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Often dismissed-simpleton, hick, hayseed
In reality, farmers were actually quit in tune with the G.A.
Luther Burbank, 1875-experimenting diff types of plants. Created 800 varities-bred many plumbs eaten today. Santa Rosa Plum, 1886 and Satsumma Plum 1906
John Wesley North, 1870- on of the 1st in Cali to grow oranges. First of modern citrus industry & one of first to transport on fridge train cars. 2./3 oranges from CA
Corn ear crushers, cutters, shredders-18802-90s
Hart-Parr in 1890
1870-245 million bushels
1900-599 mill bushels
1870-4.3 million bales
1900- 10 million bales
Farmers worked long hours, dangerous jobs as well.
24 hour days
dangerous chemicals-very little protective gear
Farmers also saw American Expansion Overseas:
1870-79-Ag exports accounted for 79% nation's total exports
Isolated from people and the cities
handle problems alone
not easily defeated or intmidated
often took law/politics into their own hands
Provided farmers with the link to the past:
loyalty to place, family and
assistance & compassion for others
Wouldn't demand many of the things that other nations of the G.A. were offering people.
In other nations, the conscience came from the govt:
Pensions for elderly and needy, health benefits
Had loud voices-politically strong
The mass amount of farmers that occupied the West States, made them strong
Overproduction due to mass amount of farmers
Which lowered cap prices
Where a farmer uses his upcoming crop as callateral at the local stores to buy his supplies for the year.
Falling prices meant farmer couldn't pay back debt, especially if merchant put interest on loans.
Farmer in high debt, end up losing land to bank or merchant, working off debt for life
Bewildered-why rest of nation doing well and they're not?
Felt Gilded Age was opposed to farmers
Govt never protected the farmer with tariffs
Selectively protect industry
-Rate manipulation, misreported earnings.
-Arrogant-sometimes pass waiting farmer by
-Grain elevators treated them the same
Banks & Cities
-teased, laughed at farmers
Between 1888-1892- 1/2 of western kansas farmer population departed, left
The Grange in 1867
-formed as a social organization that had spelling bees, socials, education
-economic assistance-join together to stike deals
-mainly social help for farmers
No, mainly just social organization for the farmers.
20,000 members though in 1875
Farmers' Alliances-first to actually alter the U.S.
Responded to problems:land disputes, horse thieves, levy repair
But, in 1870-1880s alliances began joining together to make national organizations.
Colored Farmers' Alliance & Co-op Union
Started either in KS or NY in 1870s.
Chicago Newspaper pushed them to fight oppression, RRs, Farmer Problems
Began in Lampasas Cnty in 1875, had lecturer who travled & tried to pursuade people to join.
In 1885-50,000 members
in 1887-merged with LA Farmers' Alliances
not social, aggressive
wanted political power
poor people to matter
A compassionate US
Mary Elizabeth Lease-KS
Sockless Jerry Simpson-KS
"Pitchfork" Ben Tillman-SC
Wicked Witch West=weather or RRs
Wicked Witch East=bankers, industrialists govt. in Eastern cities
Scarecrow= farmer-no education
Tin man= industrial worker
OZ= ounces is how you measure silver-important to farmer
What effects did these speakers bring to government?
Farmers won many seats:
Governors: GA, SC, TN
St. Legislatures: AL, FL, GA, MS, MO, NC, SC, TN, NE, SD
Over 40 congress seats
3 Senate seats
Populist/people's party in 1892
Became official after the Ocala Demands came about
St. Louis 1889
Mainly to see if there could be unification of northern & southern alliances, they never unified.
