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Natural passage way through the mountain barrier of the Appalachians. A stream of migrants moved out of the southern states, comprised mostly of white tenant farmers and struggling yeomen families. They flocked through the cumberland gap into Kentucky and Tennessee. Many migrants were fleeing from the planter-controlled society because they wanted more freedom and hoped to prosper by growing cotton and hemp, which were in great demand.
3) Report on Manufactures - Hamilton believes farming is old and munfacturing is the new way to go, proposes tax on british cloth imports so Americans will manufacture and buy more domestic cloth, missing revenue.
Starts meddling in politics, got Adams to win election of 1796.
Burr was a running mate with Thomas Jefferson. They tied for the presidency. Jefferson won the run off. Burr killed Alexander Hamilton in a famous duel. He was tried and acquitted for treason involving a plan to separate the US and combine with Spain.
Democrat Stephen A. Douglas introduces this bill to organize a new territory. Nebraska attempts to become a state (Benefits Douglass who wanted a railroad in northern US). Proposed that the issue of slavery be decided by popular sovereignty
in the Kansas (slave) and Nebraska (free) territories, thus revoking the 1820 Missouri Compromise. Introduced by Douglass in an effort to bring Nebraska into the Union and pave the way for a northern transcontinental railroad
Led a raid starting from Kansas to (Federal armery)Harpers Ferry, Virginia Raided arsenal planning to give weapons to slaves Was captured at Harpers Ferry and charged for murder and treason. Sentenced to death and was hanged.
President Abraham Lincoln issued a preliminary proclomation September 1862, freeing slaves in the areas under Confederate control as of January 1, 1863, the date of the final proclamation, which also authorized the enrollment of black soldiers into the Union army.
when: Sept. 1862, Jan. 1863
Sig: encouraged more slaves to flee the south, gave union more moral reason to fight war, prevented any european interference.
Confederate general who, in the Battle of Bull Run, stood like a stone wall, and rallied the Virginians, giving the Confederacy the victory at Bull Run
Was accidentally shot by a Confederate soldier after the Battle of Chancelorsville
1.He is a Union officer
2. ordered to capture Atlanta 3. and to destroy anything useful along the way.
4. Victory at Chatanooga
5. March to sea
- In 1848, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott issued this declaration as a voice for their concerns about the rights women needed.
- Citizens believed it was a radical idea because in it she proposed that women should be allowed to vote.
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
-made investors wealthy
-manufacturing was secondary to agriculture
Charles River Bridge Case
Warren Bridge Co. applied to Mass. Legislature to build a bridge in sight of the Charles River Bridge. Stipulation that once the project was paid for, the new bridge was toll free
Emotion over reason. Movement within the United States during the 18th century, Sentimentalism is a European idea that emphasized feelings and emotions, a physical appreciation of God, nature, and other people, rather than logic and reason. Put feelings into family relationships; love became important part of marriage. Novels attempted to influence feelings and emotions of readers, i.e. Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Fletcher v. Peck
1810; GA legislature granted 35 mill acres in Yazoo River country (MI) to private speculators; Next legislature canceled transaction; Supreme Court decreed that the legislative grant was a contract & the Constitution forbids state laws "Impairing contracts"; Protecting prop. rights against popular pressures; 1 of earliest clear assertions of right of SC to invalidate state laws conflicting w/ fed. Constitution
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
1819; College granted charter by George III in 1769, but dem. NH legislature had seen fit to change it; Dartmouth appealed case, employing as counsel Daniel Webster; Marshall ruled original charter must stand → put states in their place; Contract → Constitution protected contracts against state encroachments; Safeguarded business enterprise from domination by state gov'ts
The War Hawks were young congressional leaders
When: 1811 and 1812
Sig: called for war against Great Britain as the only way to defend the national honor and force the British to respect America's neutral rights.
○ Who: emerged from John Locke (ex: Benjamin Franklin)
○ What: religious ideal??- God’s plan in nature,“watchmaker God”
■ the belief thatreason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to determine theexistence of God, accompanied with the rejection of revelation and authority asa source of religious knowledge
○ When: during the enlightenment period (17th century)
Where: europe and the colonies
significance: god's plan in nature made by science and reason, watchmaker god, god created the world and then stepped back and let this natural laws govern his creation, diests most agreed with Christian morals due to rationale. was part of enlightenment and lead to religious upheaval.
1676 a thousand Virginians broke out lead by a planter called Nathanial Bacon
○ Who: Puritans, Wampanoags, and Nipmucs
○ What: war over land
○ When: 1675-76
○ Where: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Maine
Significance: triggered by execution of 3 wampanoags for murdering an Christian india. King Phillip's father creates relationship with the puritans and they are friends for 40 years, they say that if the indians want to live among them then they must convert and they create praying towns. philip takes over and over time he grows angry and does not trust the puritans. the indians are no longer being treated as equal but as lesser people in their own land .philip is angry and gathers other tribes the attack the english with him. the demand for the land was the main cause of the war. he believes that the execution of his 3 indians for killing an indian should be handled in his own hands. deeper cause: frustration with land hungry settlers. ultimately weakened native american morale where many indians died from the war and were sold into slavery. the indians were hurt and lost their independence.
