
· Prussia and Austria declared they were going to support the monarchy and fight against the revolution
What factors led to radicalization of the French Revolution?
· Monarchy overthrown, a republic was proclaimed, Radical groups were led to power, they had to fight against counter revolutionaries
· Robespierre led it, it was designed to deal with issues against the Revolution, basically sued to interrogate and discover who was a counterrevolutionary plotter and executed them.
What policy did the Committee of Public Safety carry out during its reign?
· Execution of counterrevolutionaries, Law of Suspects – anyone who was believed to be a counterrevolutionary was subject to execution
· A board of 5 executives who were opportunists – they made money off of selling others land & they were in charge during the time period between Robespierre’s radicals and Napoleon.
· He was a successful military leader, he was very popular, A Coup D’etat (overthrowing the leader) executed in 1799 that overthrew the Directory, established Napoleon as the leader of the new government (the Consulate)
· Successful military campaigns, expanding France’s borders all throughout Europe, abolished feudalism, Napoleonic Code (Constitution)
Why did some revolutionaries in France want to overthrow the Directory?
· They were corrupt
What happened to the Directory in 1799?
· What was the Consulate and what was its historical significance?
· Initial government that was made up of 3 parts (Napoleon led the 1st part)
· Napoleon governed the first part.
· Plebiscites are votes and that is what gave Napoleon his government title/position
· Council for Life (in 1804 he was declared Emperor)
· A lot of Europe, successful defeated at least half of Europe
· Napoleon’s plans to stop shipping goods to Great Britain and the rest of Europe to do the same
· Foundation of a constitution, and also abolition of feudalism
· Several nations met together, like Russia and Austria, formed an alliance to defeat France. They were trying to prevent Revolutions at home in order to preserve their government.
· Trying to prevent further revolution in France and the spread of revolutionary ideals in the rest of Europe.
· Russia, Austria, France was represented, Prussia.
· To preserve the traditional roles of the government, it was against change (different than conservatism today).
What are the principle ideas of early liberalism?
· Change (such as introducing a constitutional monarchy)
· freedom and political equalities,
· general social change,
· urbanization (rise of the middle class),
· political liberalism (headed by the middle class, wanted a constitution that guaranteed political consistency),
· economic liberalism (the idea of laissez-faire: the idea of no government interference in the market, “lazy”)
· Industrial Revolution,
· the rise of the middle class,
· general revolutions (such as Decembrist revolt in Russia and revolutions in France)
· The Decembrist Revolt – they demanded that Tsar Alexander I establish a representative body. Later his son, Nicholas I, stimulated economy.
· Louis Philippe was established, he was known as the Bourgeois King, he replaced Charles X (The Bourbon King – people had been disappointed in Charles because he was not a reactionary king and did not allow general rights such as the freedom of speech, Louis did not get rid of the monarchy, but he was politically liberal and supported the middle class, economy and industrialization
· It allowed some of the population of Britain to vote, but only about 5%.
What are the major ideas of early nineteenth-century nationalism?
· Inspired by romanticism, its main purpose was to establish states, it believed that a folk can survive better with its own state,
· (folk – a group of people sharing a common interest)
· Student fraternities – wanted national unity
· Polish parliament that was shut down for 5 years
· Trying to gain independence from the Netherlands (Belgium was supported by France)
· Enlightenment thinking spread,
· spread of liberalism (belief in natural rights and political freedoms, constitutionalism) vs. Conservatism,
· economic crisis and the onset of economically liberal ideas (laissez-faire and Adam Smith),
· industrialization (rise of the middle class)
· Middle class = property owners and business owners, they could be very wealthy (doctors, workers, skilled artisans), the middle class headed up the liberal political and economic movement
· The Bourgeois king ended up abdicating as he lost popularity
· Liberal poet who temporarily led government, organized elections, and wanted to reform the working class
What were the reforms of the provisional government in France in 1848?
· Poor relief and public works to provide employment for those who were unemployed
· Dominated by monarchists/royalists (conservatives) who tended to be from the countryside, during the National Assembly
· King, introduced the modern constitution and condemned the constituent’s assembly, there were riots against the grain dealers
· Riots and condemnation of the assembly
· The prime minister of Prussia who was appointed by Fredrick William IV
Why did William IV dissolve the Constituent Assembly in 1849?
What was the principal aim of the Frankfurt Parliament (in Germany) in 1848?
· German unification, there was big debate between those supporting Klindeutsch (small Germany – Not including Austria) and those supporting Grossdeutsch (Large Germany – including Austria) Some did not consider Austria “German enough” to be included.
