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An uprising in Virginia during the late 17th century. The rebellion was led by Nathaniel Bacon and the indentured servants of the Virginia Colony. The men were frustrated by the separation between the planter class and everyone else. They were being forced into land that cannot be farmed on further west with the natives. Begin killing natives and then turn back toward Jamestown. First time in English history that the poor starts killing the rich.
Sig- Directly leads to the reliance of African slave labor.
Sides: British vs. French & IndiansCause: rivalry between British & France. Colonists began to doubt British
A disturbance in MBC colony in 17th century. She preached antinomianism, which were contrary to Puritan beliefs. She also taught men which was not agreeable with social order. She was eventually banned for this.
Sig- An example that there was not religious freedom in MBC
Significance: bloodiest war in American History and the war clears indian resistance to the white settlers. It also creates the image that indians are bloodthirsty savages.
-First Public Library est. by Benjamin Franklin-Library Company of Philosophy.
He encouraged gov’t to learn how to read and go to school in 1820.
-Daniel Leonard was a loyalist.- He explained in a series of letters, reasons why some British wanted to remain British.
-20-20% of people in America didn't wanna separate
-Kicked out 1783
-DOF go down
-Brit Crown helps but doesn't= what they had b4
-80,000 kicked out
-20,000 Africans kicked out
- Royal Governor of VA during Bacon’s rebellion
- Friendly policies towards natives led to rebellion
- Defeated Bacon and his men, retook the capital(Jamestown), removed from power
- Upset poorer farmers in western virgina by supporting wealthier eastern planters over them
Puritan Great Migration
The Puritan Great Migration occurred from about 1620-1640. During this time, Puritans from England traveled to Massachusetts, mostly to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. They left England in search of religious freedom. Approximately 20,000 men, women, and children moved from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. These emigrants set up the basis for American society.
Penn’s Plan of Philadelphia
What is now New York. Found by Henry Hudson, was an accidental creation of the Dutch West India company which exploited the North American fur industry. Conquered by the English in 1664. An ill-organized and ill-managed colony, highly decentralized.
During the Columbia Exchange, during the 15th century the natives supplied the Europeans with the potato. When the Europeans gained the potatoes it substitutes rye in their diets. The potatoes, allows more people to have the ability to feed family. Since more people have the capability to feed families they are allowed to have larger families, this allows them to have more workers. Which intern allows them to make more money, thus giving them more financial freedom.
During the Columbian exchange in the 15th century, natives from the Americas introduced potatoes to Europeans. Potatoes became a product that was traded from the Americas to Europe in exchange for other things.
Sig- Allowed poor to feed more, leading to lager families = larger workforce = more money = increased financial freedom
Ice Bridge that connected Siberian Russia to the North America.
Sig- When this bridge melted it created a line of demarcation between the Asians and the Americans, thus eventually leading to two different groups of people.
Taxes levied by British crown in the early 18th century on any good loaded on or off a British ship. Also required all goods first stop in Britain before going to their destination.
Sig- Allow British America to operate with more autonomy than people in England because England turns a blind eye to America due to the profits it is receiving.
-A serious of laws instituted in the late 17th century in order to repay the debts it had accumulated in the 7 years war.
-Crown felt the acts were reasonable since colonists started war
-Colonists felt the acts diminished their profit/they thought they already paid dues.
-brings about the question "whose in charge"
During the 16th century Spanish men and Native American women had children known as mestizos. Because Spanish were above Natives Americans in society Mestizos created a whole new social class.
Sig- Created a new social class with more freedom than Natives but less than Spanish. This resulted in lower amounts of freedom for the Natives.
An exchange of goods between Europe and the Americas in the 15th century.
Sig- Natives were given heard animals and horses which greatly changed their diet and agriculture
Europeans gained potatoes that allowed the poor to feed more family members.
