Final Exam Study Guide History 262 Societies at Crossroads What were the most significant internal and external challenges faced by China, the Ottomans, and Japan in the 19th century? China experienced a population increase that led to poverty and the government?s inability to regulate and assist citizens. In 1850, rebels of the Taiping Rebellion rejected traditional ideologies and founded a unique brand of Christianity. The extreme revolutionaries attempted to end aspects of Chinese culture. By the end of the rebellion in 1864, many Chinese citizens had died and the government lost power to land owners who fought for the Ching Dynasty. The Chinese government also faced difficulty in dealing with opium imports from Great Britain. China disliked the import because it led to addiction and loss of Chinese money to the British. If Britain was to stop exporting opium to China, it would lead to an imbalance of trade for the British. The British were victorious in the Opium War and forced China to hand over Hong Kong and reduce tariffs. The Ottomans had weakened central leadership and their land was being taken by other imperial powers. The empire also lost money from trade deficits. Japan modernized fairly well. In the mid 18th century, it might have been the most urbanized country. However, as peace replaced war, the Samurais lost money but maintained their status and merchants became wealthy yet they still had no status. In 1853, America demanded that Japan open to foreign trade. They had to face powerful, industrialized European nations Other nations such the U.S. and Britain generated a world economy ( trade, networks Industrialization came at a cost, forcing people to work under harrowing conditions in mines and factories opposed to farms Importing of US crops led to population growth ( smaller farms, unemployment, poverty, starvation Military weakness and internal political problems opposed to powerful western Europe Fewer beaurocrats in relation to pop. ( less effective taxing, corruption Compare ?self-strengthening? in China, ?Tanzimat? in the Ottoman Empire, and the Meiji Restoration in Japan. What were the outcomes of these reforms, and what internal or external factors account for the differences between these outcomes? Chinese self-strengthening was a push for Confucian traditions but to also implement Western aspects, such as foreign language schools and factories. However, these Western industries required foreign expertise. The Boxer Rebellion slowed the development of these Western industries because Chinese extremists of the rebellion terrorized Europeans and Chinese Christians. Ching dynasty tried to reestablish themselves ( textile factories, new arsenals & shipyards, cautious Western trading Tanzimat : ?reorganization era? ? an attempt to reorganize the Ottoman empire on enlightenment and constitutional forms. It was a longer, more vigorous attempt at Westernization than the Chinese self-strengthening. For one, the Ottomans didn?t have to deal with a population increase which made regulation easier. The Ottomans brought in foreign experts and opened technical schools and factories. They also redefined the legal status of citizens ? everyone, including non-Muslims, was equal. Despite their efforts they were still unable to withdrawal from British control, and the only reason they survived was because Britain could not dispose of the empire without upsetting the European balance of power. ?Tanzimat? : important reforms were public trials, rights of privacy, and equality before the law Said Islam was consistent with Western ideas Wrote constitution ( limited Sultan?s power Meiji Restoration in Japan restored a young emperor and was committed to modern technology movements. Japan had several advantages over China and the Ottoman Empire. It had less population issues and was more committed to progression. The West also had less interest in Japan ?Meiji Restoration? Citizenship: nat?l not local interests The est. of the telegraph, railroad, and steamship tied markets into international framework Western influence came ( students went to school in West; dress, hairstyles Constitution: democratic ideals, political parties, established modern public education system No other country not in Europe or US could establish themselves besides Japan How did Japan emerge as an imperial power so quickly? Was there a fundamental difference in the Japanese approach to colonization compared to European colonization? How did other parts of the world react to Japanese expansion? The Japanese emerged quickly because they were not as dominated or controlled by Western imperialism as the Ottomans and Chinese were. They were also more dedicated to progression and didn?t have overpopulation issues. The government also sold most of its enterprises to private investors who had close ties to government officials. The result was a concentration of enormous economic power in the hands of a small group of people known as the Zaibatsu. By the early twentieth century, Japan had joined the ranks of the major industrial powers. As Japan?s power grew, other nations began to take interest in Japanese affairs, such as the US and its demand that Japan open trade. As a symbol of their marketable development, they allied with Britain as an equal power in 1902 and defeated the Chinese empire and Russian empire between 1894 and 1905. Imperialism and Independence In what ways was 19th century colonization different from European colonization of the Americas in the 16th and 17th centuries? What were the legacies of this new imperialism? 