· “Crown from the gutter” – because the lower classes were able to vote on this as well - mentality, when they voted on the king
· The king of Piedmont who tried to expel the Austrians from the north; he had been defeated by the Austrians and abdicated in 1848 in favor of his son Victor Emmanuel)
· The liberal prime-minister of the Papal States who promoted liberalism and who had been assassinated by a radical nationalist in Nov. 1848) The pope fled, liberals took over Rome, created the Roman republic, The Pope’s supporters – reclaimed.
· He was friendly to liberal ideas and supported the middle class, Appointed Pelgrino Rossi as Prime Minister, Rosse was assassinated, and the resulting pressures led Pope Prius IX to flee, radicals claimed the republic. Holy Roman Empire area but it was restored after Pope Pius’s supporters defeated Rome.
. What was the Rigsorgimento movement and what were its major goals?
· Italian nationalist group searching for unification of Italy
· An Italian Nationalist group
· Tried to drive Austria out of Italy, represented the Northern states of Italy, he led a party called Young Italy, and he wanted a Republic, he was originally a teacher
What was the chief aim of the Young Italy movement?
· Nationalist group, Italian unification
· Nationalist, led the Red Shirts (they were nationalists that wore red shirts), also wanted a republic formed
What Italian state played the leading role in Italian unification?
· Piedmont Sardinia because they experienced early industrialization
· The Prime Minister, met with the French monarch, they signed a treaty that stated that France would help them as they fought against Austria & in return France got some of Sardinia’s land
· German customs and policies implemented in the coalition of German states
Who was Otto von Bismarck and what were his views on German unification?
· He was the Chancellor, primarily responsible for German unification, believed in “real politik” – he believed that goals justify means, gave his “Blood and Iron” speech stating that the great deeds of the day are not established by speeches, but rather blood and iron.
· Real Politik
· Goals justify means – killing people in war: okay.
· Prussia wanted some of Denmark’s territory; Prussia was supported by Austria, Denmark lost, Prussia and Austria co-ruled Denmark
What were the major results of the Austro-Prussian War?
· 1866 - Often clashed on boarders, so Prussia used this as an excuse to declare war on Austria. Prussia lost the war to Austria within a matter of months.
What happened at the Battle of Sodowa in 1866?
· Prussia defeated Austria
. What were the chief causes and results of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870-71?
· France needed to be neutralized, Prussia looking for a reason to go to war with France, Spain nominated a new ruler and France was unhappy over this b/c he was a cousin of Prussia’s monarch, France demanded ruler was to be replaced, they refused, they went to war and France was defeated.
· to get out of dept and make tax collection more efficient in the colonies latin america
· People who were born in euope- speak Spanish. they were sent to the colonies in order to oversee the administration of the colonies. sent over
· European born. Political leaders of the colonies and lived in Latin America and there before the reforms
· Wealthy economic leaders and oversaw the plantations and depended on slavery to preserve their economy. Home grown-born in lain America
· Creole-is vague to a specific race
· Military groups led my creoles with liberal ideals they wanted to progress economically
· Mostly scared of the abolition of slavery-fear stemmed from the onset of the Napoleonic wars and the enlightenment stressed the natural rights of men and this spread to Latin America—they didn’t want to loose their lifestyle
Who was Jose san Martin and what was his significance?
· Ked an independence movement in Peru and b/c of his efforts, independence declared in Lima
7. Who was Simon Bolivar and what was his historical role?
· He was in Venezuela and Gran Columbia
Who was Miguel Hidalgo and what was his chief achievement?
· Led independence movements in “New Spain” Mexico
· The U.S declared to Europe that if Europe interfered in the affairs of North or south America, that it would be seen as an act of aggression. This suggested to the U.S by the Russian imperial Gov.
· Military leaders of civilian gov., social problems
· social segregation and economic stagnation, slavery, lack of investment (in Latin American industries), dependence on foreign imports due to little local industries
What were the major goals of the reforms of the late nineteenth century in Latin America?
· Economic revival: trade expansion, urbanizes and industrialized political reforms” abolition of slavery, fall of empire, economic liberalism and reforma
What was the Reforma movement?
· led by Benito Juarez
Bolivia vs. brazil and Peru, and it was mineral deposits over their borders, Bolivia won the war(meaning they won control of the mineral
What major political issues did the U.S. face during the first decades of the 19th century?
· Needed stronger central government(weak central government under the articles of conf. did not work efficiently ) , arguments over the strength of the federal government; arguments over the strength of the federal governments vs. the state governments,; the issue of slavery
What was the constitutional convention and what was its historical role?