Uprising in the early 18th century started by 100 militant slaves recently brought from Kongo/Angola trying to escape to Florida from South Carolina. They rise up and kill their slave holders and make their way to Spanish FL, 60 of them make it to Florida where slavery was abolished. Killing rich white men all the way. Possible because of the population of re-Africanized slaves.
Late 15th century reconquering of the Iberian Peninsula from the Islamic Moors (African). Because war is so expensive, after Spain stops fighting Moors they have a surplus of money allowing them to spend it on things such as Columbus's exploration.
Sig- Allows Spain to spend money on exploration, leading to the discovery of gold in America, therefor boosting Spain up to the number one power in the world.
A 17th century agreement between a rich and a poor person in which poor person exchanges years of service for passage across the Atlantic and land which would lead to his freedom at the end of the indenture.
Sig-Allowed many poor Europeans to come to the Americas and eventually led to 75% of Virginias population.
1607, first English colony established by England. Founded by the Virginia Co. of London, a business venture bent on making money for the company. 3 ships 105 men. Originally a hunt for gold, similar to Da Verrazano. The Spanish had a huge head start on the English. Significant BECAUSE IT LASTED and displayed the Adaptability and Perseverance.
a transatlantic system in which America gives Britain tobacco and sugar to Britain, the British supply Africa with rum, manufactured goods, and textiles, and the Africans supply the America with with slaves from Africans. After Bacon’s Rebellion, the Africans harvest the tobacco which make the Crown so rich. There is an endless supply of labor. This leads to the colonies being able to operate with autonomy.
-A transatlantic system in which America gives tobacco and sugar to Britain
-the British supply Africa with rum, manufactured goods, and textiles
-the Africans supply the America with with slaves from Africans.
-After Bacon's Rebellion, the Africans harvest the tobacco which make the Crown so rich.
- There is an endless supply of labor. This leads to the colonies being able to operate with autonomy.
Seven Years War
-1754 21 year old GW sets out on economic venture leading men into western Penn.
--Tries to clear French Settlements/is defeated
--World war (French/Indians, in Europe, in India, in Caribbean, all over world)
--British crown has to send Army/Navy
--Autonomy for America=lost
In England these men were poor and didfencing. They were put into the city during economic instability and had noland. America becomes the only place for them to gain freedom, land, andvirtue. Still had to give up freedom to get to America (signed indenturesbecause they were poor). These men cause Bacons Rebellion.
Started in England during the 16th century. Was a result of fencing due to population increase in England. The land that was once the commons was reduced to land for raising sheep. These men did not want to work for someone and lose there freedom. Masterless men began to use indentures in order to come to America.
Sig- Led to use of indentures
-Writes poetry for whites
-Spoke of her experiences/contributed to the anti-slavery movement.
-Late 18th century
·Former slave in Santo Domingue, who becomes the leader of the Haitian Revolution. He defeats the French, Spanish, and British armies the only other military leader to defeat the British is Washington. Called the George Washington of Saint-Domingue. Writes a letter to the United States requesting an alliance, with the help of Timothy Pickering an alliance between the United States and SD is forms this alliance leads to the US becoming the strongest world power and economic and military assistance.
-becomes leader of Haiti revolution (1791-97) the "George Washington" of Saint-Domingue
Defeats 3 most powerful militaries of the world: British, French and Spanish
-Writes letter asks U.S. to ally. We do.
-Secretary of State during Adams admin
-reads Toussaint Louverture's letter and agrees with the alliance
-gets Adams to accept.
-He is the negotiator of US for treaty of Canandaigua.
1. In 1860 the south had over 4 million slaves and enslaved Africans made up one third of the South’s population. The Union had 22 million people while the South had only 9 million.
The three people who led the argument were Henry Clay of Kentucky, Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina. Calhoun was the only one who supported secession. The four points of compromise were: California became a free state, the Texas border is cut off at El Paso and in exchange the Utah and New Mexico territories can decide for themselves if they are slave or free, slavery is allowed in D.C. but no more slave trade, and the Fugitive Slave Law is actually enforced in the North.
