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o World War I ended on November 11, 1918, approximately 18 months after America’s entrance
o Armistice Day is now celebrated in the US as Veterans Day
o In November 1917, the Russian Republic was overthrown by Bolsheviks, a group of rebels with Communist beliefs
o The Revolution, which was led by Vladimir Lenin, established the Soviet Union
o Many Americans feared a similar type of revolution could occur in the US
o Established to help shape public opinion of the war
o Committee headed by George creel, a progressive journalist who ran the committee like an ad agency, producing newspapers, pamphlets, posters, speeches, films and other media.
o Under Creel’s leadership, the Creel Committee (as it became known) engineered propaganda campaigns designed to encourage people to support the war and to hate the enemy, drew on existing racial tensions
o A system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy, and a single (often authoritarian) party holds power
o Communism is also an economic system characterized by collective ownership of property and by the organization of labor for common advantage
o Communism is opposed to private property, religion and democracy
o Was a vague law that made any activity deemed as helping the enemy or hindering the nation’s war effort illegal
o Supported illegal tactics of the American Protective League
o Made Americans live in fear-no room for opposition to war
o American Protect League used illegal tactics to find evidence on war opponents
o An international governing body that would use peaceful processes to solve diplomatic problems before they erupted into military conflicts
o Once the war ended, Wilson attempted to persuade European leaders to agree to his plans for peace
o President Wilson began to support Mexican rebel Villa efforts to overthrow the leader but withdrew it when he was defeated at the Battle of Celaya. Villa retaliated by killing Americans in Mexico and marching into New Mexico, where he burned down the town of Columbus and killed eighteen people.
o Wilson sent large expedition led by General John J. Pershing into Mexico in Pursuit of Villa, led by John J Pershing
o Mexicans saw this as US trying to intervene in their civil war
o Granted the US the right to prevent any foreign power from intruding into Cuba and established Guantanamo Bay as a US military base.
o Terms were included in the Cuban-American treaty of 1903
o Paved the way for American domination of the island of Cuba and contributed to anti-American sentiment among Cubans
o A brief war that broke out between Russia and Japan over control of Manchuria, an area of China
o Began when Japanese forces attacked the Russian naval base of Lushon in Manchuria
o The war was seen as a threat to the open-door policy that guaranteed access to Chinese markets to any imperialist nation
o Fearing that this conflict would threaten American economic interests in Asia, Roosevelt offered to oversee a peace conference between the two countries. The Treaty Portsmouth that was created won Teddy the Nobel Peace Prize
o Although it ended in favor of Japan, they were unhappy with the US intervention
o Another vague law, restricted “criticism of America’s involvement in World War I or its government” or troops
o Supported illegal tactics of the American Protective League
o Again made Americans live in fear-no room for opposition on war
o American involvement in the war necessitated the mobilization of a sizable American army. In order to do this, Wilson enacted the Selective Service Act, a law that established the first US military draft
o Over 2 million Americans, including 400,000 African American soldiers, were drafted into the army and sent to Europe to fight
o Expanded the role of the federal government
o The peace conference began at the Versailles Palace outside of Paris in January of 1919 until June 1919.
o The peace plan to emerge from this conference was known as the Treaty of Versailles
o Several new nation-states for ethnic groups were created, including Poland, Czech, Austria, Hungary and Yugoslavia.
o The Ottoman Empire was deprived of territory in the Middle East, and European countries took those areas over
o US did not sign and never became a part of the League of Nations
o By 1917, tension between European nations and the US heightened.
o Germans continued to attack British ships and to kill American passengers on those shipsEventually, the Germans declared unrestricted warfare against any ship within European waters; meaning all ships, no matter nationality
o In 1917, the British intercepted a coded telegram from the foreign secretary of Germany, Arthur Zimmerman, to the German foreign ambassador in Mexico
o The telegram instructed the Mexican government to hoin in the war with Germany against the US
o As repayment, Germany promised to restore land, specifically land in the states of Arizona and New Mexico, that Mexico had lost during the Mexican-American War.
o This telegram hastened America’s entry into the war
Wilson believed that World War I could be influenced by progressive beliefs. He believed the war offered an opportunity for the United States to spread democracy to other nations, to influence the peace process and thus the shape of Europe, to spread hygienic and health regimens to the U.S. troops, and to increase America's influence in the world.
