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Women’s voting rights.
Prohibition. Led to the beginning of mass-organized crime.
Provided employment in construction of airports, parks, schools, and roads.
-empoyed artists and actors
-9 million people hired
-1937 unemployment back-up
Was the Works Progress Administration (1935)
guys who fought in the treches come back with physical reactions to loud noises, different behaviors
1. physical reaction from being in trenches
2. psychological manifestation
3. thousand yard stare
Americans began to feel great national pride and religious zeal. They felt it was their responsibility to convert people to Christianity. This led to “the white man’s burden.”
Rose to the top of the steel industry. He was not focus on revenues, but expenses. He got rid of all competition by cutting costs. He created vertical integration
Gaining control of every step one takes from the beginning to the finished product.
In Pullman, Illinois at the Pullman Palace Car Co., the company cut 25-40% of wages but it didn’t lower the workers’ housing rent. Then he fired three members of a workers’ grievance committee and the strike started.
Union workers stopped handling Pullman railcars, which ended up shutting down most of the railroads in the Mid-west.
Railroad executives then hired strikebreakers to connect mail cars to Pullman cars so that interference with Pullman cars would entail interference with the federal mail.
President G. Cleveland had to call in the army to the strike.
The Attorney General won an injunction forbidding any interference with the mail or any effort to restrain interstate commerce.
Then the union called off the strike.
There is still no pattern of suggested public or governmental sympathy for labor unions.
n Republicans were a northern party – none in the south at all – worried about becoming a minority party after the north & south splitting over the war (dem in north & south, but rep only in north) – so Lincoln tried to win support from southerners who were upset about the economic issues resulting from the war (& those who blamed democrats) b/c he wants votes
1863- Lincoln's 10% plan
n To be readmitted to the Union, all the Southern states must outlaw slavery and 10% of those who had voted in the 1860 election have to take an oath of loyalty. Confederate officers, judges, congressmen, and military officials are excluded. Lincoln wanted more Southern votes so his 10% plan is easier for poor southern whites to re-enter the Union.
n Some in Washington believed Lincoln was being too soft on the south – said that he should be worrying about the blacks’ votes who would plan to vote rep after they were freed (b/c the rep in the north freed them)
n Radical Republican who argued that the Confederate states should be viewed as conquered provinces, subject to the absolute will of the victors, and that the “whole fabric of southern society must be changed.”
n Thought Johnson was “an alien enemy of a foreign state.”
n Radical Republican,
n Thought Johnson was “an insolent drunken brute.”
n 1864 – Wade-Davis Bill, majority declare allegiance, only those who took an “ironclad” could vote or hold office
– Passed in 1864 – Proposed by the Radical ®’s… required 50% of the Southern whites to vow that they never supported the Confederacy. Only those who vowed would be eligible to vote or serve in state constitutional conventions. The radicals didn’t want former Confeds to regain political power. Lincoln vetoes the bill.
– Lincoln doesn’t live to see the union come back together b/c his assassination - Andrew Johnson will
n The first form of public welfare, it protected the rights of former slaves and helped establish social structures (education, health, land ownership) for blacks and poor whites. At the time, public welfare was an unprecedented idea.
n Lee (confed) surrenders to the U. (Lost to Ulysses S. Grant).
April 15, 1865-
shot by j.w Booth
n The new president.
n He grew up illiterate and had very little formal education. He was from Tennessee but was loyal to the U. He hated southern aristocrats and blamed them for the war.
n His plan to restore the U was similar to Lincoln’s 10% plan, but he wanted to exclude anyone with taxable property greater than $10k until they got a presidential pardon from him. He wanted aristocrats to beg.
n 1865-66. Social rules that were meant to restrict black opportunity. They helped the radical ®’s cause in congress because they sowed that the South needed stronger conditions for reentry or they wouldn’t change their ways.
n The South elected ex-confeds to congress, but they were denied seats. Johnson favored the southern states when this happened, and he didn’t care about the black codes either. This gave Johnson a bad rep with the radicals.
n He vetoes the Freedman’s Bureau extension in 1866 so congress overrides it.
