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-Pope Gregory VII was against investiture because emperors would choose bishops who would be politically useful, and not spiritually
-The pope had ultimate power-the power to save or damn lives
-Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV went against the Pope and investigured a bishop from Milan
-An intellectual revival of interest in ancient Greek philosophy and science and in Roman law in western Europe during the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries
-Flowering of vernacular lit and the Romanesque and Gothic styles in architecture
1378 - 1417
Gregory XI (r. 1370-1378) - moved the papacy back to Rome in 1377, then died
Urban VI (r. 1378 - 1389) - elected in Rome by Italian cardinals
Clement VII (r. 1378 - 1397) - elected in France by French cardinals and kept his papacy in Avignon
They excommunicated each other and the European church was in chaos
Counsil of Pisa 1410 - elected a third Pope, John XXIII (r. 1410 - 1415)
In the early 1300s the English king Edward III also held land in France. This made him a vassal of the French king. This fact helped lead to a series of conflicts between England and France called the Hundred Years' War (1337—1453).
Hundred Years War
Became King of England after the Glorious Revolution.
Mary was his wife
Sparked by the dismissal of Parliament in England in 1629 by King Charles I, the war began in 1640 and ended in 1649 with the decapitation of King Charles I. The rebellion was spearheaded by the Puritan soldier Oliver Cromwell.
-Puritan supporters of parliment were called roundheads
-those who were loyal to charles were called Cavaliers
- used hereditary possessions in Austria and political forces in Germany to get themselves reelected to Holy Roman emperor-ship every generation, except one, from 1452 to 1816
- introduced centralizing principles of the New Monarchies
a system of thought that is based on the values, characteristics, and behavior that are believed to be best in human beings, rather than on religious beliefs.
1000 BC; poor, free men; don’t really count in the beginningof the civilization; later leaders rise up to defend the poor of the city; somerepresentation in the Senate and government
146 BC; 3 wars total; between Rome and Carthage; 1st=Romans built a Navy and won conquering Sicily; 2nd= who wouldcontrol Spain, Hannibal led but Scipio defeats Hannibal; 3rd=ultimate defeat of Carthage in 146
Tiberius and GaiusGracchusà
elected tribune multiple times, ignored by Senate, creates300 men protection army, starts civil war, and looses
138- 78 BC; Marius’ rival; most successful general; declareshimself dictator for 3 years (82-79 BC)
* strong leader who helped restore order in Rome
* he got the people to name him “dictator for life”
* but people feared he was getting too powerful (like a king)
* Senate, Crassus, and Pomey turned against him because of his popularity
* Brutus assassinated him in 44BC
* had a child with Cleopatra
made up of Octavian, Mark Antony, Marcus Lepidus this group ruled soon after Caesar’s assassination in 44 B.C. Lepidus died; Octavian and Antony divided the rule of the empire, but soon engaged in civil war as well; Octavian emerged as the victor
r. 54-68 AD; was said to be ‘bad’ emperor; he was an athleteand musician; during the great fire in Rome, it’s said he was playing his fiddlewatching the city burn; blamed for the fire, so he turned blame on theChristians; killed a lot of Christians in response, such as Peter and Paul;died in 68 AD
r. 285- 305 AD; reorganized the empire into 2 parts (Easternand Western) and strengthened it; had 2 emperors and 2 juniors; tries to endChristianity with a lot of prosecutions and destroying sites of worship
- 4 - 30 C.E. Jewish preacher and teacher in rural areas of Galilee and Judea, arrested for seditious political activity, tried and crucified by the Roman governor Pontius Pilate. Founder of Christianity; after his execution, followers claimed he rose from the dead and taken up into heaven, began to teach that he was the divine representative of God, the Messiah, had suffered for the sins of humanity and would return to judge at the end of time.
the way of life characteristic of monks or nuns, in which they withdraw entirely or in part from society to devote themselves to prayer, solitude, and contemplation
A movement in the Christian church that arose first in the East in the third and fourth centuries C.E. in which first individual hermits and later organized communities of men and women (monks and nuns) separated themselves from the world to lead lives in imitation of Christ. In the West the Rule of St. Benedict (c. 480-547) became the dominant form of monasticism
Replace martyrdom to imitate Christ and to confess one's faith
King Clovis was founder of the Frankish kingdom. His people invaded and defeated the last Roman army in Gaul. He was the first catholic to rule over Gaul.
