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In 1775, as conflicts with England intensified, American colonists
A. made extensive efforts to prepare themselves for war.
B. were deeply divided about what they were fighting for.
C. believed England was not willing to engage in military operations against them.
saw their larger population as a key advantage over England.
considered arming slaves to help build up the colonial army.
Published in January 1776, Common Sense was written by
A. Thomas Jefferson.
B. Tom Paine.
C. James Madison.
The author of Common Sense
A. sought to concentrate colonial anger on unpopular parliamentary measures.
B. was an American who had never been to England.
C. sold very few copies of his pamphlet until after the war was won.
was arrested by British officials and charged with treason.
considered the English constitution to be the greatest problem facing the colonists.
The Declaration of Independence
A. borrowed heavily from previously published colonial documents.
B. was never formally approved by the Second Continental Congress.
C. avoided making any direct criticism of the King.
called for the formation of a two-party democracy.
originally recommended that all slaves be freed.
Financing the Revolution was difficult for the American side because
A. hard currency was scarce.
B. the printing of paper money was illegal.
C. foreign nations refused to loan money for its war effort.
bonds were not yet in use.
the colonists’ wealth had all been kept in London.
The war effort by American colonists would be financed primarily by
A. spending hard currency.
B. printing paper money.
C. borrowing from abroad.
melting down jewelry into specie.
As commander of the Continental Army, George Washington
A. had no shortage of Americans willing to volunteer to fight the British.
B. had no previous actual military experience.
C. was an early critic of independence.
saw Congress leave all important military decisions up to his judgment.
was admired, respected, and trusted by nearly all Patriots.
At the start of the Revolution, American advantages over the British included a
A. greater commitment to the war.
B. larger number of troops.
C. better equipped navy.
more coherent military command structure.
better relationship with Native American tribes.
Which of the following took place during the first phase (1775–76) of the Revolutionary War?
A. British troops evacuated Boston.
B. American troops captured Quebec.
C. The British won a significant victory in North Carolina.
American troops took Nova Scotia.
British troops under William Howe captured Philadelphia.
In the Battle of Bunker Hill,
A. the Patriots suffered light casualties and won the battle.
B. the British suffered heavy casualties.
C. Benedict Arnold was wounded.
the British surrendered their main forces to the Patriots.
the Patriots refused to withdraw and were all killed.
During the second phase (1776–78) of the American Revolution, British military efforts were hampered by
A. a series of tactical blunders and misfortunes.
B. a severe shortage of new soldiers coming from England.
C. an American blockade of British ships.
the American capture of the commanding British general.
American alliances with Native American tribes in the region.
When George Washington crossed the Delaware River on Christmas night, 1776, he was intent on surprising
A. American Loyalists.
Among the following, who was NOT a British general during the American Revolution?
A. Thomas Gage
B. William Howe
C. John Burgoyne
Barry St. Leger
The British military campaigns of 1777 saw
A. General William Howe stay in camp when he was supposed to have moved south.
B. General John Burgoyne suffer a major defeat at Saratoga.
C. a major American victory at Philadelphia.
the British surround and lay siege to George Washington’s army at Valley Forge.
the British retake Boston and set it afire.
During the American Revolution, the Iroquois Confederacy officially
A. declared its neutrality.
allied itself with the colonists.
allied itself with the British.
D. refused to ally with either combatant until France entered the war.
E. disbanded and withdrew to the west.
In early 1778, France
A. refused to recognize the United States as a sovereign nation.
B. expelled the colonies’ diplomats, including Benjamin Franklin, from Paris.
C. agreed to give the Americans money and supplies but withheld its soldiers.
declared war on both England and Spain.
worried that the United States would quit the war against the British.
