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one of the principal deities of Hinduism:the “preserver”, a benevolent deity who helps his devotees in times of need
:whenever demonic forces threaten the cosmic order, Vishnu appears on earth in a
series of incarnations
Source of Hinduism
Means “sitting down in front of a teacher”
The text is written in dialogue form between teacher and pupil and is designed for
those who want to continue their search for ultimate wisdom
Most likely Brahmin authors
Question the foundation of Vedic religion
Most renowned of all sacred Indian texts
Episode that explains death means nothing in a universe which souls will be
reborn again and again
Offers an attractive resolution to the tension in Indian civilization between duty to
one’s society versus one’s soul
Sprititual leader (Buddha “The enlightened one”) and founder of
(another great threat to the Vedic religion)
Lived a princely life then gave it up for self-deprivation, which he practiced for 6
years. He then came to a “Middle Path” of moderation
Gained insight into the true nature of reality= the Four Truths:
1. life is suffering
2. suffereing arises from desire
3. solution lies in curbing desire
4. desire can be curbed if a person follows the “Eightfold Path
This period is name for the text Spring and Autumn Annals that provides
historical record of events in this kingdom
The states of this era were at odds with one another and used a wide variety of
ways to protect themselves and pursue their interests including:
o Assassinations and coups,o Conventional warfare,o Diplomatic initiatives
Overall trend- gradual consolidation into a smaller number of larger and more
Time of accelerated rivalry and warfare between the states
Eventually only 7 major states remained after larger states continually conquered
smaller, less able states
States sought security
Originator of Daoism
Taught harmony with nature, “Way of Nature”
Human beings in nature were innately good
Complex societies and outside forces were bad
Unlearn what you have learned
The world is always changing, accept the world as they find it, avoid futile
struggles, and deviate as little as possible from the path of natur
Chinese philosopher that created a code of conduct for government
Believed family was the fundamental component of society- ways in which
family members regulated their conduct in the home would be relevant to them as
citizens of the state
Placed high importance on making society function smoothly at every level
unifier of China
Put an end to Warring States Period
Ruled through harsh methods
Legalistic policies- believed humans were inherently bad and need a powerful
state to keep people from killing each other,
These city-states emerged after the Dark Age (c.1150-800 BCE) in which Greeks
had little contact outside of individual provinces, merchant trade eventually
brought more contact to area
Rapid population brought emergence of more city-states
(Persian wars- Persia had extended their power west, Greek saw this as huge
threat. Persians tried to offers gifts to peacefully take over Greek land, and Greeks
rejected their offers every time)
Known as the “father of history”
1st true historian because he was seeking the cause of historical events between
the Greeks and the Persians (not solely investigative research defined by the term
Temple to Athena located on the Acropolis in Athens
Pericles was the leader in charge during the construction and gained popularity by
redistributing the profits gained
Theme: human ability to tame/control nature
Unity always wins over chaos
Greek play writer of many dramatic tragedies
o Antigone- a defiant woman who buries her brother despite the king’s
o Oedipus- unknowingly marries his mother after killing his father
Talked about the limitations of human reason, and government rules vs. divine
Lived during Persian Wars
Socrates’s student, understood things through reason or innate knowledge not
Founded the Academy for young men in Athens which was the first institution of
higher learning in the Western world
Wrote philosophical dialogues, philosopher, mathematician
Cyrus the Great- founder of the A Dynasty, expanded boundaries, employed
Persians and Medes in his administration and respected the institutions and beliefs
of subject peoples—considered to have written one of the first human rights
documents letting people worship who they want
Complex of palaces, reception halls, and treasury buildings
Used for ceremonies of special importance to the Persian king and people such as
coronations, royal weddings, funerals, and the New Year’s festival
Built by Darius I and his son Xerxes
Conquered the Persian Empire, downfall of Achaemenid Persian Empire
created 1st effort of using cult of personality
Spread Greek culture across other areas
Strategically founded many Greek-style cities in conquered areas
Founded by Alexander the Great
Was to be a link between Egypt and Mediterranean world
Became capital of Hellenistic Kingdom of Ptolemies, was one of the most famous
cities of its time
Contained a famous library and museum- a center for leading scientific and
India’s first centralized empire
First state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent- able to do this after death of
Alexander the Great when collapse of Greek rule followed
Geographically extensive, powerful, and political military empire
Athashastra- pragmatic guide to political cusses
Membership was an honor offered to members of politically powerful or
o Only patricians could become priests
o The pontifex maximus was the most important member of the
college (usually elected until Julius Caesar and other emperors
started to take it once in power)
A powerful political position to hold and the candidates for
office were often very active political members of the college
Could not be resisted- dictated Roman policies, developed private armies
(soldiers turned to specific rulers)
Gauis Julius Caesar (r. 100-44 BCE)
27 BCE- “Beau Geste” the great jester
o went to senate, gave power back to senate, made arrangements for