A political system which was dominant in Europe during the Middle Ages.
Kings gave lords land, lords gave knights land, knights gave sefs protection
serfs gave knights food, knight give lords loyalty, and lords give kings loyalty
Practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans
excessive interest on a loan
Church offices granted the ruler of a state or the pope to an individual
It also meant Fiefs in the Middle Ages
Land in exchange for military services
An oath of loyalty by a vassal to a lord, promising to perform specified services
The social, political, military, and economic system that previaled in the Middle Ages and beyond in some parts of Europe
dominated by warlords
feudal bonds provided protection from outside predators
village farms owned by a lord
ensured that all would be fed and cared for
territory in central Italy ruled by the pope until 1870
lands surrounding Rome
a person granted an estate or cash payments in return for accepting the obligation to render services to a lord
were freemen (receiving a fief)
-was abbot of first monastery of Cistercian Order at Clairvaux
-was against Peter Abelard’s emphasis on reason in doing theology
- called for the Second Crusade
- renounced crusaders as faithless when they failed.
A procedure, originally introduced by Plato, that is employed by philosophers to examine ideas about how political communities ought to be governed. It is not simply to win a debate against those having opposing views, but such a procedure involves submitting one’s ideas to the critical inspection of others. Plato’s Republic illustrates the application of the dialectial method to the question, “What is justice?”
Formalized church discipline throughout the heirarchy from pope to parish priest
They had control over the Eucharist ritual and are the only ones who can perform it
mandatory for every adult Christian which gave them power and authority (annual and on Easter)
Holy Roman Empire
(pg. 197, 207-208)
Proclaimed himself Italian king in 951
Imperial crown with the help of Pope John XII on feb 2, 962 andproclamed himself protector of the Papal States
Despised of Pope John, Popes now have to swear allegiance to him
secured German borders and unified German duchies
His German base failed due to neglect
(pg. 208-209, 239)
Investiture Struggle (controversy?)
(pg. 207, 209-211)
The medieval conflict between the church and lay rulers over who would control bishops and abbots, symbolized by the ceremony of "investing" them with the symbols of their authority
supported by Pope Gregory VII
The selling of spiritual things, especially church office positions
families paid to have sons appointed as a bishop
Exactions that the Lord of a manor could make on his tenants
Ritual Murder myth (or "Blood Libel")*
Host Desecration myth*
That the Jews were responsible for killing Jesus, and that they stole hosts and abused them to re-enact the crucifixion.
Represented a profound doubt about the truth of Christianity, and to dispel doubts about the transubstantiation doctrine since they would have been drinking human blood/flesh, they projected a system of belief onto Jews which was alien to them since their diet forbids blood.
They could be condemned and burned
The conflict between two sets of rival popes based in Rome and Avignon that divided the loyalties of states and individuals across Europe
- Pope Gregory IX dies, Forced election of Urban VI in Rome (Italian) Cardinals say invalid, elect Clement VII (French)
- The Church became more national in character.
- The prestige of the papacy had been permanently compromised.
- The power of the pope was lessened!
election of Italian pope
election declared invalid and another pope is election
created division of church and calls for reforms
After noticing the impact of Luther’s ideas, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V ordered Luther to meet in the German city of Worms to take back his assertions. Luther refused to recant.
- Fine houses, silk, gold, and silver
- Controlled Indian trade
- Became wealthiest, most powerful coastal city-state
-Vasco de Gama wanted to take wealth, and completely wiped out the city