Iconic during Protestant Reformation
(1509-1564) – Reformer in Geneva, Switzerland. Not only was he a church leader, but Calvin wrote commentaries on much of the Bible and a thorough summary of Christian doctrine in his Institutes of the Christian Religion.
Tenskwatawa: the prophet: had a vision to unite all tribes by separating themselves from everything "white man"
Tecumseh: the warrior-brother supported/used Tenskawatawa to build an army of followers.
They are disbanded after the defeat of Prophettown.
Defeated by William Henry Harrison at Tippecanoe.
- Brothers that led a pan Indian confederation to push whites out. Tecumseh dies in Battle of Tippecanoe & along with him, hopes of Indians for resisting americans
Causes: Americans declared war on Britain because
1) they had trade restrictions caused by the war betw
2)impressment of American sailors by the British
3)British alliance with Native Americans which prevented American Manifest Destiny and expansion of territory
Effects: "nothing was settled, nothing was adjusted." ~ J.Q. Adams
Political doctring advocating limited government based on popular consent. Protected against majority tyranny. the belief that the people should have the power in the country; an elected form of government helped uphold liberty and freedom; those who lead the people should be voted on by the people
1817. Relocate the blacks to Africa. Liberia extablished on the west coast of Africa. 15,000 relocated over 4 decades. Most blacks resisted because they viewed themselves as Americans. Appealed to Northerners who believed whites and blacks can't coexist in free society. Blacks hated ACS, dehumanization, few wished ti migrate back to Africa and society accomplished little.
Did not own slaves. Were not slaves. But many laws regulated their behavior. They couldn't vote, had a curfew, and couldn't have liquor. B/c slaves mixed in with free blacks had higher chance of revolting. Some free blacks bought slaves, mostly their relatives, to give them better life. New Orleans had huge free black population and was a place for many revolts.
Lowell Factory town with reliance on female labor
Unmarried women working for a few years before returning to their home town
Strikes of 1834 and 1836; petitions for 10 hour days in 1840s
New workers were assigned mentors to introduces them to work in the factories
Women living together in boarding houses
Forming of Factory Girls’ Association
How far is this ‘progressive’ or ‘coercive’
create a syllabary for Cherokees. various characters taken from English, Greek, and Hebrew alphabets, but have completely different values in his system. officially adopted in 1825 by Cherokee Nation. soon literacy among Cherokee way higher than among backwoods White neighbors
Outspoken southern leader and advocate of states' rights. Favored nullification and the extension of slavery into the territories. Vice president under Presidents John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson. Resigned over nullification issue. Said North should grant South's demands + keep quiet about slavery to keep the peace. He was a spokesman for the south and states' right.
Who: Thomas Paine written pamphlet, printed and soldby Robert Bell
What: pamphlet published at beginning of AmericanRevolution
Where: published and printed in Philadelphia, sold inAmerica and Europe
Significance: took ideas from the Enlightenment and put them in blunt terms so that even the uneducated could understand. it denied the legitimacy of the monarch. the idea that the colonists should be an example as to how a society should be run. it had the largest sale and circulation of any book published in American history. presented american colonists with an argument for freedom from British rule when they were undecided if they wanted such actions.
○ Who: 56 representatives from each colony (except GA)
○ What: Declaration of rights and resolves; set deadlineto rescind intolerable acts
○ Where: Philadelphia
○ When: September 1774
Significance: agree to declaration of rights and resolves, called in response t o the passage of the coercive acts (intolerable acts), boycotted british goods and threatened to seize exports to Britain which caused repeal of the intolerable acts. delegates urged colonies to set up and train its own militia, wanted to be an example to the rest of the world; appealed to Calvinist heritage.
○ Who: British Parliament enforced direct tax oncolonists; affected larger group of people than other taxes (part of GeorgeGrenville’s Revenue Bills)
○ What: any printed material must have a stamp on itthat must be paid for; Tax on printed materials (court documents, newspapers,playing cards), Stamp printed in London
○ Where: London, England Stamp printing, traveled tocolonies
Significance: for taxes, the British felt the colonies should pay for the British military's presence in the colonies after the seven year war, led to wanting parliamentary representaitoin, politicized many who weren't interested in politics before, affected much broader swath of Americans, Virginia resolves and Stamp Act congress set up resolutions, stamp act riots- sons of liberty organized small scale riots to get rid of stamps before the were placed on paper, repealed in 1776, one of the causes of the American Revolution
○ Who: Radical group of colonists
○ What: Wanted morecourts, better representation, tax reform and debt relief
○ Where: North Carolina
○ When: 1754
■ Ended Salutary Neglect - more regulations and taxesfrom british, discontent from colonists because of less freedoms
○ Who: British (King George III), colonists, and NativeAmericans
○ What: British launched this because they didn’t havethe resources to defend the line between white settlement and Native Americanterritory. Bargain, organized empires and stabilized relations, extended theline along Appalachian mountains from Massachusetts down
○ Where: Line of Appalachian Mountains
○ When: 1763
Significance: extended the line down the east coast and said whites couldnt cross it if they were there already had to move back. it was a source of resentment between the colonists and the crown. the colonists were mad because they needed cheap land, the crown couldn't defend them anymore. to give native americans their territory back- no white settlers allowed to settle west of line, too expensive to protect colonies from indians so british said they couldnt go beyond this point. hard to regulate and passed because the colonists couldnt do anything about it.