Prior to 1585 nobody had heard of Lincoln; however when he ran against Stephen A. Douglas for the republican seat in the senate for Illinois their debates became popular and people would show up by the thousands to see them. Lincoln lost the senate bid but his clear articulation in his arguments propel him in political and gets the republican bid for the presidency. This is now a common set up used in debates to this day.
Written by George Fitzhugh of Virginia in 1855 in response to Uncle Tom’s Cabin. It was meant to defend slavery however it was very illogical and ended up turning many people away. In order to defend slavery Fitzhugh had to challenge free labor and free government.
Took place in 1831 in Virginia. It was a rebellion led by the slave Nat Turner who killed his white American slaveholder and family. 55 whites were killed and over 100 Africans were killed for punishment and reprisal. This was important because it rejected the idea of the “happy slave.”
The English economy in the 1500s
wrote propaganda pamphlet that said solution for Enclosure Movement was to ship poor to New World;
1. to convert the Pagans for God
2. establish a base attack on Spain
3. exotic goods (gold)
4. the route to the east
5. dumping the poor (colonies = good place for them to find work)
Powhatan hoped to exploit the English and get things like superior weapons and gun powder to use against their enemies
hostility w/ Indians; drank salt water and had poor sanitation; starvation because they didn't want to work; harsh winters
From VA frontier; biracial (black and white); accepted before slavery, the outlawed; lived in isolated mountain hallows; married w/in own group because of isolation; didn't believe they were part African descent
Early 17th century, 12 women sent over by the Virginia Company of London to Jamestown because they believed if the men had families to provide for they would be more productive.
Sig- Women were used as nothing more than company assets
A separatist minister who came to MB in the early 17th century. Preaches separation of church and state as well as separation from the Church of England, therefore John Winthrop did not agree with his beliefs. He is banned from the colony and goes on to found Rhode Island.
Sig- Shows that religious freedom DOES NOT exist in MBC
Early 16th century method employed by Spanish missionaries to convert Native Americans in New Spain to Catholicism. The introduction of evangelism was necessary because of the Protestant Reformation. After which the catholic church lost ½ its population thus needing the Catholic church to search for more converts. This led to erosion of religious freedom of natives in New Spain, leading to Pueblo revolt.
Decline in piety in Massachusetts in middle part of 17th century.
Sig- Demonstrates failure of the Puritan Mission in MBC.
A belief system in the middle part of the 17th century MA BAY, that allows the human to take control over his/her salvation. Which counters Puritanism. This upsets John Winthrop because if people control their own salvation they have no need to listen to the Winthrop. Anne Hutchinson preaches this and it leads to her excile. THREAT TO PURITAN SOCIETY
A belief system in the middle part of the 17th century MA BAY, that allows the human to take control over his/her salvation. Which counters Puritanism. This upsets John Winthrop because if people control their own salvation they have no need to listen to the Winthrop. Anne Hutchinson preaches this and it leads to her excile.
Belief preached by Anne Hutchinson in the middle part of the 17th century that allows humans to effect their salvation. Contrary to Puritan beliefs of predestination.
Sig- It is a threat to puritan society .
Giovanni da Verrazano
An Italian explorer on behalf of France in the early 16th century. He arrives off the coast of Virginia/Carolina and interacts with the natives in the area. He writes back to the king of France and says the natives appear to have no religion and live and absolute freedom.
Sig- This establishes two lines of demarcation that will last between Europeans and natives. They are religion, and government.
In the 16th century increase in population leads to an increase in wool therefore a rise in demand for sheep.
Sig- This led to fencing therefore the loss of land on the commons for the poor leading to the rise of masterless men.
In the 16th century when the Europeans arrive in the Americas and introduce disease that the natives have never seen. The lines of demarcation (The Barring Strait/Atlantic Ocean) are the cause. In 1492 Europe is plagued by small pox, measles, and the flu, which kills thousands of Europe those survivors, has immunity. However the Natives have not seen these diseases and are not equipped to fight, the Europeans annihilate millions of Natives.