19th century colonization was different because it featured new participants. The US, Germany, Italy, Belgium, and Japan were gaining power as Spain and Portugal were declining. Also, disease didn?t help conquerors like it did two or three centuries ago. Industrialization changed the economy. Countries needed raw materials and needed to sell their products. Countries needed natural resources to power industries. Trains, telegraph, medicine, and firepower also allowed for much quicker colonization. A legacy that science allowed for was the interpretation of a superior race. Scientific racism looked at the size of skulls and theorized that whites were the best. Also, social Darwinism promoted the idea of the survival of the fittest and that imperialism was progression. Some other Legacies Asian & African colonies were brought close to global connections thru economy Europeans brought some elements of modernization to colonies ( education, steam engines Western Europe ( breakthrough to modern colonial society Why did the European colonial empires disintegrate and dozens of new nation states emerge in the mid-20th century? What were the most significant challenges facing independence movements in Africa and Asia? Decolonization was the result of many factors. For one, there was sometimes a contradiction between Europeans ideals. The line between Christianity and capitalism versus racism and exploitation was sometimes crossed. Long waited independence movements such as that in Vietnam was an example of what could happen if the movements became entangled with politics. Broader changes in global political power also contributed to decolonization. Because of WWI and WWII, many European nations were weakened. Independence came violently and peacefully. France was focused on Algeria while all it territories in Africa gained independence. Achieving freedom became a trademark during this time, and by this time smaller weaker countries had stronger military forces than before while the European states had weaker forces than before. Also, the creation of the United Nations led to a platform for countries to request independence. African and Asian factors also led to the disintegration of traditional colonial powers. As these Africans and Asians became more westernized, they saw the contradictions. And they also sought their own independence and progression. Challenges facing independence movements in Africa and Asia racism and conflicting religious views major problem in African and Asian independence movements Indian Rebellion of 1857 (?Sepay Rebellion?)- Great Britain used pig fat in their weapons to stifle the rebellion, offending Indians and Hindus divide between Muslims and Hindus threatened Indian population India divided into Muslim Pakistan in 1947; Ghandi argued against this division and was assassinated by a Hindu extremist gov?t tried to regulate movement of blacks, which led to rebellions and strikes African National Congress (1912) led by educated, professional, middle-class Nelson Mandela led non-violent civil disobedience in the form of boycotts and strikes (similar to civil rights movement in America) Mandela was arrested for aiding gorilla fighters; released from prison 26 years legalized ANC after Mandela was released; Mandela named President of Africa (1994-1999) Angolan Civil War (1975-2002) UNITA- National Union for Total Independence of Angola- supported by Koreans; found support from Soviet Union and Cuba large natural wealth- diamonds and oil reserves- used them to buy weapons Angolans lacked medical care and, in some places, water; life expectancy was less than 40 yrs child soldiers did most of fighting in civil war MPLA: Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola internal factors: opportunists used rivalries for their own gain, cronies jumped on the bandwagon, fear and violence concentrated in the hands of warlords, meddling of super powers Why did a particularly violent form of Islamic fundamentalism emerge in the 20th century? Militant Islamic fundamentalism, such as the Hamas in Palestine and the Hezbollah in Lebanon, resulted from unresolved tensions between different cultures and regions. After the creation of the Jewish state (Israel), many militant Islamic groups formed intending to reclaim the area that had become Israel. Israel covers land that?s holy to both Jews and Muslims. As the US grew more powerful AND supported Israel, extreme Muslim fundamentalists also targeted the US. War and Conflict in the 20th Century Some have used the term ?total war? to describe WWI and WWII. What is meant by ?total war?? In what ways did ?total war? expand in World War II, and why? Total war describes the actions in WWI and WWII where both sides bombed both soldiers and civilian areas/towns as well. However, sometimes the bombings backfired. When the Germans bombed British towns, the British resolve strengthened. Other bombings were more strategic and successful. The Allies used dehousing on some Axis targets. They would alert citizens of bombings to come and then destroy strategic locations, such as bridges and factories. Despite some efforts by the Allies to warn civilians of upcoming area bombardment, the nuclear bombs dropped in Nagasaki and Hiroshima killed hundreds of thousands of Japanese. Total war was taken to new extreme in WWII because of new technologies (better planes, better rockets, nuclear bombs). ?Total war?- complete mobilization of a nation?s resources toward the war effort development of war departments in US used propaganda to arouse feelings of hate against enemies new weapons being used- massive tanks and artillery (Germans); atomic bombs (US) Germans used new kind of warfare- Blitzkreg- lightening war at home, women now responsible for husbands? work all aspects of life centered around the war effort What were the consequences of World War II? How was the post-war world shaped by the war? WWII obviously resulted in millions killed and shaped politics for decades to come. Though Russia sided with the US at the end of the war, the countries? governments were too different to remain friendly. The US implemented the Marshall Plan to aid European reconstruction and the USSR responded with COMECON. Then NATO was formed and USSR responded with the Warsaw Pact. WWII immediately led to destruction and advancement in technology (Nazi development of rocket technology and US nuclear research) but it indirectly paved the way for the Cold War and communism versus democracy. Truman Doctrine: U.S. supported free peoples resisting subjugation by outside pressures or armed minorities Marshall Plan: $13 billion to help rebuild Europe after war from U.S. Formation of the ?Iron Curtain? which separated the soviet controlled nations of eastern Europe from the capitalist nations of western Europe. Explain what is meant by the term ?Cold War.? Is this a misnomer or is it an appropriate description of the period from the 1940s to 1991? Cold War was the name given to the US-USSR fight to be the sole global superpower. It is an appropriate title because while there was never a direct war between the two, they indirectly fought over control and weapons races. Each was strategically racing for the best weapons and technology. Several wars resulted from the differing political ideologies (Korean War, Vietnam, and Cuba and the Bay of Pigs). The United States? Changing