After the Battle of Saratoga, British Prime Minister Lord North responded to the colonies with
A. an offer of a British surrender if the Americans would remain part of the empire.
B. an offer to return to the pre-1763 British policies if the colonies would quit the war.
C. an offer of complete colonial home rule within the empire if they would quit the war.
a threat to destroy all American forces if they refused to negotiate a peace treaty.
a threat to foment a slave rebellion in the South if the American forces did not quit the war.
Which of the following nations opposed England during the American Revolution?
C. the Netherlands
In the final phase (1778–81) of the American Revolution, the British
A. mounted its largest military assault against the Continental Army.
B. badly overestimated the support of American Loyalists.
C. made a focused effort to win public support in the northern colonies.
concentrated its efforts on capturing individual Patriots.
began a policy of “total war” that resulted in several cities being burned to the ground.
As the fighting in the final phase (1778–81) of the American Revolution carried into communities previously isolated from the war,
A. local criticism of Patriots increased.
B. American armies engaged in more large, open-field battles.
C. support for independence greatly increased.
large segments of the American population became war refugees.
more Loyalists began actively helping the British.
Which of the following statements regarding Benedict Arnold is FALSE?
A. Arnold was an American military hero early in the war.
B. During the war, Arnold grew convinced the American cause was hopeless.
Arnold conspired with the British to betray a Patriot stronghold at West Point, New York.
Arnold had previously foiled the advance of Barry St. Leger into the Mohawk Valley.
E. Arnold spent the last years of the Revolution as a prisoner of war.
Which of the following was the scene of a substantial British victory in the final phase (1778–81) of the American Revolution?
Guilford Court House
Which of the following statements regarding General Nathaniel Greene is FALSE?
A. He led American forces to victory in the battle at Yorktown.
B. He divided his forces into fast-moving contingents to confuse and exasperate Cornwallis.
He was one of the most effective commanders in the American army.
He replaced Horatio Gates as commander of the southern forces in the Continental army.
He was forced to withdraw at Guildford Court House after inflicting heavy losses.
The battle at Yorktown involved
A. the most bloody battle of the war.
B. the suicide of the commanding British general.
evidence that the British were executing prisoners of war.
a combined French and American army and navy.
treachery on the part of Benedict Arnold.
The principal Americans who negotiated the peace terms with the British were
A. Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson.
B. Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Adams, and John Adams.
John Hancock, Benjamin Franklin, and Samuel Huntington.
Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin.
Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay.
Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1783,
the United States gained formal British recognition of American independence.
Spain received Gibraltar from the English.
the United States received all territory east of the Rocky Mountains.
France received Canada from the English.
England was forced to pay reparations to the new American nation.
During the American Revolution, Loyalists
A. were forced to leave the colonies soon after the war began.
B. were nearly all office holders in the English government.
were forbidden by the Patriots to move to England until the war had ended.
constituted perhaps as many as one-third of the white colonial population.
freed their slaves to help augment British forces in the colonies.
As a result of the American Revolution, the Anglican Church in America was
B. banned in most colonies.
made the official religion of Virginia.
praised by Patriots for its support of independence.
tried for aiding and abetting the British.
During the American Revolution, enslaved African Americans in the colonies
A. joined the British army in large numbers to fight against their American masters.
B. were assisted by the British to escape as a way to disrupt the American war effort.
were offered their freedom by Americans if they fought against the British.
tried to help Loyalists escape to Canada in exchange for their freedom.
were not significantly affected by the conflict.
Following the American Revolution, the first state to make slavery illegal was
A. New York.
B. New Hampshire.
Which of the following statements regarding the American Revolution and Native Americans is FALSE?
A. The outcome of the war largely weakened the position of Indians.
B. Indians generally had better relations with the British than the Americans.
Most Indian tribes ultimately chose to fight on the side of the British.
American Patriots had generally tried to persuade Indians to be neutral in the war.
Some Indians took advantage of the conflict to launch attacks of their own.
During the American Revolution, female “camp followers”
A. assisted in the support of regular troops.
B. played traditional female roles and were not involved in combat.
served to maintain traditional gender distinctions.
often inadvertently betrayed the position of Washington’s army.