What methods did the federal government use to mobilize an army, resources, and public opinion?
• How did the policies in the federal government reflect a larger trend toward decreasing radicalism and immigration in the United States?
• How did the Russo-Japanese War affect the United States' status as a world power before entrance into World War I?
• What problems did Wilson encounter during the peace process following the end of World War I? How did these problems defeat his progressive ideals?
• Describe the impact of the Bolshevik Revolution on American society.
o Mass production also fueled the automobile industry and led to a new automobile culture in the 1920s. Automobiles became more common in everyday life. They gave youths more freedom from their parents, which led to an increase in premarital sex. The automobile also gave rise to new roads, gas stations, and machine shops, as well as a whole line of maintenance products for cars. Automobiles also fueled new migrations of people out of the city centers and the consolidation of rural schools.
o Following the end of World War I, a new prosperity, spurred on by technological and scientific advances, made people want to be “modern” and to adopt new attitudes and lifestyles
o They wanted to distance themselves from traditional notions of morality, which they saw as stuffy, prudish and hypocritical, as well as traditional ideas of knowledge
o The flapper represented an extreme version of the New Woman. Flappers smoked cigarettes in public, drank bootleg liquor, wore their hair short, wore short skirts, engaged in sexually promiscuous behavior, and ignored politics and reform. The flapper was the complete opposite of the household economist
o A philosophy that the human race could be improved by removing “undesirable” traits from the human gene pool
o Eugenicists believe that racial inequality is the result not of racism but of genetics; blacks are genetically predisposed to be inferior to whites. Biology, not the environment, therefore explained crime, poverty, homelessness, alcoholism, and other social problems. At the time, this philosophy (like social Darwinism before it) was used to justify social segregation and to explain the ongoing racial discrimination against blacks.
o n the 1920s, Harlem in New York City was home to a large population of blacks who had migrated from the rural South. Harlem became a cultural center for African American art and literature in the 1920s, giving rise to, among others, the musicians Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway, and Louis Armstrong; the poets Langston Hughes and Claude McKay; the novelist Zora Neale Hurston; and the blues singer Bessie Smith. This period of African American music, literature, and culture became known as the Harlem Renaissance.
o This new black art, music, and literature was favorably received by whites. Wealthy white New Yorkers became patrons of black performers and supported their cultural achievements. Harlem clubs and theaters were hot spots for white patrons. Ironically, blacks could not sit in the audiences of these clubs even though most of the performers were black.
o Advertisers also assumed that consumers were mostly female. Women were stereotyped as "household economists" who ran the home and provided for the family. A woman's success as a household economist was judged by her consumer choices.
o Stated that 3 percent of the number of a specific nationality that had been present in the US in 1910 could immigrate to the US in a given year
o In other words, if 100,000 German immigrants were living in the United States in 1910, then only 3,000 German immigrants could enter the US in 1921
o Decreased the percentage of eligible immigrants from 3 percent to 2 percent and changed the year form 1910 to 1890
o Became the head of the FBI (antiradical group at the time) bc Palmer believed radicals wer behind a strike of Boston police officers and a strike of coal and steel workers in Midwest and West.
o Membership in a “revolutionary” group illegal.