In the early 16th century when Europeans arrive in America's natives are introduced to diseases they had never seen before such as small pox, measles and the flue.
Sig- because native immune systems are not equipped to fight these diseases this results in the death of millions.
An indentured servant in the early 17th century, wrote "Letter to Father and Mother" explaining how sickness, starvation and natives ravish his daily life.
Sig- Shows that although indentured servants came to America for freedom, many of them actually lost it. Also shows the hardships of life in Jamestown.
Metacomet was the leader of the Wampanoags. After being displaced by the Massachusetts colonists eventually in late 17th century he led Metacomet's War and he and his people push the colonists back east until they regroup with reinforcements from England.
Sig- Leads to Puritans negotiating more with the Natives about taking their land.
14th century Center of empire, Tenochtitlan, where the majority of the empire resided. Inside there is royal palace-government, a temple - religion, a central market-economy/agriculture. Although it did not resemble what the Europeans were used to it did show that the Aztecs were an actual civilized society.
An the early 18th century phenomena in which Africans living basically the way the did Africa allowed them to have more cultural freedom. Were born in Africa. Most commonly rice farmers bought slaves straight from Africa, because rice making was skilled labor. Occurs more in GA and NC and leads to the Stono Rebellion.
-An the early 18th century phenomena in which Africans living basically the way the did Africa -allowed them to have more cultural freedom. -Were born in Africa. Most commonly rice farmers bought slaves straight from Africa, because rice making was skilled labor.
-Occurs more in GA and NC and leads to the Stono Rebellion.
Religious leader of the Pueblo Indians. Organized and led the Pueblo revolt in modern day New Mexico in the late 17th Century. Was a result of Spanish evangelization
Sig- Was most significant Native revolt against European power.
Mid 17th century the Puritan church, due to declension, extends membership to family members of church members. MBC
sig- demonstrates the failure of the puritan mission in Massachusetts
14th century center of Aztec empire. Included temples (religion), royal palace (government), and central market (economy).
Sig- Because it includes these three elements, it shows that Mexica were civilized before Spain arrived.
First English colony founded in 1607 by the Virginia Company of London. Originally was a business venture searching for precious metals. The men of Jamestown eventually adapted and grew tobacco leading to the building of great wealth and power for the English crown.
Sig- It lasted and showed the adaptability and perseverance.
-1754- Incompetent GW makes economic venture leading men in western Pennsylvania
--tries to clear French Settlements + is defeated at fort necessity.
--French push back
--Sets off 7 years war
-GW loses a lot in A.R. but never gives up and is "good" at retreating
-After A.R. people want GW to take over/become king but he resigns as head commander + chief
-The middle leg of triangular trade
-From Africa to the Western Hemisphere
-20% died in this passage
an idea in the late 18th century which moves marriage towards the idea of a partnership, now seen as partners in the revolutionary struggle with their husbands. Encouraged mothers to train/educate the nations future leaders. Invested with the jobs of training their sons not their daughters to be leaders. However simultaneously the women trained their daughters as well. This led to more educated women towards the end of 18th century, many more women rise as writers in the 1790s.
-Moves Marriage toward partnership
--in the revolutionary struggle
-need mothers to train/educate future leaders
--daughters taught as well though
-Only the elite/affluent
-Many more woman rise as writers in the 1790s
However, the British Americans were also creoles because they were attempting to live the way they had in Britain in the New World.
-The process in the 18th century of being from the Eastern Hemisphere and creating a of society in the Western Hemisphere.
-Gained more social freedom. In the case of Africans many began to assimilate into colonial society. -British born in America. (Not really British)
-More prominent in VA and MA because they live in close proximity to their slave holders.