· (all native-born, except Native Americans) legal protections and benefits of citizenship
n Johnson also vetoes this and Congress overrides it. This is the first time congress overrides a veto for a bill. This bill was a response to the black codes. It excludes n=Native Americans.
n No State may abridge the privileges and immunities of citizenship…or deprive any person of life, liberty, property without due process of law or deny any person the equal protection of the law
n Became requirement for readmission
n EPL was important during the civil rights movement. This amendment becomes a requirement for readmission to the U.
n Johnson vs. Radicals. He went on speaking tours to promote congressional candidates from his party. Radicals would send hecklers to follow J on his tour, provoking violent and bizarre behavior from the president. In the 1866 congress election, Republicans won more than a 2/3 majority in each house, which is enough to override any presidential veto.
n Ten southern states, except Tennessee, were divided into 5 military districts and the commanding officer of each was authorized to keep order and protect the “rights of persons and property.” Each State constitution had to provide universal male suffrage.
n directed the army commanders to register all adult men who swore they were qualified.
n March 27 1868: Congress simply removed the power of the Supreme Court to review cases arising under the Military Reconstruction Act.
n directed registrars to go beyond the loyalty oath and determine each person’s eligibility to take it and authorized district army commanders to remove and replace officeholders of any existing “so-called state” or division thereof.
n Stated that the president may not remove from office any official who was approved of by the Senate w/o the Senate’s explicit permission. This was made to keep the Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton in place because he was a radical ® sympathizer.
n Secretary of War, refused to resign despite his disagreements with President Johnson
n He was suspended by Johnson and replaced with General Ulysses S. Grant, but the Senate refused to confirm and Grant returned the office to Stanton.
n He removed Stanton from office, violating the Tenure of Office Act.
n He was one vote shy of removal from office, so after the trial he stayed out of the radicals’ way.
n Johnson sought the Democratic presidential nomination but lost to NY governor Horatio Seymour, who then lost to the Republican Ulysses S. Grant in the general election.
n “Race, color or previous condition of servitude.”
n This forbade states to deny any person the right to vote (other than women and N.A.’s)
n (Voting Rights Act of 1965-preclearance)
A Lincoln-era concept for compensation that was rumored to be rewarded to newly freed slaves. Johnson ended this because of a dispute between the value of private property rights and human rights. Reconstruction gave slaves nothing but their freedom.
Violence –KKK, force out blacks,
Organized in 1866 as a social club, with the costumes/secret rituals common to fraternal groups.
At first was a group of pranksters which then turned into intimidation of blacks and white Republicans.
The KKK was formed as a secret club meant to force out blacks, black sympathizers, carpetbaggers, scalawags, and ®’s.
Carpet Baggers: Northerners who had rushed to the South to take advantage of political spoils and economic opportunities
Scalawags: Native white Republicans who had opposed secession
Grant’s brother in law, Jay Gould, and James Fish tried to steal gold from the fed.
They bought massive quantities of Gold to create a public craze.
As more buyers joined the frenzy, the value of gold would soar.
Grant was seen in public with the speculators, leading people to think that he supported the run on gold.
Financial panic caused by the collapse of the bank James Cooke & Co
Jay Cooke and Company fails
Prestigious investment bank which went bankrupt on September 18, 1873
Ensuing stampede of investors eager to exchange securities for cash forced the stock market to close for ten days.
Democrats regain control of Congress, this signals the end of the Radical Reconstruction efforts.
This extended protections against racial discrimination in public businesses. It was meant to use the 14th amendment to prevent private discrimination. This is the last manifestation of a radical ® idea.
Promises to be an interesting contest because democrats have a chance to win for the first time in 20 years. The D candidate is Samuel Tilden and the ® is former U general Rutherford Hayes. To win, the candidate needs 185 electoral votes. Tilden wins the popular vote and gets 184 electoral votes (Hayes gets 165). There are 20 votes in dispute from SC, LA, and FL. Congress set up an electoral commission. It was balanced between D’s and R’s, but at the last minute Justice David Davis resigns from the Supreme Court so the commission ends up with 8 ®’s and 7 D’s, so Hayes wins.