o Deported 250 immigrants and arrested 6,000 all suspected radicals
o African American culture in the 1920s was also influenced by a sizeable immigration of blacks from the Caribbean. One such immigrant was Marcus Garvey. A man of African descent from Jamaica, Garvey believed that all blacks shared a common African heritage and that this common heritage bound all blacks together as a group. He created the Universal Negro Improvement Association, which worked for the betterment of the black race. His newspaper, Negro World, promoted black businesses such as the Black Star Line (a shipping line that would transport goods made from black businesses in America to countries in Africa) and black organizations such as the Black Cross. Although eventually arrested for mail fraud and deported to Jamaica, Garvey helped to solidify a feeling of black pride and black nationalism among African Americans.
o The New Negro was an optimistic vision of "blackness." The New Negro counteracted and subverted the negative stereotypes of blacks by celebrating the distinctive history, culture, and experiences of African American people. Instead of emulating white ideals, these intellectuals saw racial pride in the African American culture
o Although women were stereotyped as household economists, changes in the legal status of women also helped create the image of a New Woman. Women had gained the right to vote with passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1919. The League of Women Voters believed suffrage would allow women to bring their nurturing sensibility to U.S. policies and help reform America. This group represented and reproduced the type of woman targeted by the advertising industry. The National Woman's Party, headed by Alice Paul, was more militant than the league. Members of this group fought for equal rights for women and pushed for an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). While the ERA did not pass, the National Woman's Party pushed through passage of the Sheppard-Towner Act, which established federal funds for public health care and prenatal care for women.
o During the Red Scare 60,000 shipyard workers went on strike to demand higher wages and shorter workdays. Led to a general strike that paralyzed Seattle. Mayor Ole Hanson declared the strike a communist conspiracy and denounced the workers and labor unions
o Later that year a bob was sent to his home, demonstrated that the strikers were not pleased with being called communists
o The "Parable of the Democracy of Goods" was central to the advertising industry in the 1920s. Advertising strategies made middle-class consumers feel as if they could experience the lifestyle of the wealthy by purchasing products supposedly used only by the upper class. The parable was intended to make all Americans believe that they could enjoy the conveniences of an upper-class lifestyle because of the wonders of mass production and distribution. In reality, low wages made it difficult for common people to afford the products they helped produce.
o Following the Bolshevik Revolution, there was an intense fear within the US that outside agitators would invade its borders and promote radical ideas designed to change the American way of life
Darwin's ideas on evolution were strongly opposed by religious fundamentalists who saw it as a threat to the Biblical account of creation.
Several Southern states, in an attempt to protect their traditional beliefs, passed laws making it illegal to teach evolution in public schools. One such state was Tennessee. In 1925, John Scopes, a science teacher in Dayton, Tennessee, was arrested for teaching evolution in a public school. He was fired. He fought back by suing the state. Legally, the case ended with the law intact and Scopes being fined $100. Although the defense did not win in a court of law, they did win in the "court of public opinion." The Scopes "Monkey" Trial, as it came to be known, gained worldwide publicity. In the press, the Southern, small-town fundamentalists were portrayed as unintelligent country bumpkins. Modernism won out over fundamentalism.
o Reformed in 1915 in Stone Mountain, Georgia
o Spurred by the film “Birth of a Nation:, which portrayed black man chasing after a white woman and attempting to rape herThis time around, however, the KKK targeted not only African Americans but also Jews, immigrants, and Roman Catholics, as well as liberals, union activists, chain-store owners, political radicals, and any other "undesirables" that they saw as a threat to "100 percent Americanism." As an "anti-vice" organization, the KKK supported Prohibition, the eradication of prostitution, and "old-time religion." The KKK saw themselves as defenders of traditional values and, as such, appointed themselves local "police forces" in
o African American women, for example, were often portrayed as domestic servants, a technique known as "spokeservant." Aunt Jemima pancake mix, which shows a smiling African American woman, is one such example. Another example was the Gold Dust Twins, young African American twins who graced the boxes of Gold Dust soap. The Gold Dust Twins represented laundry servants, as opposed to Aunt Jemima, who represented a cook. These advertisements suggested that the consumer would feel like they were receiving domestic help, even if they could not afford to hire servants.