· Weak central gov. under the articles of confederation did not work efficiently, needed a stronger federal gov. created the constitution (granted universal white male suffrage) in Philadelphia in 1787, eleven states were represented at these constitutional convention
What is the Bill of Rights and what is historical significance?
· Produced in 1791, provided rights and freedoms for the people (such as the right to freedoms of speech, assembly, religion, and the right to bear arms)
Who was Georges Washington and what was his historical significance?
· 1st pres of the united states, also general during the American revolution
What was the Nullification Crisis?
· South Carolina calls for succession from the Union
What are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments and what is their historical significance?
· The thirteenth Amendment- emancipated slaves in the U.S, only recognized by the north because they passed the law during the civil war,thus only recognized for years by the North.
· 14th- granted former slaves citizenship and rights; limited the political rights of former confederates and those who fought the Union
· 15th- granted formal slaves the right to vote
What were the Jim Crow Laws?
· Laws passed in the south designed to prevent African Americans from voting and exercising their civil rights; literacy tests and exercising their civil rights; literacy tests were used to prevent them from voting.
What were the cartels and trusts and was their purpose?
· Formal and informal agreements manufacturers made that centralized businesses
What principle developments occurred during the Progressive Era?
· Growth in the populations
· Agricultural revolution
o more advanced farming techniques,
o fertilizers, increase in productivity,
o larger farms-meant fewer farmers, fewer farmers meant more unemployed people,
o cottage industries: where families ran artisan and textile business from their homes, and growth of cities
o Availability of capitol markets
· Increase in population because food was more readily available
· Cottage industries and regional specialties, (some areas agricultural, some industrialized and some were muli-occupational
· England, it did eventually leak to other nations and the Americas
What factors influenced Britain’s industrial leadership in the early 19th century? and Development of what industries characterized the first Industrial Revolution?
· Mechanization of cotton manufacturing process,
· steam engine, tool and machinery making industries became necessary
· iron industry boomed
· productivity increasing-what would take a peasant a year to make via cottage industry would now take an hour to make in a factory’s quality would be better
What new industries developed during the late nineteenth century?
· “second” industrial revolution; steel(hennery Bessemer) & aluminum, fuel and oil technologies, automobile industry(Karl Benz), communication industry, chemical industry(byproducts from crude oil refineries used to produce artificial stuff like plastics).
What new sources and forms of power were discovered during the late nineteenth century?
· Fuel(kerosene then gasoline) and electricity and natural gas
Who was Karl Benz and what was his significance?
· Internal combustion engine
· Took away cottage industry, and took the job of many skilled artisans because mechanized jobs required little skill
· Ned Lude; led a group of people breaking sewing machine frames in factories because tailors and glove makers, ect. Needed business—luddism was in protest!
· Took away jobs from farmers and caused them to have to seek employment else; when the moved to the cities for employment, they were treated poorly and were segregated and there was social bias against them
What were the major negative effects of early industrialization?
· Rapid urbanization which led to segregation, crime and prostitution; child labor became common as did poor working and living conditions ( accidents became very common in factories especially in child workers), long work days, poor quality neighborhoods near the factories.
What new forms of labor organization were adopted during the late nineteenth century?
· Labor unions
· Trade unions
· Socialist groups emerged
Who was Frederic Taylor and what was his achievement?
· Invented idea of assembly line (as implemented by ford automobile production)
· Labor unions engaging in political activities
· Early trade unions in GB and parliamentary reforms
· Wrote utopia-which outlined the perfect quasi-religious society; based on early Christian ideas, and it had elements of socialism in It; product of the utopian socialist movement
· Influenced by hegles dialectic
· The nobility and the middle class were antagonist classes (conservative nobility clashed with liberal middle class which led to revolution and social progress)
What was First International and what were its major goals?
· International working men’s association
Who was Edward Bernstein?
· Challenged Marxism and called for reforms; evolutionary socialist who believed in revisionism-moderate socialist vs. an extreme socialist case
What does the concept of Evolutionary Socialism define?
· Evolutionary socialism is moderate that calls for reforms
What were the major ideas and beliefs of Romanticism?
· Chilvalric culture of the high middle ages, there was emphasis on feelings and emotion, search for “something else” (searching for something other than what is in your immediate environment aka distant lands, utopias, socialism ect.)
Who was Immanuel Kant?
· German philosopher who was concerned with human understanding
· Development of phenomenal worlds(world within our senses) and noumenal worlds (imaginary worlds, Cannot be sensed literally)
· Believed people were inherently good; wanted to reconcile the enlightenment with something that can’t be seen:
· Knowledge is a combination of sensory info and our mind
Who was G. F. W. Hegel?