In regards to the status of women, the effect of the American Revolution
A. was minimal and short-term.
B. was to dismantle the patriarchal legal system.
was to end the traditional cultural concepts of the female role in society.
generally weakened the position of women in society.
led some women to question their position in society.
In 1776, Abigail Adams was an advocate for
A. full gender equality in the new postwar nation.
B. a woman’s right to vote.
new protections against abusive and tyrannical men.
support for impoverished war widows.
The prominent eighteenth-century essayist Judith Sargent Murray placed her greatest emphasis on the right of women to
B. own property.
serve in combat
In colonial America, under English common law a married woman
A. could not own property.
B. had more legal rights than unmarried women.
had legal authority over her children.
could not earn wages greater than her husband.
could only initiate divorce in case of adultery.
Following the American Revolution, as the Republic took shape in the 1780s, greater social importance was attached to women in the role of
Post-Revolution American trade commerce was strengthened by
A. favorable trade agreements with England.
B. an English desire to protect American vessels.
the closing of British ports to American trade.
British abandonment of impressments.
the flood of immigration after the war.
In the thinking of most American political leaders, the success of their new republican governments depended on
A. a strong defense of civil liberties.
B. the development of industries.
the creation of a strong military.
For most Revolutionary American political thinkers, the concept of equality meant
A. there should be equality of opportunity.
there should be equality of rights regardless of race, sex, or property.
there should be equality of condition.
D. there should be equality of opportunity and of condition.
E. there should be equality of rights and of condition.
During the 1780s, in every new state constitution
A. state legislatures were to be chosen by a direct popular vote.
B. governors were prevented from holding a seat in the legislature.
C. property requirements for voting were relaxed or eliminated.
women were denied the right to vote.
governors were given the authority to tax.
During the 1780s, most state governments
A. moved to limit popular power.
B. were notable for their stability.
found it difficult to revise their constitutions.
remained strongly elitist.
got rid of property requirements for voters.
In 1780, Massachusetts sought to revise the power of the governor by
A. allowing the legislature to set his salary.
B. having him elected directly by the people.
taking away his authority to veto legislation.
permitting him to sit in the legislature.
granting him the power to tax
The Virginia Statute of Religious Liberty of 1786
A. was written by James Madison.
B. called for a complete separation of church and state.
gave all religious denominations special privileges within the state.
only applied to Christian denominations.
All these answers are correct.
In the 1780s, which statement about slavery in America was TRUE?
A. In no state was it illegal.
B. Many southern states prohibited the importation of slaves from abroad.
Virginia passed a law forbidding the manumission of slaves.
The strongest forces against slavery were found in the western colonies.
Most whites believed blacks should be integrated into American society as equals.
Under the Articles of Confederation, in 1777 there was a federal
All these answers are correct.
Under the Articles of Confederation, the national government had the power to
A. regulate trade.
B. draft troops.
borrow and issue money.
levy direct taxes on the people.
override state laws.
Under the Articles of Confederation
A. each state had one vote in Congress.
B. all states had to approve any important measure.
there could be no amendments to the Articles.
no legislation could be passed without all states voting on the issue.
the executive had the power to veto legislative decisions.
The Articles of Confederation were adopted when states gave up their
A. power to regulate trade.
B. power to make war.
claims to western lands.
right to levy their own taxes.
plans for emancipation.
Shortly after signing the Treaty of Paris of 1783, the British government
A. evacuated its forts in America.
B. made restitution to slaveholders for slaves the British army had freed during the war.
attempted to purchase Florida.
restricted American access to British markets.
declared war on Spain to take its New World colonies away.
In 1786, a treaty negotiated between the United States and Spain
A. secured complete American access to the Mississippi River.
B. was strongly opposed by the New England states.
gave the United States control of Florida as a territory.
was never ratified by Congress, thus weakening the nation’s global prestige.
gave the United States control of Texas.