• How did the events of the Red Scare affect labor, reform, and immigration?
Following the end of World War I and the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, many Americans feared that foreign radicals would try to infiltrate America to overthrow its government. Social movements critical of the government or of big business were automatically suspect. This Red Scare, as it came to be known, led to a decline in union membership, labor activism, and progressive reforms. Immigrants from eastern European countries were also suspect. The Immigration Act of 1921 and Immigration Act of 1924 were passed to restrict the number of immigrants who could enter the United States from countries outside the Western Hemisphere.
• What were the goals of the second KKK, and what did participants believe they were trying to protect?
The second KKK sought to protect the idea of "100 percent Americanism" and to preserve the American way of life. The second KKK targeted not only African Americans, but also Roman Catholics, Jews, union activists, chain stores, political radicals, liberals who spoke out against lynching, and anyone else they defined as undesirable. The KKK also disliked new religions, alcohol, and the New Negro and the New Woman. They wanted to hold onto traditional American religion, maintain the importance of the rural countryside, and reject modernism.
• What is modernism, and how did it challenge the conservative nature of politics during the 1920s?
Modernism emerged as a new philosophy in the 1920s. Modernism is characterized by a self-conscious rejection of the past and its traditional values and rules, which are seen as repressive and stuffy. Traditional forms of knowledge are rejected in favor of explanations based on science.
During the 1920s, the nation moved in a conservative direction with regard to politics, race and ethnic relations, and immigration. However, modernist tendencies within the culture challenged how women, African Americans, and religion were viewed in society.
What were the cultural conflicts that arose during the 1920s? What were the different sides? How did those conflicts present themselves throughout the decade?
Cultural conflicts arose between blacks and whites, between whites and immigrants, between city dwellers and rural residents, between those for Prohibition (the Drys) and those against Prohibition (the Wets), between the New Woman and the household economist, and between the fundamentalists and the modernists. These conflicts can be seen through the flapper, Scopes Trial, race riots, the Red Scare, the New Negro, the Harlem Renaissance, the Immigration Acts of 1921 and 1924, and the conflicts between the countryside and the city.
o The AAA’s policies were geared toward both controlling overproduction and driving prices up
o The government purchased surplus agricultural products and established minimum prices for farmer’s goods. In addition, the Voluntary Domestic Allotment Act rewarded farmers who voluntarily took land out of production where surpluses existed
o The ADC was seen as a “mothers pension”
o It was given to single, divorced or widowed women with children
o The goal of the program was to provide women with enough money so that they could take care of their children without having to enter the workforce
o Mussoliniand his infamous “black shirt” guards violently suppressed all opposition tohis party’s leadership
o Withthe goal of rebuilding the power of the former Roman Empire, Mussolini invadedEthiopia in the mid-1930s
o 2.5 million unemployed men and youths to work planting trees, maintaining parks, and building roads
o Established by a group of unhappy farm owners
o Endorsed the withholding of farm products from the market )a farmer’s strike)
o Strike began in Iowa and spread briefly to a few areas, blockaded several markets but failed
o Caught Washington’s attention
o Government characterized by a dictatorship, repression of opposition, centralized control over private enterprise and extreme nationalism
o FDR used these to explain the problems facing America in simple terms that everyone could understand
o These chats helped FDR build rapport and trust with the nation, and, as a consequence the people got behind his reforms
o March, 1932
o 2/3 Fords employees laid off
o UC organizes march from Detroit to Dearborn
o Marchers attacked with tear gas; responding by throwing mud and rocks
o UC leader Alfred Goetez attempts to retreat
o several injured, 48 arrests
o Promoted US isolationism while simultaneously prohibiting other nations from involving themselves in Latin American affairs
o 1938 Treaty in which the leading powers of western Europe allowed Hitler to annex strategic areas of Czechoslovakia in order to satisfy his territorial aspirations (strategy of appeasement)