· Took historical approach to explain the enlightenment and he said it was an evolution of the human thought process that every idea is defined by its opposite (struggle between a thesis and an antithesis, and after the struggle the synthesis is created
· Synthesis is like the marriage, the synthesis the becomes a new thesis and the process starts all over –never ending and the only way to progress
Who was Charles Darwin and what theory he proposed?
· The theory of social Darwinism- out of his theories this arose. The fittest will rule society and be successful, and it was developed by Herbert spencer
· Biological evolution-“ survival of the fittest” fittest members of a special pass their genes to their offspring, and so on, until these fittest members become a whole new species
· Wrote the origin of species
· Scientific revolution, material observations are based on measurement, society became more material
o The last most advanced stage of the 3 stages of human understanding
Who was August Comte?
· Created the 3 stages of human understanding
What does the theological stage of human understanding refer to?
· Understanding of things based on gods(fertility god, rain god) most basic level
· Metaphysical level was the 2nd level-material explanations
What does the term fin-de-siecle define?
· End of the century-at the end of the 19th century people thought the world would end—non rational beliefs. Scared of the end (so they inspired arts and litertatures to break traditional forms, norms, and values)
Who was Sigmund Freud and what theory he proposed?
· Austrian psychiatrist who developed the theory of Psychoanalysis
· Id- describes the carnal, aggressive drives (wants you to do something bad)
· Superego- moral drive to abide by socially acceptable behaviors
· Ego- balanced these two and this is what is translated into your actions
· He believed that society progresses, humans cannot progess because they need to transcend their constraints
· Criticized Middle class and Christianity is to blame
o Created a “herd like mentality” and people were like slaves to it.
· Cannot progress with a conventional society
· Suggested a “first” man will come like a “superman” and he will make some irrational moves this sper man will leas people to progress
Which of the following European states conquered the Cape Colony in 1815?
The daimyo were
belief that rulers served as essential link between heavenly powers and human society.
400-221 BC; political fragmentation fundamentally forced educated Chinese to focus on the study of human conditions, problems of society. Outcome of such an intellectual response was the emergence of the so-called 100 schools of thought.
370-300BC; one of the principle defenders of Confucianism. Was born decades later after Confucius died, but did study with Confucius’s grandson. Was extremely important. In the emergence of Christianity, someone was the second founder of Christianity (Paul). Mencius was the second founder of Confucianism,
term for the emperor
he was born in Lumbini, which was a tribal state in the Himalayas. His father raised him with a life of luxuries because he did not want his son to leave. Siddhartha ended up wondering away from his home one-day and saw many unpleasant things. He decided to renounce material comforts and lead his life of religious devotion. This type of life is known as ascetic life.
priest that believed God would reward his services.
when Siddhartha gave up his prince life to become a wandering ascetic. He gave up self-austerity after he became emaciated.
a blessed state in which the individual transcend desire and suffering and achieves Nirvana.
These are the concepts of Buddhism created by Siddhartha Gautama
1. Life means suffering.
2. The origin of suffering is attachment.
3. The cessation of suffering is attainable.
4. The path to the cessation of suffering.
ultimate goal or condition, beyond existence it is a blissful spiritual condition where the heart extinguishes passion, hatred, and delusion. It is the highest spiritual plan a person can attain.
this is the original form of Buddhism. You have to renounce material world. You need to join a monastery.
this form of Buddhism could carry everyone to salvation. You don’t need to join a monastery. It emphasized a universal path to salvation full of personal devotion.
these were gods who were very close to entering nirvana.
These paths linked Europe, Asia and other places for trade and travel
this was the very first recorded instance of the spread of Buddhism.
this dynasty offered the greatest patronage of Buddhism. Many temples were constructed during this time period.
this person converted to Buddhism and then obtained new titles such as emperor Bodhisattva and Bodhisattva Son of Heaven.
Sui Wendi founded this dynasty. Also, the Grand Canal was constructed during this time period.
This dynasty was the most technologically advanced of its time.
Characterize traditional chinese culture.
1. institution of absolute monarchy
2. centralized bureaucratic system of govt.
3. governing elite consisting of scholar officials
4. civil service examiniation system
5. neo- confucianism
Sui dynasty's civil servant examination system. 3 step process. 1. xiacai (received talents) (BA) (Qualifying exams) 2. Juren (Elevated man) (MA) 3. Jinshi (presented scholar) doctoral degree (PhD)
by the Han Dynasty. all candidates for office would be put into one of these nine ranks. The higher the rank the higher the status they would obtain.
Analects of Confucius,
the Great Learning, and the
Doctrine of the Mean (the Four Books),
economic problems- industrial decline, agricultural decline
social problems- population desplacement, refugees
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