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an image from the Haitian Revolution inspired fears of similar revolts taking place in other slaveholding regions such as the U.S. South
Loans to business and individuals (asset side of bank b/s). Various deposits are commercial bank liabilities
Aid firms in raising capital, M/A services; firm valuations, insurance offerings
This so-called ‘Bank of the United States’ is nothing more than a horrid conspiracy of the country’s moneyed elites against the interests of common men.”
This quote would, in the nineteenth century, MOST LIKELY have been said by:
The Nullification Crisis, in part, related to what?
- states balanced, 1/2 fee-1/2 slave
- 1819: Missouri applies for statehood
-60,000 people/10,000 are slaves
-Maine also wants to become a state
-south wont allow it unless Missouri is included
-line made by Henry Clay: 36;30
Believe in ordinary people, the common man, to govern a republic
Want a weak and passive central government
Always insisting that government should be conducted at the local (state) levelMass around Thomas Jefferson
Martin Van Buren
old school Republican (Old Line Republicans), eventually organized the Democratic Party in 1828
o Believed American System was unconstitutional use of national power and only advanced the agenda of elite economic interests
o Strict constructionist approach to constitution
o Not in constitution, government can’t do it
respect for federal laws within individual states
- 3rd president of the US (1801-1809), oversaw the Louisiana Purchase,
- secretary of state under Washington, VP under Madison. Author of Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions to try and combat the Alien & Sedition acts.
- Elected president during what he called the “Revolution of 1800”.
- a Massachusetts printer, founded an abolitionist newspaper called The Liberator in 1831.
- He denounced gradual emancipation as unjust and ineffective, and instead became chief spokesperson for a doctrine known as “immediatism”: the immediate abolition of slavery..
Presbyterian minister from Connecticut and founder of the American Temperance society in 1829.
Morse code inventor
- led the anti-immigrant movement Nativist Movement.
-, she claimed that she was chained in the basement of a church and was a sex slave in the Catholic Church;
- she was apparently certifiably insane- She inspired a series of anti-catholic riot in major cities
John C. Calhoun
- South Carolina senator,
- Jackson’s VP and vocal supporter of the doctrine of state interposition, which produced the 1832 - Nullification Crisis involving S Carolina’s refusal to comply with the federal law, in this case, the Tariff of the 1828, or “Tariff of Abominations”. Yet this showdown was also seen as a defense of slavery: southerners feared that the federal government might eventually tax slavery out of existence.
- Calhoun arguing S Carolina being disadvantaged by this tax due to the economy’s dependence on slave labor
- Argues that S Carolina has a right to nullify, or ignore, a federal law that is not in their best interest.
John Quincy Adams
a conflict between France allied to America and British allied with the Native Americans, and it was the largest slave uprising other than in the civil war.
- modest prosperity attain sufficient amount of land to be able to function without the help of others
the land they need to make this successful is occupied by Indians convince the settlers that stripping Indians from their land is okay
-Cahokia: Mississippian civilization, in Mississippi river valley, large towns and cities, centerpieces-mounds soil versus Europeans who had churches. 5-0,000 inhabitants. -
What did Native American society in North America look like on the eve of contact and colonization?
-Europeans saw it and thought they were savages.
-When Europeans arrived, they arrived into land that was “littered” with evidence of civilization.
What were the chief motivations of European voyages of discovery?
What, can we say, was/were Columbus’ destination(s)?
-decrease in food supply and increase in population
-Land became more scarce
-Momentous price inflation
-More people making demands-Supply of people increased so wages for jobs went down
-Walls, fences, and hedgerows
-Aristocratic landlords used them to “enclose” or privatize lands previously held in common by peasant-tenants-Increased the crime rate. A lot of people were evicted, causing disarray disorder and mass poverty.
capable people that were tossed out/evicted who turned to crime to survive.
-transition from subsistence-based agricultural economy to market-capitalism-Many wanted to “turn back the clock” - Utopian society schemes
what did early relations between Native Americans and English colonists look like?
The people who settled Jamestown were Gentlemen adventurers (often second or third sons of noblemen wanting to climb in the world) came into Virginia.
The second group of people coming into Virginia was the strolling poor.
a get rich quick scheme.
John Smith complained that the only thoughts were gold, refine, gold, find gold, and he tried to change this and add order, and he was removed from the colony.
due to the corruption of religion in England at the time as well as persecution.