o The NIRA forced businesses to self-regulate by requiring them to establish codes of standards for fair competition
o Once approved, “the codes would have the force of law” NIRA did raise workers wages and, in section 7a of the legislation, did give workers limited rights to collectively bargain and to form unions
o This treaty guaranteed Germany and the Soviet Union portions of Poland if neither country attacked the other
o After the treaty was signed, Germany invaded Poland
o Great Britain and France saw the invasion as an act of war
o Called for a mandatory arms embargo against both sides in any military conflict and directed the president to warn American citizens not to travel on the ships of any warring nation
o The informal electoral alliance of working class ethnic groups, Catholics, Jews, urban dwellers, racial minorities and the South that was the basis of the Democratic party dominance of American politics from the New Deal to the early 1970s
o Influenced by the popularity of the Townsend Plan, provided pensions for the elderly and insurance for the unemployed
o Both programs were paid for through a payroll tax on workers and their empoyers
o Disapproved of legislation that provided relief for African Americans
o These congressmen successfully forced FDR to limit the programs of the Social Security Act and the AAA to whites only
o By the early months of 1937, the New Deal coalition was beginning to fracture
o Hoover relied on voluntary efforts of private individuals and businesses to provide relief to the unemployed and poor. This strategy worked for him during the buildup to World War I, and he assumed it would work again. He encouraged the organization of local and private resources, used advertisements to motivate consumers to buy products, and established the President's Organization for Unemployment Relief (with the unfortunate acronym of POUR). None of these efforts addressed the problems that lay at the foundation of the economic downturn and thus failed to provide much relief.
o Hoover also attempted to promote long-term recovery. He established the Public Works Program to keep people working but appropriated a meager amount to fund its efforts. Hoover also set up the Federal Farm Board, which provided subsidies to farmers. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) provided similar relief for banks. Unfortunately, Hoover's efforts failed to hasten recovery
o Passed in 1935 and replaced section 7a of the NIRA
o The Wagner Act gave laborers the right to elect and join union (effectively legalizing unions) and to bargain collectively over conditions of employment
o Disagreements over the Wagner Act caused the AFL to fracture into two organizations
• How did the Great Depression affect the workforce, women, ethnic groups, families, and farmers?
The workforce suffered from mass unemployment. Those with jobs worked for low pay and few hours. African Americans, women, and other minority groups were often fired before white workers. Union activity decreased, which limited the collective power of workers.
Many believed that women's place was in the home with the kids and that jobs were for male workers. However, many women had to work outside the home to make ends meet. They usually worked in jobs that men either did not want or could not take. Consequently, the number of women working outside the home actually increased during the Great Depression.
A number of Mexican Americans were deported to Mexico during the Great Depression, and Asian Americans had limited job opportunities outside their local communities.
A number of families were destroyed when unemployed men left their families to go in search of work. People waited to get married and to start families. When they did have families, they chose to have fewer children.
Many farmers lost their farms or were forced to move to other areas to escape the severe drought that hit the southern Great Plains from 1931 to 1934. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) was established in 1933 to help alleviate the suffering of farmers and to restore the agricultural industry.
• How was FDR's plan to deal with the Great Depression similar to and different from Hoover's plan?
• What challenge did Townsend provide to the New Deal? What did it result in?
The Townsend Plan called for mandatory retirement and a monthly pension of $200 for retirees. The Townsend Plan was designed to decrease unemployment by taking older Americans out of the workforce and by pumping money into the economy through the old-age pension. The plan influenced FDR's Social Security Act, which was passed in 1935.
• Why did certain segments of Congress stop supporting the New Deal in the late 1930s?
• How did America attempt to stay isolationist while simultaneously preparing for war?