The Ordinances of 1784 and 1785 represented an attempt to
A. eliminate slavery in the western states.
B. compromise on the question of slavery expanding into the territories.
enhance the power of the central government.
gain redress from the English at the expense of Native Americans.
provide for the admission of new states into the union.
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
A. created a single territory out of the lands north of Ohio.
B. guaranteed freedom of religion throughout the affected areas.
prohibited slavery within the affected areas.
abandoned the system created in the 1784 Ordinance.
All these answers are correct.
The Constitutional Convention of 1787 came close to
A. abolishing slavery.
granting citizenship to slaves.
granting suffrage for free black males.
abolishing slavery and granting citizenship to slaves.
None of these answers is correct.
Under Alexander Hamilton’s plan, a new national bank would
A. be capitalized largely by private investors.
B. facilitate the collection of taxes.
provide loans to private businesses.
act as a storehouse for federal deposits.
All these answers are correct.
Pinckney’s Treaty (1795) gave the United States
A. the right to navigate the Mississippi River to its mouth.
B. the freedom to use the port at New Orleans.
a desired fixed northern boundary of Florida.
assurances that Indians in Florida would be prevented from launching northern raids.
All these answers are correct.
In the early 1790s, the efforts of Little Turtle represented an attempt by Indians to
A. accommodate white settlers.
B. maintain their lands given through treaties.
resist white expansion by military force.
negotiate the sale of Indian lands.
encourage England to mediate a settlement between Indians and the new nation.
The 1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers
A. forced the Miami Indians into negotiations with the United States.
B. saw the United States forces suffer a significant defeat.
led the United States to temporarily evacuate from the Ohio Valley.
resulted in the death of General Anthony Wayne.
represented the last major military victory for Indians against the U.S.
The 1795 Treaty of Greenville
A. allowed the Miami Indians navigation rights to the Mississippi.
B. compelled the Miami Indians to move out of the Ohio Valley.
was never signed by any Indian leaders.
removed all restrictions to white settlement of the Ohio Valley.
led the United States to recognize the sovereignty of Indian nations.
As leaders of a tax rebellion the 1780s, Daniel Shays and his supporters demanded
A. the nation’s capital be moved to New England.
B. an end to paper currency.
a moratorium on debt collection.
renewed trade agreements with England.
the right to vote for all white men, regardless of property holdings.
One effect of Shays’s Rebellion was it
A. temporarily brought a halt to the new American government.
B. led the federal government to adopt the gold standard.
led to the downfall of the state government in Massachusetts.
contributed to the growing belief the national government needed reform.
encouraged Massachusetts to adopt gradual emancipation.
By the late 1780s, dissatisfaction with the Articles of Confederation included a belief that the national government
A. had grown too powerful.
B. was too closely tied to England.
C. was pushing America into another war with England.
had sold too much western land to speculators.
In 1786, Alexander Hamilton found an important ally in his push for a stronger central government in
A. Thomas Jefferson.
B. James Madison.
C. George Washington.
Which event, more than any other, convinced George Washington that the Articles of Confederation needed to be revised?
A. the Spanish threat to take New Orleans
B. the British refusal to evacuate the forts of the Northwest
C. Shays’s Rebellion
the Whiskey Rebellion
the Battle of Fallen Timbers
The delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787
A. did not fear concentrated government power.
B. welcomed the possibilities of direct democracy.
C. were suspicious of wealthy property owners.
well represented the diversity of the national population.
were well educated by the standards of their time.
At the start of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 the delegates agreed that
A. their proceeding would be open to the public.
B. states would have proportional voting based on each state’s population.
C. the country needed a stronger central government.
slavery should have to be preserved within the United States.
the country needed a stronger army to prevent further popular uprisings
The Virginia Plan called for
A. retaining the Articles of Confederation with the addition of a national executive.
B. a two-tier national legislature.
C. combining the three smallest states into one large state.
a Senate in which each state would have two members.
an end to the slave trade and gradual emancipation.