Missouri applied for statehood w/legal slavery. Tallmadge, former federalist, current NY congressman, not way an abolitionist submitted amendment prohibiting slavery in Missouri. He was disgusted by south obtaining disproportionate power in the gov’t bc of slave pop. Southern slaveholding interest unified around defense of Missouri’s admission into the union as a slave state, finally balanced that slave state w/ the admission of Maine in NE as free; line was drawn from Missouri to Pacific Ocean (36°/30’ line) for slavery
US was Anglo-Protestant, south part of the LA Purchase was a "foreign country". Inhabitants were Mediterranean, Caribbean, and African, Catholic, different languages, different view of gov, law, and race. LA was multicultural frontier & ethnic groups jostled for power. FR and SP Creoles, GER. upriver of New Orleans, English settlers in FL, Acadians west of the metropolis, free people of color, slaves, and Natives interact w/new waves Tennessee and Kentucky. LA Purchase started US diversity that continues today
- what Protestant faith should look like
- remove all traces of popery and Catholic “superstition” from Church of England
- Calvinist religious belief
remember: to reform the Church of England is treason b/c king is head of church- English authority begin to persecute them
- on divine mission to lead his Puritan followers to a new place safe from persecution
- his Puritan population transfer across the Atlantic becomes known as the
Puritans saw Virginia as a site of evil and greed
creates a balance ratio of men to women
thus, they repopulate faster than other colonies than were mostly male
Describe the significance of town life in early New England.
central planning office meant to direct and control settlements and economic development.
appointed royal officials and sent them to the colonies
responsible for appointing royal governors who would supervise colonial legislatures
granted veto power over all pieces of colonial legislation
Colonists only allowed to trade within the empire, on British vessels, operated by British people
- People started only using English goods, because they weren't trading with other nations
- The importance of tea and tea drinking ritual, as a shared cultural practice within the wider British Empire
Africans were selling other captured Africans into slavery - slavery was already in motion within Africa itself
irrevocability - once a slave, always a slave
heritability - a condition passed down from mother to child
racial character - “slave” was a condition applicable only to people of African origin
slaves started becoming very popular there - a replacement of workers
treated similar to indentured servants and looked a lot like that
Bacon’s Rebellion was participated in by both enslaved people and white indentured servants - united together to overthrow colony
had to find a way to wedge something between African slaves and indentured servants - created too much power together
colony begins to divide the classes and set them against each other - grants political privileges to indentured servants and starts showing much favoritism towards them
punished interracial sex or marriages
authorized any person with white skin to correct, chastise, punish any person with black skin whenever they felt the need
made it illegal for any person with African origin to own property, vote, sue in court
states specifically any child born to a slave mother is a permanent slave to the owner
innovation of ideas
1 state tried pass gradual emancipation but shot down. no issue with slavery but interference of rights like speech. Good deal of abolitionist movement was inactive slaves, small group of southerners led by garrison thought it was ungodly and violated nation’s principles. Many of their efforts were shot down and HQs were burned. Most northerners felt threatened by emancipation-it to meant migration bringing blacks with nothing to offer. Southerners believed abolitionism was strong in north though it was not.
- The idea of an island nation in Europe successfully driving policy for North America that is thousands of miles away was absurd.
- Great Britain was in a war all the time and because America was automatically connected with England they were constantly entangled in Great Britain's alliancism
- Communication was a problem because of the distance
The Temperance movement was widely popular-didn't call for prohibition of alcohol, only moderation. It was led by Lyman Beecher, a minister. The Second Great Awakening resulted from the temperance movement-Charles Finney and Lyman Beecher led great amounts of religious people to retreat camps to become more spiritual, emphasized the Individuals free moral agency:choose to be good, believed society could be molded and perfected.
Washington's army defeats Britain is a battle and Benjamin Franklin is able to win over France as an ally against Britain.
Nativist Movement led by Samuel Morse-argues that immigrants were a threat and American people were superior. Catholic Immigrants were a threat and seen as tools of the pope. Nativists called themselves Pro-patriots, the resistance of the evil influence of the pope. There were mob actions against catholic Irish settlements in Boston. Also, there was the Secret Society of Anti-Immigrants or the “Order of the Star-Spangled Banner” or The Know Nothing Movement, bc when asked the member said, “I know nothing.”
The Wilmot Proviso was a bill that would have made slavery illegal in all states that came from the new mexican territories/states. It was shot down in the Senate, where the south had greater representation. It was introduced multiple times, including an attempt to add it to the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo;on e of several attempts to limit the number of slave states that were added. It added to the increasing geographic division in politics, rather than via party lines. Many saw the Mexico War as a ploy by the Slave Conspiracy.
Discuss the formation and rise of the Republican party. How did the party come into existence? What ideas were central to the party? How was the party attacked?
Former Whigs united w/anti-slavery northern dems. saw Kansas-Nebraska Act as betrayal of Missouri Comp. Rep. Party portrayed as "radical w/dangerous ideas, threaten white supremacy" by dems. Seen as a Racial Equality party. The Rep. party’s ideology: Free soil: devoted to prohibiting slavery's western extension, Free labor: Everyone’s right to use talent to better themselves, Free men: America was supposed to work as a model to help others grow to democracy; slavery stained the model of free government.
- Want to create a national government that can protect US interest in the world that has some measure of respectability on the global scene, that can create alliances with foreign powers, that can pay back debts- Want a centralized and active government that is legislatively aggressive and dominates national problems
At first both parties supported the french revolution (they believe that American revolutionary ideas are spreading to Europe). Federalists drop support after the King is beheaded feeling that they have gone too far.