However, the British Americans were also creoles because they were attempting to live the way they had in Britain in the New World
-Because GW resigned as commander and chief of all armed forces, sets precedent for commander being civilian not military man.
-1787 James Madison calls congress in Philadelphia/gets GW to come outta retirement to get people to attend
--is very successful
Book by John Locke
--Proposes Republican/Liberal Liberty
-French removed from NA
-Natives ability to threaten to jump alliances back and forth between French/England for better treatment=gone
--lose balance of power
-Costs British crown tons of money
--Tax to pay loans
-Starts the A.R.
writer in the late 18th century who takes the language of John Locke and turns it into revolutionary language. The language of liberty and the ordinary colonist was now ready to fight and break away from Britain. GETS ORDINARY COLONIST to want to break away. Leds to the phrase “inalienable rights”. Turns the American Revolution to a cause of all man kind.
-Writer in the 18th century who turned the language of John Locke into revolutionary language
-Gets ordinary colonists to break away
-Leads to the phrase inalienable rights
-Turns American revolution into the cause of all mankind
-Tea=huge in British culture
-Americans begin to drink tea do to Atlantic trade to identify with their British counterparts
-During the "Age of acts" tea becomes highly taxed
-Generated highest level of resistance because of its importance to colonists
-Bi-racial slave (mulatto)
-Granted freedom by slave owner
-Late 18th century served through entire revolution
-Becomes a pastor for an all white church in Vermont
-Published Author- Liberty Further Extended
--Moral Liberty/Abolishment of slavery
Advocated the participation in public life by “economically independent citizens” as the essence of liberty. Assumed that “property owning males” possessed virtue (a willingness to subordinate to the pursuit of the public good). This idea of liberty comes out of Enlightenment thinking but its establishment came from moral liberty. Assures that the rich will control all of society.
-Only property owning males have virtue
-Results in rich white men making most of decisions
-Comes out of enlightenment era- started from moral liberty
-Women have no virtue
George Robert Twelves Hewes
A poor, landless, shoe maker, in Boston in the late 18th century. Who enlists in the Army, serves in the Navy, and many more. Emblematic of poor white men and their role in the American Revolution. Leads to greater dynamics of freedom for the poor white landless men.
-A poor, landless, shoe maker, in Boston in the late 18th century.
-Serves in Army/Navy
-Reps poor white men's role in revolution
-Gives poor white a little virtue
-His longevity= his face being associated w/ the revolution
an idea in the mid-18th century, of individual rights, people had merely because they existed. They could not be given up or be taken away. It is this idea of liberal liberty which leads to unalienable rights.
-An idea in the mid 18th century
-Rights people had just by existing (can't be taken/given)
-Leads to inalienable rights
-Similar to natural rights
-18th century=life, liberty, property
-Develops "republican liberty"
-Takes well with elite b/c they are already practicing this
-Late 18th century
-Should be accredited for the Louisiana Purchase due to his diplomacy with Toussaint Louverture(Saint-Domingue Africans)
Treaty of Canandaigua
-1st U.S. Treaty that gives land back to Native American's (Onida People-NY 1793)
-Adams heavily persuaded by Timothy Pickering
Two Treatises on Government
-Book written by Lemuel Haynes
-Uses words of dec of ind. to urge moral liberty/abolishment of slavery
-French Sugar colony=500k slaves
-Richest colony on face of earth
-Late 18th Africans rise up/defeat Spain, France, and England.
-Abolish slavery on the island
-GW arms slave holders in order to pay back debt to French
Native American in the late 18th century in North America. He was the Oneida diplomatic representative, helps conclude the Treaty of Canandaigua and teaches Timothy Pickering how to interact with the Oneida people.
Leader and chief negotiator for the Onida people (NY)
- taught Pickering how to negotiate properly with natives.
-Signed Treaty of Canandaigua in 1793
Mercy Otis Warren
-by James Madison
-South counts slaves as 3/5 of person
-North negotiates tariffs
-Without mentioning slavery it is legalized
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