• What was the result of the Ford Hunger March in 1932, and why was it significant?
o On the eastern front, the Germans and Soviets were locked in battle, the worst of which was the Battle of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union. The siege of Stalingrad lasted from August 1942 to January 31, 1943. Approximately 2 million military and civilian casualties resulted from this single battle.
o The destruction of Stalingrad infuriated the Soviet Union, because it felt the Allied powers should have invaded Europe on the western front first stead of North Africa
o By delaying, they had allowed the Germans to focus their attention toward the Soviets
o A massive operation in which a plane took off every six minutes and delivered food, water, medical supplies and other goods necessary to the city of West Berlin
o The airlift lasted almost a year, the Soviets ended the blockade in 1949
o Sexual norms were also different in World War II. Sexual feelings were encouraged as a way to increase aggressiveness. Pin-ups of beautiful girls, such as the actress Betty Grable, became quite common during World War II. These pin-ups, which were pasted to the sides of planes and in soldiers' bunks, reminded men that they were fighting for their wives, mothers, sisters, and sweethearts at home.
o June 6, 1944
o D-Day or Drop Day, as it is called, was “the day of the first paratroop drops and amphibious landings on the coast of Normandy, France
o It was the largest amphibious offensive in history
o First allied invasion, although a success 2,500 troops were killed before they could even fire a shot
o Many African American troops believed that they were fighting a “Double V” campaign “mobilizing not only for Allied Victory, but also for their own rights as citizens
o George F. Kenen, American diplomat in the Soviet Union wrote the “long telegram”
o In it, he claimed that Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe was not to be trusted and that Stalin would not stop expanding into noncommunist territory until he was forced to by another power. Kennan identified the United States as the only nation capable of stopping Soviet expansion. This document provided the framework for America's containment policy, which would shape U.S.-Soviet relations for forty years.
o Domino Theory of the communist spread drove this policy
o In reparation for the horrors they had undergone during World War II, the United Nations agreed to divide Palestine in two: One part became the Jewish state of Israel; the other, the Arab state of Palestine. Because the division of land was based on the historic homeland of the Jews, many Jews accepted it. The Arabs, on the other hand, opposed the creation of Israel. The capital city of Jerusalem was divided into Christian, Muslim, Armenian, and Jewish quarters. On May 14, 1948, Israel officially became a nation, and Truman, as well as leaders of many other western nations, recognized this state.
o the war was brought to their own soil when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. The nation could no longer afford to remain neutral.
o Threatened strikes by blacks led by A. Philip Randolph ending segregation in defense industries and government
o Although private industry remained segregated, Executive Order 8802 was a major victory for African Americans
o 1941 State od the Union Address
o Consisted of freedom of speech and expression, freedom of religion, freedom from want and freedom from fear
o They are historically significant because they became the core of FDR’s actions and goals for the people
o They also became a cultural icon as Norman Rockwell created a famous painting of them
o The plan provided economic aid to European nations whose industries and infrastructure had been destroyed during the war
o In order to qualify for economic aid, nations had to turn over economic records to the US and apply for aid
o This was done in order to support capitalist and democratic government and to provide additional markets for US industries
o The treaty claimed that an attack on one nation in NATO would be considered an attack on all NATO countries and promised military support to the country under attack
o At home, the US also created several new agencies designed to protect the nation from communist threats: the Department of Defense, the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency
o This report said that the US could not rely on others to help stop the spread of communism and that the nation should be prepared to fight the Soviets by themselves
o NSC-68 called for an increase in military funding and funds for the development of new weapons. As a result, Truman approved the development of the hydrogen bomb
o Was in charge of the WAC, worked hard to make sure that the women involved were viewed respectfully
o Most women accepted into WAC came from the middle or upper-middle classes
o Truman received news that the US had successfully tested an atomic bomb.