The New Jersey Plan
A. proposed a legislature consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate.
B. was chosen by the convention delegates to replace the Virginia Plan.
C. had the general support of the larger states.
expanded the taxation and regulatory powers of Congress.
was proposed by delegate Edmund Randolph.
The achievement of the “Great Compromise” of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 was its resolution of the problem regarding
A. women and voting.
B. the definition of citizenship.
C. political representation.
states versus federal authority.
expansion of slavery into the territories.
In the Constitutional Convention of 1787, for the purpose of political representation, slaves were classified as
A. three-fifths of a free person.
In the Constitutional Convention of 1787, a major concession to the pro-slavery delegates was the
A. agreement that half of all future states would allow slavery.
B. strengthened fugitive slave provision.
C. continuation of the slave trade for twenty years.
guarantee of the permanent continuation of slavery where it existed.
denial of suffrage to free black men.
At the Philadelphia convention, James Madison argued that the ultimate authority of the federal government came from the
A. individual states.
rule of law.
James Madison’s ideas regarding republican government
A. were drawn from the French philosopher Baron de Montesquieu.
B. reflected his fear that a large republic was more likely to result in tyranny.
assumed that political factions would help in preventing tyranny.
suggested that the state governments were ultimately sovereign.
All these answers are correct.
Under the “checks and balances” system of the Constitution of 1787, federal judges
A. were appointed by Congress.
B. served for life.
C. were elected by state legislatures.
could not reverse state court rulings.
served at the pleasure of the executive.
Under the Constitution of 1787, the people would directly elect
A. members of the House of Representatives.
B. members of the Senate.
All these answers are correct.
Delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 recommended the document be ratified by
A. a direct vote of the people.
B. special state ratifying conventions.
C. another national convention.
the Confederation Congress.
In the debate over the Constitution of 1787, Antifederalist opponents to the document
A. were better organized.
B. had the support of George Washington.
C. feared that poorly educated men would be elected to prominent political offices.
believed the new government was not strong enough to maintain order.
argued that the Constitution would weaken the states.
Who among the following was one of the authors of The Federalist Papers?
A. George Washington
B. Thomas Jefferson
C. Alexander Hamilton
The first secretary of the treasury under the new government of 1789 was
A. Alexander Hamilton.
B. Thomas Jefferson.
C. Robert Morris.
The dominant figure of George Washington’s administration was
A. George Washington.
B. Thomas Jefferson.
C. Henry Knox.
A. saw themselves as defenders of the principles of the American Revolution.
B. feared that the new government would widely abuse its powers.
feared that the government too much favored common people over the “well-born.”
saw themselves as defenders of the principles of the American Revolution and feared that the new government would widely abuse its powers.
saw themselves as defenders of the principles of the American Revolution and feared that the government too much favored common people over the “well-born.”
The greatest complaint by opponents of the proposed Constitution of 1787 was the
A. absence of a specific listing of personal liberties.
B. omission of references to God.
C. creation of a federal military.
naming of the new federal district after Washington.
failure to abolish slavery.
The first state to ratify the Constitution in 1787 was
A. New Hampshire.
Virginia and New York ratified the Constitution of 1787 under the assumption that
A. a provision would be added allowing for the direct election of presidents.
B. Thomas Jefferson would become the first president.
C. there would be a ban on the importation of slaves.
a bill of rights would be added later in the form of amendments.
it would not be ratified by enough other states to become binding.
In the first national elections in 1789,
A. all the presidential electors cast their votes for George Washington.
B. Thomas Jefferson was chosen to be vice president.
C. the presidential inauguration was held in Philadelphia.
John Adams campaigned against George Washington.
Anti-Federalists won a convincing majority in the Senate.
Nine of the first ten amendments to the Constitution placed limits on the
rights of individuals.
