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r. 285- 305 AD; reorganized the empire into 2 parts (Easternand Western) and strengthened it; had 2 emperors and 2 juniors; tries to endChristianity with a lot of prosecutions and destroying sites of worship
the way of life characteristic of monks or nuns, in which they withdraw entirely or in part from society to devote themselves to prayer, solitude, and contemplation
A movement in the Christian church that arose first in the East in the third and fourth centuries C.E. in which first individual hermits and later organized communities of men and women (monks and nuns) separated themselves from the world to lead lives in imitation of Christ. In the West the Rule of St. Benedict (c. 480-547) became the dominant form of monasticism
Replace martyrdom to imitate Christ and to confess one's faith
-An intellectual revival of interest in ancient Greek philosophy and science and in Roman law in western Europe during the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries
-Flowering of vernacular lit and the Romanesque and Gothic styles in architecture
Became King of England after the Glorious Revolution.
Mary was his wife
Sparked by the dismissal of Parliament in England in 1629 by King Charles I, the war began in 1640 and ended in 1649 with the decapitation of King Charles I. The rebellion was spearheaded by the Puritan soldier Oliver Cromwell.
-Puritan supporters of parliment were called roundheads
-those who were loyal to charles were called Cavaliers
1000 BC; poor, free men; don’t really count in the beginningof the civilization; later leaders rise up to defend the poor of the city; somerepresentation in the Senate and government
146 BC; 3 wars total; between Rome and Carthage; 1st=Romans built a Navy and won conquering Sicily; 2nd= who wouldcontrol Spain, Hannibal led but Scipio defeats Hannibal; 3rd=ultimate defeat of Carthage in 146
Tiberius and GaiusGracchusà
elected tribune multiple times, ignored by Senate, creates300 men protection army, starts civil war, and looses
138- 78 BC; Marius’ rival; most successful general; declareshimself dictator for 3 years (82-79 BC)
* strong leader who helped restore order in Rome
* he got the people to name him “dictator for life”
* but people feared he was getting too powerful (like a king)
* Senate, Crassus, and Pomey turned against him because of his popularity
* Brutus assassinated him in 44BC
* had a child with Cleopatra
made up of Octavian, Mark Antony, Marcus Lepidus this group ruled soon after Caesar’s assassination in 44 B.C. Lepidus died; Octavian and Antony divided the rule of the empire, but soon engaged in civil war as well; Octavian emerged as the victor
r. 54-68 AD; was said to be ‘bad’ emperor; he was an athleteand musician; during the great fire in Rome, it’s said he was playing his fiddlewatching the city burn; blamed for the fire, so he turned blame on theChristians; killed a lot of Christians in response, such as Peter and Paul;died in 68 AD
- 4 - 30 C.E. Jewish preacher and teacher in rural areas of Galilee and Judea, arrested for seditious political activity, tried and crucified by the Roman governor Pontius Pilate. Founder of Christianity; after his execution, followers claimed he rose from the dead and taken up into heaven, began to teach that he was the divine representative of God, the Messiah, had suffered for the sins of humanity and would return to judge at the end of time.
King Clovis was founder of the Frankish kingdom. His people invaded and defeated the last Roman army in Gaul. He was the first catholic to rule over Gaul.
Practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans
excessive interest on a loan
Church offices granted the ruler of a state or the pope to an individual
It also meant Fiefs in the Middle Ages
Land in exchange for military services
territory in central Italy ruled by the pope until 1870
lands surrounding Rome
The social, political, military, and economic system that previaled in the Middle Ages and beyond in some parts of Europe
dominated by warlords
feudal bonds provided protection from outside predators
a person granted an estate or cash payments in return for accepting the obligation to render services to a lord
were freemen (receiving a fief)
An oath of loyalty by a vassal to a lord, promising to perform specified services
village farms owned by a lord
ensured that all would be fed and cared for
Simony is an offence against the law of the church. In the canon law, the word bears a more extended meaning than in English law. Simony according to the canonists, says John Ayliffe in his Parergon,
"...is defined to be a deliberate act or a premeditated will and desire of selling such things as are spiritual, or of anything annexed unto spirituals, by giving something of a temporal nature for the purchase thereof; or in other terms it is defined to be a commutation of a thing spiritual or annexed unto spirituals by giving something that is temporal."