Ocala Meeting-Dec. 1890 in Florida
1st formal statement of demands made to the nation by farmers
Govt. control of RRs
Graduated income tax
Inflation of the economy-wanted govt to coin silver
Govt. builds warehouses & farmers store crops there
Govt. issue low interest loans until crops come in
Made southern farmers weary-which is odd being they'd benefit most from this
Omaha, NE July 4, 1892
Called the Omaha Convention
Planned to place Presidential candidate in 1892 election
Resembled Ocala Demands: graduated income tax, inflation, subtreasury, RR regulation
Also favored people election of senators rather than govt elect-this DID happen
8 hour workday
bans of use of "thugs" in strikes
3 governors; 10 seats in congress
1894: 6 senators, 7 representatives
1896: thought they might win presidency
The Depression of 1893
collapses in RR industry
Pres. Drover Cleveland wouldn't allow silver production to try to inflate the economy. Said best to ride it out. American's didn't agree with this, so farmers thought they might win with this tactic
special squads (SWAT)
civil service exams
new recruiting standards
created police academy
brought new technology to the stations
What changes did T.R. make as Governor?
Banned racial segregation in NY public schools
improved civil service
preserved lands in upstate NY
prevented dumping of toxic waste
increased factory inspectors
increased liability on factory owners
Northern Securities-complaint from states of high fees on the people
This Co. formed right when TR took over, so he felt responsible to do something
He was worried the president would begin to break up all of his trusts & merges.
In the Depression of 1893, Morgan arranged a loan to the US to bail them out through the depression. So, hurt & surprised president was attacking his co. after this.
Brought about 40 anti-trust laws to companies
Didn't ruin economy, just made lg companies learn how to follow rules
The Square Deal-1904
Extensive fed. regulations to ensure fair & equal treatment
Massive regulation of environment, RRs, big business, etc.
1903-banned certain RR activities, able to set max rates they could charge
June 30, 1906
Pure Food & Drug Act-Regulated the production of food & medicine (labels)
Meat Inspection Act-Fed. mandate for new, more sanitary conditions in meat packing
William Howard Taft
Taft had lack of drive/not aggressive, too sweet & nice
Detached-dull speeches, lazy, not interested in work
Created the 16th amendment in 1913, which gave graduated income tax
In March 1909, built great argument in congress.
When this happened, Taft stepped back and did nothing. No action, just watched it happen.
1909-reduced iron, coal, & oil tariffs by 40%
This didn't help the poor like he intended, they needed lower tariffs on clothing, lumber, cotton, etc. This did nothing for them.
This made people question Taft & hurt his reputation
Therefore, Democrats swept in mid-term elections
Taft wanted to take a million acres of reserved forest for developement(Repubs angry, TR's sacred land)
Richard Ballinger-Secretary of Interior was rumored to profit from the land. Taft investigated & said not so
Gifford Pinchot-Chief Forrestor wouldn't stop fighting that the system was corupt, tried to cause huge scandal
Taft fired Pinchot-turned all republicans against Taft and
TR hearing of this ran for president again in 1912
-very powerful national govt.
-led by powerful president
-would be massive social justice reform
-Fed. Govt would have control over everything!
The Underwood Tariff of 1913
-Woodrows speech started an investigation proving congressmen were being paid not to lower the tariff
-Congressmen resigning, embarrassed, gave this lower tariff to pass
-Tariff reduced 29%
Local banks kept desposits in urban banks & took out money in the spring for farming.
Problem-City banks sometimes didn't have enough money on hand to give in the spring
So-they dipped into reserves
-raised money by selling lg quantities of stock
-stock market crash
-calling in loans-causing bankrupsies
Conclusion:currency situation not good, but banking system actually what is touching off depressions
What did the Federal Reserve Act do?
Established 12 regional banks-federal reserve banks
Rural & urban banks put their deposits in these reserves
Reserve banks use this money to send money where it was needed in the nation
Used this money as basis for new, flexible currency
These actions controlled by Federal Reserve Board
Actions technically controlled by the puplic
This was very successful
Clarified Sherman-Anti Trust Act basially
-no price cutting for monopoly
-no price fixing, no buying stocks of a competitor
-labor not a commodity
-anti-trust laws don't apply to labor
-unions not conspiracies in restraint of trade, unions are allowed to strike peacefully
Set up the Fed Trade Commission in 1914-5 people on commission
act like policemen in regard to business practices.
Why didn't the people like Wilson in the mid-term elections of 1914?
Keating-Owen Act 1916-restrictions on child laobor
Adamson Act 1916-8 hour workday for RR workers
Fed. Farm Loan Act-1916-Low interest loans to farmers
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