According to the Judiciary Act of 1789, the Supreme Court was to be
A. composed of nine members.
the judicial power for interpreting the constitutionality of state laws.
directly elected by the people.
composed of nine members and the judicial power for interpreting the constitutionality of state laws.
composed of nine members and directly elected by the people.
In the 1790s, those who were labeled Republicans envisioned developing a nation that would
A. be highly commercial and urban.
B. be largely agricultural and rural.
C. be a leading world power.
eventually control most of North America.
eventually grant political rights to women and minorities as well as white men.
Federalists controlled the new government under the Constitution for its first
A. four years.
B. eight years.
C. twelve years.
As president, George Washington
A. had never envisioned a strong central government.
B. considered it his duty to resolve political controversies.
C. sought to dominate national politics.
grew concerned that the federal government was gaining too much power.
avoided personal involvement with the deliberations of Congress.
As Treasury secretary, Alexander Hamilton
A. wanted to eliminate the national debt.
B. opposed the federal government’s assumption of state debts.
C. supported the creation of a national bank.
encouraged the federal government to focus on the needs of the independent farmer.
All these answers are correct.
Alexander Hamilton recommended that the federal government raise revenue through
A. an import tax and a personal income tax.
B. a sales tax and a property tax.
C. an excise tax and an import tax.
an excise tax and a sales tax.
a sales tax and a personal income tax.
Alexander Hamilton’s funding plan
A. was eventually passed by Congress essentially as Hamilton had desired.
B. was supported by James Madison.
C. was rejected by Congress.
called for paying all bondholders only a fraction of the value of the bonds.
called for dividing bonds between their original purchasers and speculators.
Alexander Hamilton’s plan for the federal government to assume state debts was passed by Congress after a deal was made to
A. give a pay increase to government employees.
B. appoint key Jefferson allies to the Washington administration.
C. create two new states in the West.
locate the nation’s capital between Virginia and Maryland.
eliminate the national bank.
Opponents of Alexander Hamilton’s proposed national bank argued
A. Congress had no authority to create a national bank.
a national bank would lead to currency inflation.
a national bank would lead to rampant speculation.
Congress had no authority to create a national bank, and a national bank would lead to currency inflation.
E. a national bank would lead to currency inflation and rampant speculation.
The most sustained opposition to Alexander Hamilton’s economic program came from
In the Constitution, political parties were
A. not mentioned.
B. described as dangerous.
viewed as temporary factions.
The emergence of an alternative political organization to the Federalists was prompted by a
A. dispute over President Washington’s policies for westward expansion.
B. fear that the Federalists were attempting to end free elections.
belief that the power of the central government needed to be restrained.
a growing debate over the national bank.
fear that George Washington would try to run for a third term.
The two preeminent Republicans of the 1790s were
A. Alexander Hamilton and James Monroe.
B. John Adams and James Madison.
John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
During the 1790s, regional support in the United States for Federalists was greatest in the
A. rural Deep South.
B. rural Far West.
In America, the French Revolution was generally praised by
Federalists and Republicans.
Indians and slaves.
The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 saw
A. the federal government conduct itself much as it did during Shays’s Rebellion.
B. violent clashes between urban merchants and American troops.
a briefly successful move by Pennsylvania to secede from the Union.
a failed attempt by Pennsylvania to secede from the Union.
President Washington accompany thousands of troops into the field.
In reference to Indians living in the United States, the Constitution
A. made no mention of Indian nations.
B. stated Indian tribes were entitled to direct representation in the federal government.
required the federal government to respect treaties negotiated under the Confederation.
declared Congress had no legal right to regulate commerce with Indian tribes.
had defined a precise legal standing for Indians and Indian nations.
Jay’s Treaty (1794)
A. avoided a likely war with England.
B. secured British compensation for recent attacks on American ships.
led to the withdrawal of British forces posted on the American frontier.
prompted England to send its first minister since the Revolution to the United States.
recognized the right of Americans to navigate the Mississippi to its mouth.