The selling of spiritual things, especially church office positions
families paid to have sons appointed as a bishop
c. 1015/1028 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana (Italian: Ildebrando da Soana), was the head of the Catholic Church from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085.
One of the great reforming popes, he is perhaps best known for the part he played in the Investiture Controversy, his dispute withHenry IV, Holy Roman Emperor that affirmed the primacy of papal authority and the new canon law governing the election of the pope by the College of Cardinals. He was also at the forefront of developments in the relationship between the emperor and the papacy during the years before he became pope. He was the first pope in several centuries to rigorously enforce the Church's ancient policy of celibacy for the Catholic clergy and attacked the practice of simony.
Exactions that the Lord of a manor could make on his tenants
(1120), Student of Peter Abelard, who he had an affair with him, she was from a powerful French family, castrated Abelard.
was a papal bull setting out the official position of the papacy regarding the treatment of Jews.
The first bull was issued in about 1120 by Calixtus II and was intended to protect Jews. It was prompted by the First Crusade, during which over five thousand Jews were slaughtered in Europe. The words sicut Judaeis ("and thus to the Jews") were first used by Pope Gregory I (590-604) in a letter addressed to the Bishop of Naples. Even then the Pope emphasized that Jews were entitled to "enjoy their lawful liberty."
-1150 in Norwich, England- a child went missing,but in this case, the accusation was raised that the child had been kidnappedby the Jews to be used for blood libel/ ritual murder- the authorities believedthis and accepted it- built a shrine to the martyr missing child- this chimerictrend is incorporated into lit and popular myth- Jews are expelled from majorcities-
1378 - 1417
Gregory XI (r. 1370-1378) - moved the papacy back to Rome in 1377, then died
Urban VI (r. 1378 - 1389) - elected in Rome by Italian cardinals
Clement VII (r. 1378 - 1397) - elected in France by French cardinals and kept his papacy in Avignon
They excommunicated each other and the European church was in chaos
Counsil of Pisa 1410 - elected a third Pope, John XXIII (r. 1410 - 1415)
In the early 1300s the English king Edward III also held land in France. This made him a vassal of the French king. This fact helped lead to a series of conflicts between England and France called the Hundred Years' War (1337—1453).
Hundred Years War
Holy Roman Empire
(pg. 197, 207-208)
Proclaimed himself Italian king in 951
Imperial crown with the help of Pope John XII on feb 2, 962 andproclamed himself protector of the Papal States
Despised of Pope John, Popes now have to swear allegiance to him
secured German borders and unified German duchies
His German base failed due to neglect
(pg. 208-209, 239)
Investiture Struggle (controversy?)
(pg. 207, 209-211)
The medieval conflict between the church and lay rulers over who would control bishops and abbots, symbolized by the ceremony of "investing" them with the symbols of their authority
supported by Pope Gregory VII
Formalized church discipline throughout the heirarchy from pope to parish priest
They had control over the Eucharist ritual and are the only ones who can perform it
mandatory for every adult Christian which gave them power and authority (annual and on Easter)
Ritual Murder myth (or "Blood Libel")*
Host Desecration myth*
That the Jews were responsible for killing Jesus, and that they stole hosts and abused them to re-enact the crucifixion.
Represented a profound doubt about the truth of Christianity, and to dispel doubts about the transubstantiation doctrine since they would have been drinking human blood/flesh, they projected a system of belief onto Jews which was alien to them since their diet forbids blood.
They could be condemned and burned
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