BUT BEFORE, several informal agreements occurred between the dems and repubs: Prominent Ohio Republicans and powerful southern Democrats struck a secret bargain at Wormley’s Hotel in Washinton, D.C. The Republicans promised that if Hayes were elected, he would withdraw the last federal troops from Louisiana and South Carolina, letting the republican governments there collapse. In return, the Democrats promised to withdraw their opposition to Hayes, accept in good faith the Reconstruction amendments (including civil rights for blacks), and refrain from partisan reprisals against Republicans in the South.
D’s were pissed with the election, they had to make a compromise with ®’s. The southern D’s would agree to accept Hayes in exchange for “pledges,” the most important- the withdrawal of federal troops from the south. This officially ends reconstruction.
During the presidential campaign of 1872, the public learned about the corruption of the Credit Mobilier of America
A phony company that was set up by the Union Pacific Railroad who had miled the Union Pacific for exorbitant fees in order to earn money for insiders who controlled both firms
Schemers gave congressmen shares of stock in the enterprise to buy political support
Included Speaker of the House Schuyler Colfax, later vice president & Representative James A. Garfield, later president, & 13 other Congress members
The protection of black civil rights crumbled under the pressure of restored white rule in the South and the force of Supreme Court decisions narrowing the scope of the Reconstruction amendments to the Constitution.
Radical Reconstruction never offered more than an uncertain commitment to black civil rights and social equality.
These were a series of cases in which blacks claimed they had been discriminated against according to the Civil Rights Act of ’75. The Supreme Ct. declared that the Civil Rights act was unconstitutional because the 14th amendment doesn’t hold the actions of private individuals accountable, only the actions of the states.
“Separate but equal.” Plessy was denied access to a white car on a train. The S.C. argued that separation of the races was constitutional as long as both groups were equal.
Is an annual tax on voting that usually cost one or two dollars a year. Poor blacks usually only made $30 a year.
Protected the voters from bullying, but they had to be able to read the ballots in order to cast a vote.
Were given at the time of voter registration. Unfair for blacks.
Existed for voter registration.
several poor whites were still excluded from voting because they were illiterate or poor, so this created a loophole to allow them to vote. Stated if your grandpa was eligible to vote in March of 1867, then you could vote.
By the turn of the century, the voter turnout was much lower than it should’ve been. (95% of black and 35% of whites were turned away from the polls).
The new poll rules cut out the group of people who were the most likely to vote for someone who would change the status quo.
Williams was a black who was convicted of murder by an all white jury. The was denied a jury of his peers. If the S.C. had admitted that the jury selection was corrupt, then it would mean that the method of voter registration was corrupt, which was proof of racial discrimination. The S.C. rules that all of the poll rules are constitutional and Williams is executed for his crimes.
Most of the people in the rural South lived on land that was only fit for growing cotton, but the global demand for cotton was decreasing. Cotton prices before the Civil war had been based on slave prices (avg: $900). Few banks would accept land as collateral, and there was no credit. In the C.L. system, a farmer makes an arrangement with a banker of a merchant to mortgage his future crops. This is a risky loan, so the interest rates are high. Sharecroppers were dependent on the person above them who got the loan from the bank, so the high interest rates are passed down to them, leading them deeper and deeper into debt. At the end of the year, sharecroppers got the money from their share of the crop minus the debts incurred against them over the last year, as well as the high interest rates on crop liens that had been passed along by the landowner.
The demand for cotton had decreased. The people only lived on land good for growing cotton. They were forced to grow more cotton and make the same amount of $ each year. This put many farmers in debt. Many farmers ended up as sharecroppers on land they used to own.
Sharecroppers had no control over the price of their crop or when or where it was sold. Landlords and merchants above them held that power b/c sharecroppers were indebted to them. Southern industry was also not developing at this time the way the rest of the country was. There was a lack of urban markets, made it hard for farmers be/c they had no one to sell their cash crops to. There was a labor surplus in the south = no pressure to mechanize agriculture. This kept the south in a regressive technological state.
1860-1910. Rural communities doubled, urban communities grew 7x. European immigrants were drawn to cities. Cities became overcrowded, polluted, and corrupt.
The Industrial Revolution: 1860-1890. Manufacturing capital grew from 1bil to 10 billion dollars. The industrial workforce grew by 400%. Railroad mileage grew from 30k miles to 193k miles. People viewed railroads as a get rich quick scheme so they quickly became corrupt, chaotic, and unstable. All of the RR chaos lead to the first federal agency created for economic regulation.