○ Who: Ben Franklin
○ What: a proposed agreement between the colonies towork together in terms of Native American relations and defense
○ Where: Albany, NY
○ When: 1754
significance: to coordinate colonial defense, levy taxes, and regulate indian affairs. colonists were distrustful (arguing over land), rejected but it was important because it was the first time someone puts together an idea for intercolonial cooperation, colonists argued over the land, inspired parts of the Articles of confederation.
○ Who: Gentry and people like Charles Chauncy; middle toupper-class; established elites; educated; creditors
○ What: Challenged Conservative ministers
Where: Eastern Seaboard Towns
○ When: 1705-1787
Significance: liked balance and reason, funded by taxes, claims passion does not equal divine communication, product of enlightenment; connected to great awakening, religion should come from conversion experience, conflict between old lights and new lights produced splintering of churches, old lights like authority and traditional religion- established colleges to educated ministers
○ Who: anglican minister; Charismatic, young, angelic
○ What: followerof John Wesley and brought his message to colonies and preached; spoke frommemory and did not read sermons
○ When: (1714-1770) : 1739
○ Where: Colonies
Significance: followers were called new lights, followers felt confident and strengthened, told people to seek salvation, produced religious upheavel and the North and the South
○ Who: Isaac Newton, Nicholas Copernicus, Ben Franklin
○ What: different way of thinking, broke away fromtradition. Product of the enlightenment’s violence. King doesnt have a “divineright”.(Everyone equal)
○ When: response to 16th century wars
○ Where: Europe
Significance: influence is shown in declaration of independence, slow process with a small number of people, reaction of religious upheaval, explained idea that you can still believe a religion and nderstand science without combining the two.
Who: John Locke
What: piece written during the enlightenment period of England, new way of thinking
○ Why / Significance:
■ tabula rasa (means "a blank slate")
● humans are born with a blank slate and learn fromtheir environment
● aren’t born with original sin
■ everyone under God is created equal- no divine rightof kingsWho we become emerges from our interactions withsociety
○ Who: political party; (example: Robert Walpole)
○ What: one must balance the power of the monarchy,aristocracy, and democracy
○ When: Emerged in 17th century between battles ofParliament and the crown
○ Where: England
Significance: believed in the balance of power and property holding requirements to vote, put forth the idea of a healthy society to protect the liberty of the citizens and must balance power, vigilant public- citizens had to watch for infringement on liberties, there was mob violence- which meant that the legislature is responsive to what the people want, elected legislatures, prohibition of standing armies
○ Who: small family farms; Yeomanfarmers
○ What: Puritan goal of achievingcomfort, security, and a certain level of wealth
○ When: 1700s and onward? early to mid general rangeof time in 1700s
○ Where: northern colonies, newengland
significance: farms became so divided and subdivided that it was hard for the large families to have small land sos the decisions was to have smaller families, pursue western lands, attempting new crops, and developing a barter system. goal was for competency. the population doubled with each generation and the families were having so many kids that it was hard to provide land for each and every one of them, which lead to an indian conflict over land.
○ Who: Parliament and Crown
○ What: set of laws on any exports and imports
○ When: 1651-1663
○ Where: excluded Dutch merchants, mainly betweencolonies and England where the exports had to pass through
significance: excluded dutch merchants from the colonies, all imports had to be carried by english/colonial ships, any exports from america had to be sent to england first so england was able to tax virtually everything, allowed the crown to make more money and tax those goods, colonists still traded with the dutch- showing resentment.
○ Who: English/Colonial merchants
○ What: Colonies would produce raw materials and sendthem to England to make household goods and etc (finished products ex. sendcotton to England for clothes to be made and sold)
■ mercantilism is the idea that exports must exceedimports
○ When: 16th -18th centuries
○ Where: dominant in Europe / New World
significance: put england on top because raw materials would come to them so that they could sell stuff back to the colonies and europe. the government must control all economic activities. the colonies were to produce raw materials and crops that they could make into finished goods in england and then sell to europe. the thought that the total worlds wealth remains fixed but the nations share in that wealth can change. english wanted to cut out dutch. the idea that the english or colonial merchants were to control all trade in and out.
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