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pamphlet published in 1822 known as the S. Carolina Exposition. Secretly written. said that the recent tariff was unjust and unconstitutional and that the states should nuliffy the tariff.
(Tarifff of 1828 tax on manufactured good)
Tears: was supposed to be by ship but the Native Americans were forced to move into a bunch ofland for indian reservations. and it ended up being brutial.
Act: provided the transportation of all indians east of the Mississippi to the new reservations.
5: Most affected. the new territory was permanetly free of white ppl and they had just learned the ways of the whites.
Cherokee: Indians wanted to be independent but supreme court said theyre not a seperate nation.
Worcester: Indians wanted definition of their land but Jackson ignored it.
For: Profit, helped expand the economy and source of credit and stability
Aganist: unconst., bank had power over national finincal affairs, acted like a branch of gov, it was private and not to the people and seemed aganist democracy.
it was the 1st time a third party entered the field gov. (aka masonic party)
and the 2nd calling of the national nominating conventions to name canidates.
the Whigs were going against everythingJackson said.
--they wanted internal improvements
Financial factors. "Get-rich quick".
The bank and the specie cicular bc wheat rop was declining and prices were rising. Also 2 bri banks failed and were asking for money from the US. So our banks collasped, prices fell, sale of land fell, factories closed and poverty occured.
400 men defeated Americcan volunteers. this further delayed the Mexican Independence.
In 1836, houston and the Texians wiped out the Mexican foece and caputred Anna.
1) Democratic style. Instead of divine rights to the king, America was now going to the divine rights of the ppl.
2) two-party system. The 2 parties were seperated by philosophy and policy. Whigs:reps, value community and Jackson Dem: liberty of individuals
Road: fund to build a road to maysville kentucky to lexington KY.
Dem: Elected predident not appointd.
Describe the growth in Immigration to the US btwn 1815-1860?
and What factors contributed to the rise?
1840's: pop trippled
1860's: 13 states had more than doubled in #
-Europe was running out of room and the europenas wanted a land of freedom and opportunity. and steanboats made travel here less time
Irish:not liked. brought nothing to the US. Hated by natives"no jobs for irish"
German: more liked. Mainly farmers. came to US bc close to a democracy. and they had a lot of material goods.
What are the causes of nativism and Anti-Catholicism?
Who are the know nothings?
Naties feared that the foreigners would over take the old native stock. Immigrats took jobs ad they began to contruct their own church.
KN: they knew nothing. Dn like immigrants
bc ppl came to Us bc of the land. Rather be outside rather couped up in factories.
DN have enough money and didnt have the ideas of new goods and they were undeveloped.
And cannot produce highquaalty products for a cheap price
1. cotton gin: 50x more effiecnt. Cotton more profitable and needed more factoirs so moved more to the W. 1793
2. interchangebale parts: 1850
Pos: boost to N industrilazation
invented by Elias Howe and perfected by Isaac Singer and it became the foundation of the ready-made clothing
Neg: took away work for Women and limited liabilty(could only risk no more than his own share of the corporations stock)
Samuel Morse in 1844. 40 miles from WA to Baltimore. He put distant ppl in communication with echother,
(strip under the h2o for ships???)
Describe employment opportunities for women.
Indentify facory girls, Lowell system
Textill mills were esta. womens work was replace, but the factories gave them a job.
Girls: worked 6 days a week for 12-13 hrs
Lowell: a show place factory. these girlswere closely supervised
Cult of democracdy and the idea of seperate "Spheres". How did these affect women?
how was life changing for women?
Cult: glorified the function of the homemaer. Married women left thier jobs to take care of children and made decisions to change the charater of family.
Sphere: womens changing roles. families became closer and they grew smaller bc women had a choice.
Change: enforce punishment, dn spoil, reshaped child, raised them to be independent and not obident to authority, make their own decisions and a"modern family: was being esta. by mid-century
What technological advancese occured in farming?
what was the impact of McCormick's reaper?
1837; john Deere esta. a steel plow to break soil
McC: 1830's, (W) farmer could do the work of 5 men. began to harvest bigger crops that the S.
Turnpikes: 62 miles, stimulate W movement. Tollgate-pay-moving spikes.
Steamboat: Robert Fulton: put a steam engine is a vessel. saided in 1807. opened the W and S bc they had rivers. doubled the carrying capasity
National Road: W in 1811. 591 miles.
Canals: erie. E to W traffic. NY connected the Great Lakes to Hudson river. 1817. 363 miles. price of shipping went down and attracted european Imm, land $ skyrocketed
What were the changes of the 1st half of the 1800's in transportation?(last 2)
what advances were made in communications?
Railroads: faster, not frozen. 1828 (N). NY dn like it bc it took away transportation on thier canals. in 1833 they prohibited them from carrying freight bc dangerous.
Clipper Ships: Donal McKay. Out run any steamer in the BREEZE. Sacrafised cargo space fro speed. glory was breif bc the BRI beat our speed with teakettles.
E and W porspered by Erie canal. Turnpikes favored N with trade and Nat road to W.
s: cotton for New Eng/ Bri
W: Grain/ live stock for factory workers in E and Europe.