J. Gould versus C. Vanderbilt: Erie railroad vs. NY central railroad. They wanted to ship beef from Buffalo to NYC and their rate per RR car was $125. Gould tricked Vanderbilt into dropping his price to $1, then he buys all the cattle and ships it on Vanderbilt’s railroad for really cheap.
Created the Interstate Commerce Commission. Allowed the ICC to investigate any company engaged in interstate commerce. It didn’t have much power though. They could only draw up guidelines. This was a conservative time where people were skeptical of fed economic regulation, so the ICC wasn’t popular among citizens.
A business agreement. A separate entity that governs an operation of similar businesses. There is a board of trustees. The companies helped each other and combined to create monopolies.
1860-1880, 13K TONS—1.4M
The method of refining crude iron into steel. From 1860-80, the amount of steel refined in the U.S. increased from 13k tons to 1.4 million tons.
The head of the largest bank in the U.S., wanted to buy Carnegie Steel. He paid Carnegie 480 million for the co. and turned it into U.S. Steel. Carnegie then engaged in a long philanthropy period until his death.
1882 STANDARD OIL TRUST
Established the Standard Oil Co., was the most associated with vertical integration, and he controlled 92% of all petrol in the States. In 1882 he turned his co. into the Standard Oil Trust.
“In restraint of trade”
States could not regulate trusts and cut down on monopolies b/c of the 14th amendment, and the public was worried about the power of trusts. This led to the SAA. It restricted trusts and business combinations, but it was too vague to really regulate anything. Congress was aware of this (lobby groups)
ECK was a company that controlled over 95% of the sugar refineries in the States. The SC ruled that they were not in violation of the SAA b/c they were refining sugar, not trading it.
A tax on imported goods in the States, meant to protect American industry from foreign competition. It can be beneficial when a new industry is starting, but often the prices are inflated because foreign competition is gone. Therefore, consumers are unhappy. Other countries retaliated by raising their own tariffs that depressed the States’ export market. Countries that put up tariff barriers risk isolation (“overproduction w/o outlet”). This leads to a slumping economy and unemployment. Thus, the government deliberately causes inflation so that imports become more expensive w/o the use of a tariff.
Example: China. Keeps its currency at a low value compared to the dollar so that they are competitive in the US market.
If protective tariffs led to so many problems then why were they implemented?
Both political parties represented the interests of big businesses, so they had to stay loyal and help them out.
At this time, unions had bad reputations b/c they attracted anarchists. Unions were meant to organize workers to achieve benefits. The NLU brought together small, local unions. The economic panic of 1873 undercut the appeal of unions though b/c everyone needed to work.
A union that was open to “all who toil,” excluding lawyers, bankers, gamblers, and liquor dealers (people who contribute nothing to society). The K of L ended up with a diverse group of people with varying agendas, so they rarely accomplished anything.
Believed that government -any government- was in itself an abusive device used by the rich and powerful to oppress and exploit the working poor.
Promoted revolutionary action among the masses in the hopes of the eventual disappearance of government altogether.
Used dramatic acts of violence against representatives of the government
Occurred in Chicago during an attempt at a national strike for an 8-hour workday. An anarchist threw a bomb at the strike, killing 8 police, 8 demonstrators, and leading to 8 people being arrested and later executed. Critics of labor unions managed to pin the violence of the riot on the K of L. These accusations further undermined the legitimacy of labor unions.
Occurred at Carnegie Steel in Pennsylvania. While Carnegie liked labor unions, one of his associates wasn’t. The union asked for a 12% wage increase and the associate proposed a 22% cut. During the strike, Pinkertons, from the Pinkerton Detective Agency, were called to control the strike and were attacked by workers.
A union started by people from 25 craft unions and led by Samuel Gompers, the head of the American Cigar Makers Union. The AFL became the modern labor model and the prototype for the American Labor movement in the 20th century. No radicals were allowed in, only skilled workers. The federation had specific goals about gaining workers rights.
Founding president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Petitioned to have the Illinois Supreme Court appeal for clemency for the seven convicted anarchist leaders involved in the Haymarket Riot.