o Truman told Churchill about the atomic weapon but not Stalin, saving it as leverage over the Soviet Union in negotiations. At the Ptsdam Conference, Stalin agreed to enter the war against Japan on August 8
o Became symbols of the industrial woman worker and the agricultural woman worker, respectively
o However, women’s entry into the workforce was assumed to be temporary
o Truman asked Congress for economic aid to support civil wars against communist forces, regardless of whether the American government had issues with the noncommunist governments that fought them. Three guiding principles lay at the foundation of Truman's request: all communists are bad and all communist threats are equal; all communistic advancements were being directed from Moscow; and all countries that fought communism could be considered American allies. This doctrine, which came to be known as the Truman Doctrine, essentially made the United States the world's policemen. The Truman Doctrine was passed through Congress without approval from the United Nations. Truman argued that the United States had to act quickly, believing that if Turkey and Greece fell to the communists, then surrounding nations would fall too.
o A peacekeeping organization that was supposed to prevent future wars
o The UN consisted of a General Assembly made up of representatives from all nations and a Security Council comprising of ten members, five of which were permanent members (US, SU, China, GB and France)
o Indeed, great care was taken to make certain family members were on different ships or in different military companies in order to protect families from losing all their sons in a single military action. One consequence of this reorganization of the military was the development of veterans' organizations, such as VFWs (Veterans of Foreign Wars), that reconnected veterans with their fellow soldiers after the war ended.
o Assisted the army in support duties so that men would be free to go to combat
o About 350,000 women were involved with the WAC
o A similar women's division, called WAVES, was established in the navy. Both divisions were "subject to hostile commentary and bad publicity"
o Were to do with Poland, how to establish free elections in Europe, and whether there should be a buffer zone created between Germany and the Soviet Union to protect the latter from a future military insurgence in Germany
• What was the two-front war? What was the Double V campaign?
The two-front war refers to the fact that World War II was fought on two fronts: Europe and Pacific, or the European theater and the Pacific theater.
The Double V campaign refers to African Americans' fight against the Germans and Japanese in the European and Pacific theaters and against racism at home in America.
• How did the American government attempt to repair its reputation regarding war information after World War ?
• How were minorities affected by World War II?
In 1941, FDR passed Executive Order 8802, which desegregated the defense industries and government workforce. Segregation in private industries and in the military, however, still existed. Many African Americans felt they were fighting a Double V campaign—a military war against the Germans and Japanese and a war against racism at home.Women moved into the workforce in record numbers, replacing men who left for war. Also, for the first time, women were allowed to serve in the military. Both the army and the navy set up women's divisions: the WAC and the WAVES. Despite these improvements in women's status, women were still expected to conform to traditional ideas of femininity.Some Mexican Americans enjoyed increased employment opportunities around military bases in the Southwest and West. However, a significant amount of racism was still targeted toward them, as evidenced by the Zoot Suit Riots, an attack on Mexican American youth by American servicemen in California in 1943.
Native Americans were used by the U.S. military as code breakers during the war, but few government contracts went to Native American reservations, and the population remained in abject poverty.The Chinese Exclusionary Acts were repealed in 1943, after China entered into the war against Japan. Although an important improvement for Chinese Americans, the repeal allowed for only a meager 150 Chinese to immigrate to the United States each year.Japanese Americans were relocated to Japanese internment camps during the war. The government feared they would provide support for the enemy on the West Coast.Jews fleeing extermination in Europe were denied entrance to the United States, because Congress failed to pass the Wagner-Rogers Act owing to anti-Semitism and isolationist policies.
• What did the Soviet Union want after World War II? How did these wants lead to increased tension between the United States and the Soviet Union?
• Why did Truman drop the atomic bomb on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki? What were the criticisms of his decision?
Truman insisted that he used the atomic bomb on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to end the war quickly and prevent a bloody land invasion of Japan, but many of his critics felt the second bomb was unnecessary as Japan would have surrendered shortly anyway because of the first bomb. Many critics also believed his decision was motivated by racist beliefs against the Japanese or dislike of the Soviet Union, not by an interest in saving American lives. Other critics speculated that Truman used the atomic bombs to demonstrate the United States' military advantage over the Soviet Union and to keep the Soviets out of postwar negotiations.
• What is containment? How was it manifested in the Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, NATO, Berlin airlift, and NSC-68?
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