them to give power back to him
Developed offices for others but made himself these positions = military
o Princeps Senatus
o Tribune (leader of assembly)
o Pontifex Maximus
o Imperator (supreme commander of military)
o Every now and the would be a Tribune
connoted the stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands
of the Roman Empire in the first two centuries CE. The movement of
people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the
spread of cultural practices, technologies, and religious ideas
Extensive network of roads connecting towns, cities, and frontier forts
promoted rapid communication and facilitated trade. The Silk Road carries
China’s most treasured products to Central, South, and West Asia, and
the Med. Islands
One of Jesus’s Apostles, who sought to spread his teachings and the
belief that Jesus is the Messiah and was resurrected
Well educated in Greek language and thought, lived during the Pax
Romana and on
gained power in 284 and was able to save the self-destructing Rome
o “Third-Century Crisis”- form 235-284 CE when political, military,
and economic problems almost destroyed the Roman Empire
born a commoner and had risen through ranks in the army
implemented radical reforms that transformed Rome:
o stopped inflation by specifying the max prices that could be
charged for various commodities and services
four-part division of the Roman empire established by Diocletian in 293
first Diocletian took over matters in the East and general Maximian in the
o they then appointed two Caesars under them = Galerius and
soon after Diocletian and Maximian retired and the two Caesar’s
appointed two more under them
o Severus II in the West under Constantius
o Maximinus in the East under Galerius
o THIS MADE UP THE 1ST TETRARCHY
reunited the entire under his sole rule by 324
312- won the key battle at the Milvian Bridge over the Tibet River near
Rome (should have lost)
had a dream, which he was told to put the Chi Rho on the shields
believing that the Christian God helped him achieve his victory (because
he claims to have seen a cross on the sun before battle)
this ended the persecution of Christianity and guaranteed the
freedom of worship to Christians and all others
o supported the Christian churchled to a lot of people converting to
324- transferred the imperial capital from Rome to Byzantium
o renamed Constantinople= “city of Constantine”
battle of Constantine and Maxentius
the underlying causes of the battle were the rivalries inherent to
Constantine won and this was the end of the Tetrarchy because he
became the sole leader
According to Lactantius- Constantine and his soldiers had a vision that
God promised victory if they daubed the sign of the cross on their shields
The purpose of the council was to resolve disagreements arising from
within the Church of Alexandria over the nature of Jesus in relationship to
the Father; in particular, whether Jesus was the literal son of God or was
he a figurative son, like the other "sons of God" in the Bible
cubical shrine containing idols, a holy well called Zamzam, and a sacred
precinct surrounding the two wherein killing was prohibited
o contributed to the emergence of Mecca (a caravan city) as a
Meccans believed that Abraham was the builder of Ka’ba
Orphan who engaged in trade
Married a widow named Khadija
o Owner of a business
o She was the first one to hear what was being communicated to him,
shared this conviction, and continued to spread it with him
Around 610, he began meditating at night in the mountains around Mecca
o One night, known as the “Night of Power and Excellence” – the
angel of Gabriel spoke to him
Heard the words of God (or Allah in Arabic):
Crowned king in his mid-twenties in 768
Protector of the papacy
First in Western Europe to bear the title emperor in over 300 years
His rise and Rome’s declineshift in focus on Europe from the
Mediterranean towards the north and west
Aristocratic leader who guided the Athenian state through the transformation to full participatory democracy for all male citizens, supervised construction of the Acropolis, and pursued a policy of imperial expansion that led to the Peloponnesian War. He formulated a strategy of attrition but died from the plague early in the war.
Ashoka the Great was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from 269 BC to 232 BC. One of India’s greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present day India after a number of military conquests. Buddhism spread across Asia.
the founding of the city of Rome. A way of dating used by some ancient Roman historians, but more commonly by some Renaissance writers and modern historians. It is also the title of a book written by Titus Livius between 27 and 25 BCE. It covers from the stories of Aeneas to the time of Livius and the emperor Augustus.
The founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first consuls in 509 BC. He was claimed as an ancestor of the Roman gens Junia, including Marcus Junius Brutus, the most famous of Caesar’s assassins
In English “The Senate and People of Rome”, it was the government of Ancient Rome. Members served for life and brought together the state’s wealth, influence, political/ military experiences.
the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty of China, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. Emperor Ru is best remembered for the vast territorial expansion that occurred under his reign, as well as the strong and centralized Confucian state he organized. He is cited in Chinese history as the greatest emperor of the Han dynasty and one of the greatest emperors of Chinese history. Emperor Wu’s effective governance made the Han Dynasty one of the most powerful nations in the world.
the Chinese version of the Indian bodhisattva Avalokitesvara,The cult of Avalokiesvara entered China around 255 CE, due to an early translation of the Lotus Sutra, the main text for the cult, he will miraculously intervene on behalf of anyone in distress who simply utters his name.