Hates anarchy, but hated injustice enough to petition
The D’s and ®’s were closely matched in the late 70’s, so their platforms became more similar as well to get moderate votes. The presidents of the late century were considered lackluster. Garfield was the most influential b/c he was shot by a republican who thought he deserved a position in Garfield’s administration b/c he had been a loyal supporter. This illuminated the “Spoils System” issue. Chester A. Arthur, Garfield’s successor, got behind the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883, which put a percentage of federal employees on the merit system. Each proceeding president could increase a number of positions to civil service. By 1910, 2/3 of fed employees were in civil service.
8,000 businesses failed. At this time, Cleveland repealed the Sherman Silver Act b/c the national treasury was going to lose tons of money. In 1895, J.P. Morgan bought 62 million dollars from bonds in gold b/c Cleveland wanted the gold for the national treasury. These last two events caused Populist outrage, so they plan to have a populist candidate run for the presidency.
It was a Midwest organization that formed cooperatives of farmers who bought supplies in bulk for lower prices and sold their crops in bulk for high returns.
Formed in the 1880’s. These went into politics for the farmers. The alliances had candidates for state legislatures and congress. One of their biggest goals was to expand the currency supply so there would be more money in circulation, making it easier to get credit (lower interest rates). The growing U.S. population was not taken into consideration.
rise in industry hurts farmers. Farm prices decrease, interest rates increase, so farmers are losing money and gaining debt. Due to the protective tariff, farmers had to buy supplies in a protected market so they had to pay higher prices as well. In 1900, 70% of the cotton crop was exported, but b/c of the protective tariff, foreign countries didn’t or couldn’t buy cotton from the States.
During the Civil War, greenback dollars were issued and they were redeemable in gold. Farmers wanted greenback in circulation to lower interest rates, but bankers and businesses preferred hard money (gold).
Congress passed, and it recalled all of the greenbacks. The farmers decided then that they would settle for silver money.
Was passed over president Grant’s veto. It required that each month, the govt. must purchase 2-4 million dollars in silver coins. Treasury always bought the minimum of 2 million and didn’t put the silver into circulation.
Expanded on the B-A act, but added that the govt. had to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver a month. The govt. paid for it with certificates that looked like dollars and were based on the dollar amt of silver, with the ratio 16:1 (an ounce of gold is worth 16x an ounce of silver). These certificates were redeemable for gold or silver.
Was an alliance lecturer and organizer who thought that farmers should “raise less corn and more hell.” She had early socialist fiscal opinions.
The highest tariff passed up to this point in U.S. history. It was a severe blow to the morale and economy of the farmers.
Farmers were fed up with being misrepresented. They got James B. Weaver to run for president, but he doesn’t win.
They drew up the Omaha Platform- basically their political platform.
Had these key issues:
Free and unlimited coinage of gold and silver at the ratio of 16:1.
The sub-treasury plans, which said that farmers could deposit their crops in govt. warehouses and use the crops as collateral (a way for farmers to get around the banks).
National ownership of railroads, telegraphs, and telephones.
Postal Savings Banks (banks that wouldn’t fail)
Direct election of senators.
Initiative, referendum, and recall (a means by which people could vote on a proposal and make it law).
The democrats take their fiscal platform straight from the
Omaha platform and they run W.J. Bryan for president. He was a supporter of silver from Nebraska and he appealed to Populists with his “Cross of Gold” speech.
The D’s tell the P’s that if they support Bryan, they will run Watson (a well known populist spokesman) as the VP candidate. At the last minute the D’s decided that they would lose too many eastern “gold bug” voters if they ran two silver men, so they ran A. Sewell for VP instead.
The populists get pissed ad nominate Watson for VP anyways.
The ® nominee was McKinley, an supporter of gold. He was attractive to ®’s and gold bug D’s. His slogan was “full dinner pail” and he promised full restoration of American prosperity. Czolgosz assassinated him in 1901, and this fuels the fear that immigrants threaten the stability of the US.
Teddy Roosevelt becomes the president. At this point, people still hadn’t realized the VP could become the Pres… Roosevelt is considered by historians to be the first modern president of the country because of his assertive nature and leadership. He passed lots of wildlife conservation laws.