Pinckney’s Treaty (1795) was negotiated between the United States and
A. Great Britain.
the Iroquois Confederacy.
The election of 1796 saw
A. a Federalist president and a Republican vice-president take office.
B. the Republicans win the presidency for the first time.
the House of Representatives determine the presidential victor.
the Federalists reach their height of power and unity.
John Adams become president on the Republican ticket.
The “XYZ Affair”
A. involved foreign interference in an American presidential election.
B. involved secret foreign treaties with nearby Indian nations.
increased tensions between the United States and Great Britain.
was prompted by a feud between John Adams and Alexander Hamilton.
led to an undeclared war between the United States and France
The Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
A. gave the federal government effective authority to stifle any public criticism.
were aggressively used by the Adams administration to suppress public criticism.
were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
gave the federal government effective authority to stifle any public criticism, and were aggressively used by the Adams administration to that effect.
were aggressively used by the Adams administration to suppress public criticism, until they were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court
In the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, it was asserted that
A. the Republicans had betrayed the spirit of the Constitution.
B. the federal government had the right to void state laws.
the Supreme Court had no constitutional authority to invalidate federal laws.
the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution was unjust.
states had the right to nullify federal laws.
In the late 1790s, on the political scene,
A. the United States was deeply and bitterly divided.
B. the republican form of government had won over most skeptics.
the power of the Republicans was declining.
the United States had developed a clear two-party system.
there was considerable agreement over most important foreign policy questions.
Who described the election of 1800 as the “Revolution of 1800”?
A. Thomas Jefferson
B. Alexander Hamilton
The Judiciary Act of 1801
A. was passed by the new Republican Congress.
B. increased the size of the Supreme Court by two seats.
was an attempt by Federalists to secure their hold on the courts.
resulted in the Federalists losing control of the judiciary.
was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
The presidential campaign in 1800
A. saw the Republicans win a decisive victory over the Federalists.
B. was notable for the sensational personal slandering of both candidates.
saw leading Federalists in Congress attempt to engineer the election of Aaron Burr.
was decided by a newly elected Republican Congress.
was further complicated by the emergence of a third party, the Whigs.
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, in this case the Judiciary Act of 1789.
(conferred on the court a power not specified in the constitution).
Treaty between Indians and U.S. government. Required the Indians to give up most of Ohio for an annual $9500/year
opened Ohio to white settlement
result of victory at the battle of fallen timbers
War fought between the United States and Britain from June 1812 to January 1815 largely over British restrictions on American shipping
US didnt have enough ship
James Madison attempted to take over Canada, state militia refused to cross their borders
limited naval armaments on the Great Lakes
demilitarized the border with Canada
demilitarized the Great Lakes by sharply limiting the number of Ships each power could station on them
"Men and Women are created eually." Womens suffrage movement held its first convention in 1848 in Seneca falls New York. In their struggle for equality feminist had to overcome deeply ingrained premises about female inferiorority and deficiencies.
gullah people are directly descended from the slaves who labored on rice plantations. Language reflects significant influences from Sierra Leone and the surrounding areas
Creole blend of Elezabethan English and black African words found on Sea islands off coast of South Carolina and Georgia.
reserved their culture
The ship, the constitution nicknamed old ironsides because the british artillary fire bounced off the ship's thick wooden hull. To the Americans, it seemed that the ship was mde of iron. In the battle bewteen the American ship The Constituion and the British ship the Guerrière
An after-thought Vice President to William Henry Harrison in the election of 1840. He was a democrat but switched over to the Whig Party because he didn't like Andrew Jackson. After Harrison died after a month in office, Tyler took over. Since he was a Democrat in his principle he was against many of the things the Whigs tried to do. He became the first Vice President to take office because of a presidents death.
Annexation of Texas
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