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Chattanooga State Technical Community College
HIST 2020 Test 3
HIST 2020 Test 3
Chattanooga State Technical Community College
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why did the soviet union acquire a buffer zone of allies in eastern Europe?
to protect russia from invasion across the plains of poland
Communists governments took power in which 8 East European countries?
What became Stalin's reputation in the USA?
Aggressive dictator; just like Hitler
What issues intensified the Cold War following WWII?
1. USA use of economic aid
2. atomic dilemma divided the USA & USSR
3. Us Foreign policies divided USA & USSR
a. containment b. Marshall plan
c. Truman document d. NATO
What was the Marshall plan?
Way of financing the economic recovery of Europe
Who didn't receive help from the Marshall Plan? Why didn't they?
Italy and France; because they were discontent
When China became communist, where did non-communist Chinese go?
FORMOSA TAIWAN (called Taiwan today), an island off the coast of China.
What did Eisenhower and Baruch want the US to do with its atomic weapons?
keep making them because USSR was still making them
Why did Eisenhower push to keep producing the atomic weapons?
to offset a large Soviet Union army
Why did Stalin say the USA as a nation couldn't be trusted?
Because US kept bombs, plans and productions plants. They did not sign a peace treaty with Russia.
What was the US Policy of Containment?
1. negotiate only from a position of strength
2. only strong sustained resistance could halt spread of Russia's power
What was NATO?
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
How did NATO change US policy?
1. US committed itself to defend Europe
2. If attack on any/all countries in treaty
How did Nato impact Russia?
Europeans felt secure; Russia's fear of the west grew so the Cold War escalated
What was the Truman Doctrine?
1. It must be the policy of the US to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.
2. Truman asked Congress for 400 MIL to give to military assistance to Greece and Turkey
What was the Berlin Blockade?
Russia's response to containment was to cut off all railroads and highways traffic to Berlin.
How did Truman handle the Berlin Blockade?
He used this to gain support for his re-election.
What was the purpose of Defense Policy NSC-68?
1. to halt soviet expansion
2. To overcome soviet expansion
Why was the Defense policy needed?
The US needed to expand its power b/c USSR believed the US was challenged around the world.
After WWII why did the US keep troops in Japan a direct the rebuilding?
To prevent the USSR/communists from taking over Japan and to help them establish new government
Mao Tse Tung
communists who controlled North part of Japan
Controlled the South (free) side of Japan
led communist government
Ho Chi Minh
Led North Korea- communist. Wanted Vietnam to be an independent country
Was the USA's involvement in Vietnam in 1950?
USA began giving economic help to France.
What was done to Vietnam in the summer of 1954?
France continued to rule South Vietnam. Indochina was divided at 7th parallel.
What second type of US help was added in 1954 for South Vietnam?
US started sending military advisers to South Vietnam
What started the Korean conflict?
North Korea invaded South Korea
When was the Korean conflict?
June 25, 1950- July 27, 1953
What was the original goal for the Korean Conflict?
restore the 38th parallel
What become Truman's goal for Korea?
Reunite all Koreans
As he took office as President, what was Eisenhower's warning to China concerning Korea?
US would use nuclear weapons is they would not agree to a truce with Korea.
Where was the Sunbelt?
areas from Raleigh to Southern California which have mild summers; benefited greatly from aircraft and electronic industries moving there
What happened to the Sunbelt in 1947?
1. population increased
2. more industries moved there
What was the babyboom?
families moved to suburbs and had more children
What were the ideas in Truman's Fair Deal that PASSED?
1. increase minimum wage to .75 cents
2. broaden those covered by social security?
What were the ideas of Truman's Fair Deal that did NOT pass?
New reforms, such as
1. start national medical insurance
2. start Federal aid for Education
3. enact a fair employment practices commission for Blacks
4. overhaul the farm subsidy
Who blocked passage of much of Truman's deals?
conservative coalition, who were northern republicans and southern democrats
What was the highway act of 1956?
approved construction of a national interstate system for national defense
who led the Red Scare in the 1950's?
What was McCarthyism?
a 4.5 year search for communists in the USA
Explain the multiple untruths technique
Telling one lie, and while they are trying to repute that one lie, telling another. Promising to resolve charges, and never doing it. Just keep telling more lies
What were the four areas of concern in the 1950s for the Civil Right's Movement?
1. integrated schools
2. equal voting rights
3. equal access to jobs
4. equal access to housing
What had President Truman already done to bring integration?
president's commission on Civil Rights
Identify the ruling of the US Supreme Court in Plessy VS Fergusson, and contrast it to Brown VS Board
Plessy: Seperate but equal was constitutional
Brown: seperate but equal unconstitutional because it messed with the black's psychologically. Ruled desegregation with all deliberate speed
Denounced brown vs board as clear abuse of judicial power. South's school boards disobeyed integration ruling.
Allowed schools to place children where they "thought fit" based on knowledge, health, manners, etc.
However, mostly whites were assigned to local schools, and blacks were segregated.
segregation by custom and common throughout rest of US
seamstress who refused to give up seat for a white in Dec 1955
Which method was used by MLKJ and who did he imitate?
What did SCLC and SNCC use to change segregation?
1. Sit ins
What is Sputnik?
first artificial satellite to orbit Earth, USSR was the maker
Why was US insecure about Sputnik?
1) Belief grew that American schools were lagging behind Russian schools. 2) Belief grew that the US economic growth rate was declining. example: 1957-1958 there was a recession.
people with long hair, bizarre clothing, who were known for drug experimentation and sexual promiscuity. Purposefully dropped out of society.
What did Kennedy's New Frontier promise?