Look to government to regulate economy and society for the common good
The last quarter of the 19th century was unstable, so during the PRE, people looked to the govt. to regulate the economy and society. Roosevelt was a progressive reformer. He was one of the first presidents to not care about big businesses as much.
NS was a combo of two powerful railroads that formed a near monopoly in the northwest. Roosevelt had it prosecuted under the SAA.
Coal workers on strike b/c they want higher wages, shits down coal mines right before the winter. The president had stood on the side of businesses during past strikes, but this time he threatens to use troops to run the mine unless the owners agreed to reopen the mines.
Outlawed rebates or secret payments to/from railroad companies.
Extended the power of the ICC so that they can establish fines without taking RR companies to court. Roosevelt didn’t want to destroy big companies; he wanted to control them.
Upton Sinclair—The Jungle
1906 Meat Inspection Act
early examples of expose journalism.
Ex: Upton Sinclair, wrote The Jungle, exposed the filthy conditions and practices of the meat packing industry. This book leads to the Meat Inspection Act. Reforming the food industry was expensive, so it was hard for small businesses to stay competitive.
Provided federal inspection of meat products and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transport of adulterated food products and poisonous patent medicines.
Roosevelt decided to not run for re-election, so Taft is elected. He was a ® lawyer from Yale who was very conservative.
lowered certain tariffs on goods entering the States. Taft fully endorsed this bill.
Taft tries to use reserved lands for lumber and Pinchot refuses so Taft fires him.
Initiative, referendum, recall
Both petition for statehood, but Taft vetoes the territories b/c their lack of initiative, referendum, and recall bills. The states later put these three things in their constitutions.
TR Progressive (“Bull Moose”) Party
Roosevelt runs under the party.
New Freedom v. New Nationalism
Woodrow Wilson (D) runs against Taft. Wilson wins.
n example of tariff reform and enabling legislation for the ratification of the 16th amendment,
(1%>$3k, surtax, $20k-500k up to 7% total)
No interlocking directorates, or restrictive business agreements
Outlawed interlocking directorates and exclusive/restrictive business agreements.
Established regional farm banks where farmers could get loans with lower interest rates. This was a populist idea that took effect after the collapse of the party
1893 – Liliuokilani overthrown
1898 – Hawaii annexed
It had land that was perfect for sugar. People would travel out there to grow it. Hawaii didn’t have a sugar tariff until 1890. When whites moved to Hawaii, they brought diseases that killed many native Hawaiians, so whites took the majority. The US overthrew Queen Liliuoukilani in a coup and Hawaii was annexed in 1898.
Cubans rebelled against Spain and burned the sugarcane crop. This led to the rise of mass journalism in the U.S. The 2 main competitors in the field were J. Pulitzer and W.R. Hearst. They sent correspondents to Cuba to write, and if they couldn’t find any stories, they were told to manufacture stories. This led to “yellow journalism,” a precursor to tabloids.
One big story was about Valeriano “Butcher,” a Spanish commandant who allegedly sent Cubans to concentration camps. In 1898, Spanish ambassador Delome wrote a letter that said President McKinley was weak willed. The letter was published and it fueled anti-Spanish sentiment in America.
The USS Maine explodes in Havana Harbor and leads to the beginning of war between the US and Spain. The American battle cry was “Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain!”
Teddy Roosevelt, who wanted war with Spain, sends Dewey to Manila in the Philippines, a Spanish territory. The US now has strongholds in many Spanish territories including Guam, P.R., and the Philippines.
President McKinley decides that the US needs to educate, uplift, and Christianize the natives. In 1899 the Philippines rebel against the US, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, but the US was victorious.
It was an attachment to another bill in the Constitution, and the Cubans were instructed to add it to their constitution as well. It required a permanent release of the Naval base at Guantanamo to the U.S., as well as Cuban non-entanglement, which ensured US security.