E; machines/ textiles for S and W
Define Market Revolution?
How did it effect the US?
What region was most economically dircersified?
transformed a subsistence economy of scattered farms and tiny work shops to a national network of industry and commerce(not home made but factories and mills)
House-sufficent families were becoming less reliable and womens work was replace with factories. Bad= seperation of rich/poor economic inequality.
the N had more goods than S and W
transfored the place of religion. Encouraged an Evangelicalism.
A spirtual awakening. and era of reform
Women were the most enthusiast of religiouls revivalism. Majority of the new church and they stayed. they had the role in bringing family back to god.
Pre: God decides what will happen before youre born(GOD)
Per: disposition characterized by an individual steiiving for flawness and setting high standards(SELF)
Opp: Ohio, missouri and Illinois. they voted as a unit and openly drilled thier militia for defence. (anti mormon dn like)
Good: falling roch was saved by a mormon moses; Brigham Young. 1848, land was saved by gulls. Utah was growing. by the end of 1848, 5,000 settlers arrived and more were coming. Coorperative commonwealth and a frontier theocracy
Why did tax-supporters support public education?
Describe the reforms of Horace Mann.
gaining of manhood sufferage for whites. a free vote cried for free education (Tax money allows to educate more kids)
they increased demand
- he was a brillant and idealogistic gradute of Brown University. Mass board of Edu. campaigned for better school houses and monger school hrs and higher pay for teachers and expand the curriculu.
Frowned upon. Her place was meant to be at home. and too much learning injured a womens brain and made her have bad health and dn allow her to get married.
1820s schools began to accept women.
how was the criminal justice system reformed?
What did Dorthy dix romote?
criminal codes in the states were being softened by the enligtened Europen practices. The capital offeneced were being reduced, brutal punishemnt like whips were being elimated. Thought prisions should reform as well as punsih.
DIX: 1843 petition to MASS, describing that jail cells were foul. Resulted in improved conditions and a gain of the concept that demented were mentally ill.
what was the American temperance society?
How did temperance differ from prohibitionists?
Formed in Coston in 1826. Improved drinkers to sign the temperance pledge. Wanted temperance rather than total elimanition of intoxicants.
Pro: prohibited the manufacture and sale of liquor. (everyone is going to want liquor so no one would listen to the law)
Mott: Quaker who wanted women rights bc when she and friends went to the london antislavery convention of 1840, they were not recognized.
Staton: 11 children and insisted on leaving 'obey' out of her marriage ceremony; went ot advoacte sufferage for women.
Anthony: Quaker, a militant lecturer for womens rights. fearlessly exposed herself to rotton ggarbag. Become a conspicuous advocatre of femal rights
where feminist met in a memorable womens rights convention.
First time men and women came together for womens rights
Read by stanton in spirit of the Dec of Indpendence.
Declared that 'all men and women are created equal". The meeting kaunched the modern womens rights moevment.
--started permitting wives to own property after marriage.
Many ppl with scientific talent at Harvord, but medicine was still primitive by modern standards (old). Everone was complaining of ill health bc imporoper diet, hurried eating , perspiring and cooling off too quickly and ignoring germs and sanitation. Self prescribed medicine was common, home remidies and use of medicine from reg doctors were ofter harmful
1840s laughing gas esta.
They were growing.
Spanish and Bri agents moved freely among settlers and held out promises for Independence. (seducing the US)
Commanded his followers by strength and character rather than politics.
ESTA the cabinet which allowed written opinions by the heads of the exuctutive branch. Sec of State: Jefferson
Sec of Treasury: Alex Hamilton
Sec of War or Defence: Hanry Knox
Federal courts are created under the judiciary act of 1789. The act organized the supreme courth with -a cheif justice
-fed. district and circuit courts and
-office of attorney general.
**Supreme court power over states
What were Hamiltons primary goals?
Why were high levels of debt a problem?
How did Hamilton proose to deal with the debt?
Why was the assumption of state debt controversial?
Tax the rich to pay of national debt.and so theyd lend the gov political support
bc w/o political confidence in the gov, Ham couldnt secure the funds of the $ from the debt. Risky for his scheme
Urged congress to 'fund' the nation debt 'at par'(fed gov would pay its debt at face value and interest)
the assum was that the state debts could be reguarded as a proper nat. obligation. Ham.'s assum. would chain the sates closer to fed gov.
Excise Tax?Revenue tariff?
Pro: tax on imports so ppl buy US goods.
Ex: tax measured by amount of work done(on consumption-whiskey)
Rev: tax to raise money for the fed gov(Taxes)
Loose v Strict view of const.
What % of National Bank was owned by fed gov and private stock holders?
Broad: more rights outside of const. (Hamilton)
Strict: only the rights in the const. (Jefferson)
Clause: more powers outside of const. (a lot of fed power)
Stock: rest. Nort Supported the Bank and S dn.
Tax on whiskey (revenue tax)
WA was going to fight the ppl bc they were forming societies.
--Bruatal display of force and WA strengthened.
Political Parties formed bc?
Founding Fathers responce?
Different views on const.
1st party was the fed dem/reps. they wanted a stong central gov but others wanted state rights.