1. To stimulate the US economy
2. To lead US to victory in the Cold War
3. To reform Healthcare, education, and Civil Rights
What was a major factor in Kennedy's 1960 Presidential victory?
It was the first televised debate.
What was Kennedy's #1 priority while president?
How did Kennedy change US defense?
1. He built up US armed forces
2. He built up a large nuclear arsenal/ expanded special forces
Where "foreign areas" did Kennedy face problems?
In which 2 ways did the US and USSR compete?
hearts and minds" of the nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America which were not yet allied to the US or to the USSR
2. Satellite/ technology
Lee Harvey Oswald
accused of Killing JFK. He was never tried, because he was killed before he could testify.
Killed Oswald in a restaurant.
James Earl Ray
Killed Robert Kennedy
What was the "brain drain"
Where educated people started to hate communism and would go to West Berlin to escape to freedom
Why was the Berlin wall constructed?
to keep people from escaping to West Berlin
How did Kennedy react to the Berlin wall?
he called upon Americans to defend West Berlin.
What was the Bay of Pigs invasion?
1400 Cubans exiles landed at Bay of Pigs, Cuba. Almost 500 were killed, and 1,000 captured by Castro's army.
Why was Bay of Pigs unsuccessful?
1. Kennedy canceled US air strikes that were to accompany to invasion of Cuba.
2. Spies told Castro when and where the invasion was to take place.
What caused the 1962 Missile Crisis?
Spy planes photographed 24 Medium range and 18 intermediate range missiles with nuclear war heads on the ground in Cuba.
What was Kennedy's response to The Missile Crisis?
1. announced a navel blockade of Cuba to prevent arrival of more missiles from USSR
2. Put US ships in Atlantic to stop Russian ships already in route to Cuba
3. Threatened a nuclear strike in Russia to force removal of missiles launch sites
4. Threatened invasion of Cuba and sent 250,000 soldiers to Florida in case invasion was needed.
How did Kennedy work to change segregation?
1. Personally appointed a number of blacks to high federal government positions.
2. Vice president Lyndon Johnson headed the Commission Equal Employment Opportunity
3. His attorney general, Robert Kennedy (brother) prosecuted many cases to secure rights for Southern blacks.
Who was Kennedy afraid of alienating if he used
bold civil rights reforms?
What were the provisions of the treaty ending the Korean Conflict?
The US would use nuclear weapons if China would not agree to a truce in Korea. b. July 1953 A truce was signed. Korea remained divided at the 38th parallel.
US has signed NO formal peace treaty with North Korea yet
What was included in the Civil Right's Act?
1. it prohibited discrimination in privately owned public accommodations such as restaurants, theaters, and hotels.
2. Fair Employment Practices Committee was passed to provided equal workplace
3. Protected voting rights of minorities
4. Authorized Justice Department to institute law suits to desegregate schools
Gideon v. Wainwright
Defendants too poor to afford an lawyer will be appointed one to ensure equality of law
Miranda v Arizona
Defendants must by informed of their constitutional rights to remain silent when arrested
Escobedo v. Illinois
a defendant cannot be questioned or forced to confess without their defense counsel present
For which accomplishment did Lyndon Johnson want to be remembered?
Winning the war on Poverty to create the great society
Who was found to be inside the US poverty line?
1. the old
2.. families ran by a single person, usually a female
4. people in Appalachia
What was passed by Johnson concerning medicine?
1. a national healthcare for people over age of 65
2. Supplemental Medicaid for the poor
What was passed by Johnson concerning education?
head start, Job Corp, consumer education classes, remedial reading classes for adults
What was guaranteed in the 1965 Voting Rights Act?
1. Literacy tests no longer required to vote
2. Federal registrars were sent to South to ensure Blacks could register to vote for national elections
Why were younger civil rights activists drawn to Malcolm X?
they grew frustrated with nonviolence, and were drawn to more militant ideas
When, where, and by whom was Malcolm assassinated?
1965, New Jersey, and by members of the Nation of Islam
Concerning Native Americans, what was "termination"
Cancellation of their treaties and their promised sovereign tights
What did United States v. Wheeler accomplish?
It reasserted Indian tribal rights
Why did Johnson believe in containment?
1. He had seen isolation and appeasement fail to stop Hitler
2. He was in the Democratic party when they were blamed for allowing China to fall to communism
3. He watched Castro from Cuba harrass JFK
Who supported the Viet Cong?
North Vietnam and China
Who were the Viet Cong?
Who were the vietminh?
North Vietnamese Soldiers
What was the Gulf of Tonkin affiar?
Americans were told that North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked USS Maddox. North Vietnam said the ship was inside their waters. USA retaliated, and eventually found out no ship was ever attacked
Which powers were given to Johnson in the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?
To take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the US and to prevent any further aggression
Why did the war in Vietnam escalate in 1965 through 1968?
Lyndon started a bombing campaign against North Vietnam, and continued to increase soldiers being sent over
Which four methods were used by Johnson to defeat North Vietnam and The Viet Cong?
1. Bombing military targets inside NV
2. Using US troops in large #s in combat operations
2. Sending money to SV
Sending advisors to SV
Theory that if Communists succeed in controlling a country in Southeast Asia other countries would too, like dominos
movement in support of rights for blacks
Baker v Carr
representation in all legislature bodies must be based on population only (one man, one vote)
First man on the moon
Werner von Braun
Headed the department of space program
John Glenn, Jr.
First American to go into space
abolished any form of payment as a prerequisite for voting in federal elections
established a way to nominate a confirm VP if former VP couldn't complete his term
what did most draftees of Vietnam war have in common?
Most were black
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