Dred Scott (1857) ruled congressional regulation of slavery unconstitutional. Reps. saw this as "slave power conspiracy". 5th Amendment says Congress can't legislate in new territory bc it interferes w/property rights. A slave traveled w/owner to free territory & wanted rights but didn't get them. John Brown & his crew robbed an armory to arm slaves so they could have a rev. S saw black republican rule dominating N. He was jailed in 1859 & executed for treason. Both highlighted sectionalism , “last straws”
How did the election of 1860 foreshadow the coming of southern secession and the Civil War? Why did eleven southern states secede from the Union by the summer of 1861?
1860 election-downfall of political parties, entirely sectional, nation crumbling due to party crumbling. Lincoln(R) won. S viewed R victory as a threat to slavery and their beliefs, secession from the union beginning with S.C. before he was even in office.
- Wilmot was not an abolitionist but despised the south’s advantage in the senate. All northern whigs were in favor but the Southern states shot it down
N had $ & factories, S’s wealth=slaves. Union had RR & slaves fighting for freedom. S owned 20+ slaves didn't have to fight so despite wanting slaves, poor wanted wealthy owners made to fight. 18-30yrs to 18-60 to fight, bc S was broke. Printed $ to inflate. Families taxed in food given to soldiers. Starving, bread riots, raids. Soldiers left to help or went to towns to calm ppl. Confederacy had the advantage of defense, not offense. They waged a war of attrition, worked well, but Lincoln’s emancipation tactics won.
War wouldn't have been won if they had not originally misinterpreted it. Slaves escaped to the north to fight bc they thought it was for their freedom. Originally they were brought in to spite S and it was a spur of the moment decision. They won crucial battles for the north and proved themselves. At the end of the war around ⅕ (200,000) of the fighting force were slaves.
Lincoln begins to look to drastic measures: gen. emancipation. Small victory in Antietam, Sept.'62, Lincoln launched publicity campaign & issues a prelim. eman. proc.-promises to protect S's slavery if surrender by '63. Conf. declines. '63, Abe issues Gen. Eman. Proc., officially frees all S. slaves. Alters purpose of war, liberation. Eman. Proc.: 1) Pulled slaves away from S., taking away workforce & weakening it. 2) Ensured that G.B. wouldn't ally w/Conf. (its #1 cotton supplier) bc of G.B.’s strong abolitionist principles.
N. ppl unhappy w/change in war's aim. Draft riots & lynchings in N.cities. Abe fears that Union war effort is abt to collapse. Recruits freed slaves to Union army, w/less pay, segregated quarters, & as expendable. N. ppl doubt their fighting ability bc they thought blacks inferior. Free slaves proved worth as soldiers-pivotal in winning major battles such as Milliken’s Bend, Port Hudson in LA, Fort Wagner in SC. They were brave & enthusiastic. Word spread, soon Yanks supported the idea of milt. eman. War turns Union win.
Everyone’s right to use talent to better themselves
The nation would need to define what freedom would look like for a slave because whether the war was won by the north or not the slaves had commanded it for themselves. Did freedom mean racial equality?
13th Amendment: formally abolished slavery
In 1864, the US had been the world’s most powerful slave force, and by the end of 1865, it had completely collapsed
Over the 4 year course of the war, more than 600k are killed
How did Lincoln's objectives change over the course of the Civil war?
-his objectives were misinterpreted and got turned into a war of Liberation.
- He knew that if the war was for emancipation, northerners would have not joined the fight.
- The objective changed when Lincoln saw the opportunity to use slaves as members of the Northern militia, adding man power to the Northern army and taking away valuable resource centers from the Southern slave owners.
– Economically more powerful- industrially powerful, had 100,000 factories with over 1 million workers.
– More manpower- the population in the north was double than what the south had.
– Had a Navy
– Transportation edge- 20,000 miles of railroad track.
– Developed leaders over time
– Did not have to win to gain independence- just needed the north to back out to get independence and keep slavery- they didn’t actually have to win anything.
– Had more experienced leaders
– Militarily superior- They knew the land they were fighting on (most fighting was on southern soil) and they were more experienced.
South Carolina governor, popularized “Cotton is King” and was pro slavery. He was one of the leaders of the fire eaters. Hated Wilmot Proviso
Harriet Beecher Stowe
- daughter of revivalist preacher and reformer Lyman Beecher,
- was a prominent abolitionist
- author of the novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, published in 1852
Commanding officer of Union military forces at Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor
- Union General,
- In command of Fortress Monroe in Virginia at the start of the war,
- Refused the requests of slaveholders to return their human “property,” declared those slaves to be contraband of war
-Congress later ratified it with the First Confiscation Act.
George Fitzhugh: Cannibals All!(1857) quotes
- Argued the slave wage system in the North was far more unethical than anything in the South Claim the text of the Declaration of Independence is false
· Doesn’t speak to biological nature
· Some race is going to be inferior
· Argues that slavery offers the inferior race a place in society. Gives them family
o Other relationshipsClaim laborers in the North don’t give slaves family or health or take care of them
Authorized the ICC to set max rates for RRs