FF dn want parties bc it wasnt good for unity.
He believed was had to be avoided ar all costs.
contro: bc it was a major prop of the spreading isolationist tradition. (didnt go with that they ppl wanted)
What role did the Bri have on the American frontier?
Why were we calling for another war with Bri?
They had retained the chain of northern frontier post on the Us soil.
The london gov built an indian buffer hoping to contain the Americans.
Miami: alliance of 8 indian nations who terorzed americans invading their land: Bri were supporting them with guns.
War: 1794, Bri refused to house Indians.
what was the significant of Washington retiring after 2 terms?
What political liabilities did Adams face as the 2nd Us Pres?
- conspiracy rather than a cabinet and a violent quarrel with France.
Why did relations sour btwn the US and France?
Role of the XYZ?
Describe the "Quasi War" btwn Us and France.
France was mad about the Jays Treaty bc they thought it was a step towards towards alliance with Bri. and a disgrace to the Franco- American Treaty of 1778
-tried to reach an agreement with french.
--at sea and in the west indies. America captured 80 french vessels.
Describe the Alien and Sedition Acts?
How were they a threat to democracy?
feds acts to raise the residence requirements. 14yrs not 5yrs. Violated the policy of open door hospilaty and speedy assimilation. Sed act was a direct slap at freedom of speech and press. couldnt talk bad about gov.
- took away rights of the Const and BOR.
Explain the concept of nullification as advocated by the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions?
What motivated Jeff and Madison to take this posistion?
Alien and sedition acts had been concluded that they succeeded its cont. power and that he act be nullified. (remedy of Jeffersons kentucky)
-Jeff fearded that if the feds kept making these laws that they would take away from the const.
accused of robbing a widow and her children of a trust fund. slavery ppl he owned and intercource with one of his slaves; sally hemings. Preachers began to call him an athesis.
Old ladies were scared of him becoming pres so they hid their Bibles
peaceful trasnfer of president. (12th admentment)
Helped give white S a bonus that helped jefferson win.
Feds. dn vote bc they liked Burr better but hoped for the moderation of the country by Jefferson.
**Felt like a revolution
Jeff campaigned as a revolutionary but governed as a moderate?
what Federal policies did jefferson reverse?
JEff based his campaign tactics by democratic principles but he wore sloppy clothes, he opened the door and no seating chart at dinner(pell mell) and he sent messages to congress instead of talking.
--took away the fed taxes and acts. no more allien and sed act, no excise tax which made the country poor bc no source of income.
------kept bank and tariffs
1803. questioned who had the final authority to determine the meaning of the const.
Jeffersin thought the individual states while John Marshall promoted the principle of Judicial review which the supreme court had the last word on the meaning of the const.
**1st time ruling unconst.
They were black mailing and destroying merchant ships. jeff dn like the idea of war.
Pasha Tripoli wanted more protection $ so they declared war on US by cutting down thier flag. Jeff won and made a treaty of peace from Tripoli in 1805 securing the bargain price of 0,000 and representing ransom payments for captured americans.
Jeff mad more costal crafts to guard Us const. and not high sea.
Why was Jefferson bothered by this?
Lewis and Clark
$10 mil for New Orleans and as far E as FL. Instad envoys signed 3 treaties pledging $15 mil for New Or. plus a lot of the W. bought from French
**this big puchase of land was unconstitutional bc pres dn have the power to negotiate treaties.
How did renewed warfare btwn britain and Fracne affect the US?
Why was impressment and insult to US?
What happened to the USS Chesapeake in1807?
Fighting over trade with ships and embargo Act.
The Bri took 6,000 Us citizens/soldiers.
Bri fired and killed many Us solders taking 4 ppl. Significant bc the nation went up in a roar by angered Americans
Why did Jefferson believe that the Embargo ACt was a good way to respond to the Europen aggression?
How well did it work and effects? Non intercource act? Macons Bill #2?
Thought it would make France and Bri want to respect the US rights bc now we were not trading with them.
DN work and the US had a lot of gooods it counlt export and hurt New England.
Effects: revived fed party. wanted to nullify the embargo. INTRODUCED the non-intercource act allowing trade to be re-opened but not with Bri or FRance.
Macon: bargaining with Bri/Fra. One or other
Whos Tecumseh and the Prophet?
Signifiacne of Battle of Tippecanoe?
Indian tribe trying to weld together a confederay of all tribes E of the Mississippi for Indian Unity. Bri was helping them.
--- Made Harrison a national leader. Discredited the prophet and drove the Tecumseh into an alliance with Bri. (MOVED INDIANS OUT OF US TERRITORY SO THE US WOULDNT HAVE A THREAT OF THEM TAKING OVER OUR LAND)
Why did madison finally ask for a dec of war?
How did war of 1812 divide America?
turned to war to resotre confidence in the republican experiment. Believes that only a vigorous assertion of American nationhood and a democrcay as a form of gov(TO DETERMINE WHETHER A REPUBLIC WOULD WORK UNDER THE PPL)
--S W and Reps wanted war. Us saw no other choice but to fight Bri the most most powerful empire to gain repsect bc we would have beated the worlds best.