Open Door Notes
Spheres of influence
After establishing a position in the Philippines, the US was able to do business in China. Other EU countries had arrived there already, so we passed the open door notes (in 1899 and 1900). These notes were agreements between the US and EU countries to leave China’s authority to the Chinese and to respect free trade.
the U.S. needed a way to get to the Pacific faster. In 1901, the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty was passed with the Brits to get them out of Panama. Phillipe Bunau-Varilla was a French man whose company had a lease to build the canal. At the time, Panama was controlled by Colombia, and they wouldn’t accept payment from the US to build the canal. Americans went in and overthrew Colombian rule. In 1903, the Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty was passed, which said the US must pay 10 million dollars a year for the power to build the canal. Teddy Roosevelt was mostly responsible for this, as he ignored the authority of congress.
it was passed in 1823, stated that EU shouldn’t interfere in the western hemisphere.
1904 – Roosevelt Corollary
The Roosevelt Corollary was added, saying the US would assume police power in the W. Hemisphere.
Teddy Roosevelt had global interest and was concerned with the US losing its strategic position in Asia. He admired and feared the Japs because he was worried they would dominate Asian economic affairs.
Roosevelt decided to mediate in hopes of preventing either country from dominating economic affairs in Asia.
There was a large population of Japs in California, and native-born citizens were threatened. Japs were segregated and this angered the Japanese government.
– Gentleman’s Agreement
Roosevelt’s solution to the “Yellow Peril.” The Jap govt. had to agree to reduce the # of Japs coming to the US and the SanFran school board would in turn do away with segregated schools.
1907-09 Great White Fleet
Roosevelt didn’t want to look too soft in the face of the Japs after passing this agreement, so he planned the worldwide tour of the Great White Fleet from 1907-1909 in which the US Navy would go on a cruise right past Japan in hopes of threatening the Japs. It didn’t work b/c the Japs were honored instead; they thought it was homage to Japan.
The Germans took hold of Alsace-Lorraine, a territory on the border of Germany and France. Germany was gaining power and other EU countries were worried.
Russia wanted a foothold port near Bulgaria, but Germany didn’t want them to take that area. Austria-Hungary’s Archduke, F. Ferdinand, was sent to Serbia in 1914 and was shot in the street. A-H declared war on Serbia and Germany supported them. Subsequently, Germany, then Russia, then France, then Belgium, then Britain mobilize in support of their allies.
Brits drop mines and form a blockade in order to prevent American supplies from reaching Germany. The U.S. had remained “neutral,” but they secretly supported Britain. Germans devised submarines to prey on ships exporting to Britain.
In 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania and killed 1200 people (including 120 Americans).
In 1916, the US forces Germany to take the Sussex Pledge, saying that subs couldn’t sink vessels that weren’t military vessels.
In 1917, Germany returns to unrestricted submarine warfare.
In Feb. 1917, the Brits release the Zimmerman Note, which was addressed to Mexico saying that if Mexico attacked the U.S. the Germans would help Mexico. This causes the U.S. to enter the war with President Wilson’s slogan “the world must be made safe for democracy.”
In November 1917, the Russian Revolution happened. This led to the communist govt. in Russia. In 1918, the Bolshevik govt. negotiated peace with Germany that took Russia out of the war and allowed Germany to focus on smaller countries around it.
Were the basic aims the Allies were fighting for in WWI, meant to be the basis for any peace settlement endorsed by the allies. Included points were Open Covenants, Freedom of Sea, Removal of Economic Barriers, and the League of Nations. In October 1918, Wilson makes an appeal for a democratic congress, but the Republicans gain control anyways. The EU reps at the Versailles conference had a different agenda.
Freedom of the sea
Remove economic barriers
League of Nations
October 1918—Appeal for Democratic Congress
In the summer of 1919, H.C. Lodge (the D chair of the Senate Relations committee and a rival of Wilson) read the League of Nations Charter and said that Senate shouldn’t approve of it unless Article X is amended = it said that the US must go to war to defend any member of the L of N if it was attacked.
Wilson disagrees and says that if the US didn’t go through with the charter, we would lose credibility and respect as a nation.
In October of 1919, Wilson goes on a speaking tour and has a stroke.
In 1921, the US signs a separate peace agreement with Germany and A-H but doesn’t join the L of N b/c it is arbitrary anyways.
The number of compromises he makes at Versailles in order to get the L of N charter passed end up priming Germany for Hitler’s exploitation and they also set the stage for WWII.
1. Program of substantial loans initiated by the United States in 1947; designed to aid Western nations in rebuilding from war’s devastation; vehicle for American economic dominance.