First Latin prose writer of importance. Known for his conservative and anti-Hellenic policies. His oratorical and legal skills were recognized by Lucius Valerius Flaccus who helped him start a great political career
Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, and Marcus Aurelius, known as the Five Good Emperors, were a series of excellent emperors who ruled in Rome from 96-180AD following the Flavian Dynasty. They were so called because they succeeded in winning the support and cooperation of the senate, which is something their predecessors had failed to accomplish.
Ignatius of Antioch
third Bishop and Patriarch of Antioch, and was a student of John the Apostle. Lead church of Antioch after St. Peter wrote letter-early christian theology.
Son of a bishop born at Sinope in Pontus, he traveled to Rome around 135 CE and became a member of the church. He taught that the God of the Old Testament was not the true God but that the true God was revealed with Jesus Christ. He wrote the Antitheses and was excommunicated around 144CE.
Roman Emperor who seized power by virtue of his command of the army. Barracks emperors were especially common in the period from 235 through 284, during the Crisis of the Third Century. 33 in 14 years: 2 years average rule. Peace restored by Diocletian 284
August 9, 378, sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis. Roman Emperor Valens vs Gothic rebels, the Goths won-Gothic wars. Start of collapse of Rome’s western empire. Developed into Byzantine Empire.
The religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider is verbatim the word of God. It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language. The Quran is divided into 114 suras of unequal length which are classified either as Meccan or Medinan depending upon their place and time of revelation.
New technologies lead to a great increase in population and the development of independent cities in Italy and Flanders pushed Medieval Europe to become more urban centered.
Name for a distinctive people, culture, and language, a mix of Bantu, Arab and Islamic influences, that developed during the intermediate Era on the East African coast.
WhichEuropean ideology dominates China today? When did it begin as the ideology thatrules China?
Communist started in 1949
Thelegacy of Taoist philosophy on modern medicine?
Development steamed through Taoist belief that good healthdepends on the movement of a life for energy through the body
Whowere Ghengis Khan and Kublai Khan? What did each achieve?
Kublai khan- conquered central Asia
Ghengis Khan- created immense empire
Under- Russia, Korea, Iraq, Iran,Kazakhastan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan
Not Under- Vietnam, Japan, Saudi Arabia,Poland, India, Greece
Whatwas footbinding and why was it practiced?
It was when girls feet were tied tightly withstrips of linenen, with there toes tucked underneath
Because there was less work
Overthe past 2000 years which two cities have been the most important as capitalsof China?
Beijing, Chang’an (Xia)
Whowas the first communist ruler of China. Who is the current head of thecommunist party?
First- Maui Zeduns
Now- Hu Jin Tao
He was the leader of Chinas ruling Communistparty at the time of the Tiananmen square massacre. 85 at the time of the event.
Led China toward market economy and fastestgrowing economy
At what period was China ruled by a government called Kuomintang?
During the Republic of China
He wrote the book Art of War, whichinfluenced the Chinese culture.
Helived during the dynasty of the Three kingdoms
Whatwere two times in Chinese history, separated by about 650 years, when China haddisastrous relations with Japan?
During the Song dynasty and then the Republicof China dynasty
Whatwas Xian once called and what major tourist site can you visit today?
Terra Cotta Soldiers
used to be called Chang’an
Once entering you weren’t allowed toleave.
Whowas An Lushan. During which dynasty did he live?
A General who rebelled against the Tang Dynasty.
Whatwere the high points and low points for Buddhism during the Tang dynasty?
- Wealthy Buddhists donated land for monasteris
- government realized fast growing monasterisand seized them
- took art objects for the emperors treasurypersecuted Buddhist
Chinese created New characters by combining existingsigns.
Characters in lines thatran from the top to the bottom of the page beginning on the right side.
Twogreat cities outside China rivaled Chang’an in the 800’s AD. Which were they?
Baghdad and Constonople
In1050 AD and the population today is about 1.3 billion
Whydid the Chinese create the examination system?
To select the best administrative officialsfor the states bureaucracy
TheSui dynasty didn’t last long but it achieved one great project. What?
Whowere the Mohists and what did they believe?
Mohsim was a Chinese philosophy developed byMO Tzu. IT had evolved around thesame time as Confucianism, Taoism and Legalism and was one of the four mainphilosophic schools.
Whatis siege warfare and when was it very common in China?
During the period of the warring states- onearmy outside the other is inside a city
Whyhave the Chinese, from ancient times, emphasized the importance of the family?
Because the well being of the state restedupon the well being of the family
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