Role in the World In what ways was U.S. expansion similar to or different from European imperialism in the same period? Does the 19th and 20th century U.S. deserve the label ?imperial?? The US developed a notion of Manifest Destiny in the 19th century. In 1803, the US purchased the Louisiana territory from France. This purchase differed from traditional imperialism because it was a peaceful business transaction as opposed to a violent battle for territory. However, the US fought for other new territory just like European imperialists did in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the 1840s, the US went to war with Mexico for land from Texas to California. The US acquired Alaska peacefully but annexed Hawaii in 1898. The US also took Cuba and Puerto Rico from Spain. Years later, the US also conquered the Philippines in a long war that left 34,000 Philippines dead. Ironically, the US used similar tactics in the Philippines that the US frowned upon when used by the Spanish in Cuba. The US also built the Panama Canal for strategic purposes in the beginning of the 1900s. Although used expansion wasn?t as violent and selfish as some of the imperialism in 16th and 17th centuries, it did have similar aspects. After gaining independence, the U.S. needed to construct a government and drafted the constitution. In 1803, they made the Louisiana Purchase with Napoleon Bonaparte. Many Americans spoke of Manifest Destiny to occupy all of North America. White, westward expansion led to the Indian Removal act which moved all Indians west of the Mississippi. Many Indians such as the Cherokee suffered terrible migrations such as the Trail of Tears. Loss of fire power effectively lost the war of expansionism for the native Americans. The expansion also created tension between U.S. and Mexico and when Texas declared independence from Mexico the conflict escalated into the Mexican American War. By the Treaty of Guadalupe, the U.S. took possession of about half of Mexico?s territory. Expansion also created tension between regions. It brought up the question of whether settlers could extend slavery to newly acquired territories. With the election of Abraham Lincoln came the secession of the southern states which led to a bitter civil war which lasted four years. The northern states won, and Lincoln signed the Emancipation proclamation which abolished slavery. Mass migration and British investment shaped economic development, migrants provided labor and British investment spurred vast expansion by allowing construction of railroads, factories, and entrepreneurs. Cecil Rhodes pointed out that imperial expansion is a duty to mankind; in his sense of superiority to other peoples, and his craving to extract wealth from distant parts of the world, he represented the views of European imperialists. Both Europe and the U.S. experienced brutal conflict with the countries they were imposing on, however, Industrialization equipped them with the most effective tools and most lethal weapons available. Imperial powers also encouraged trade between dominant states and tightened links between the world?s societies. Japan and the U.S. joined European states as imperial powers, and global hegemony led people to believe they were better than other less powerful states. Both were enticed by the exploitation of foreign resources and establishing control which helped explain this massive quest for empire. The U.S. and Europe were very similar in this fashion that they sought military conquest such as the Mexican American war and political control. Both constantly spent their time expanding territory. The U.S. purchased half of Mexico, Alaska, Louisiana territory, Hawaii. However, while European imperialism took place mostly in Africa and East Asia, U.S. imperialism presided over latin America, Western U.S. and the Pacific. They emerged as an imperial power after the Spanish Cuban War. IN the early twentieth century, U.S. military forces occupied Cuba, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Haiti. Although Europe and the U.S. were both very aggressive in taking control of these territories, the U.S. was not as interested in establishing direct colonial rule as much as they simply wanted a presence in the country. Theodore Roosevelt was the king of Imperial expansion with such feats as building the Panama Canal and even adding a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine that stated the U.S. has the right to intervene in domestic affairs if they cannot protect U.S. investments. SEE ABOVE How did Americans? attitudes about their own role in the world change during and after the two world wars? After WWII, Truman declared the idea of containment. The Truman Doctrine was the policy to support free people who are feeling pressure from the outside. The idea of containment was initially for Greece and Turkey but eventually the policy expanded to containing all of communism. Containment led intervention in the Korean War and the Vietnam War. With the Truman Doctrine established, America accepted the role of protecting democracy and free people through intervention and support. In 1914, Americans were very opposed to entering into European conflict. However, in 1917, the U.S. became increasingly committed economically to an Allied victory. The decision to enter the war strengthened allied forces and pushed the Germans, which became a crucial move for the U.S. Before 1914, U.S. was a debtor nation owing billions of dollars to European investors, by 1919 it was a major creditor. The positive outcome for the U.S. sparked an interest to intervene with foreign conflict. After Pearl Harbor, Hitler and Mussolini declared war on the U.S. which was only reason they needed to declare war on Germany and Italy. Not until the U.S. joined the struggle did the tide change once again in the allies favor. After the war the U.S. and the Soviet Union emerged as the two strongest powers. Because of this, they became very influential in the postwar reshaping and rebuilding of the world. As opposed to before the wars when the country was poor and insecure, the U.S. now saw themselves as a superpower and like the Soviet union wanted to create the rest of the world in their image. This struggle for power led to the Cold war which came to define the postwar era as one of political, ideological, and economic hostility between two super powers and affected nations around the globe. The Truman Doctrine crystallized the new U.S. perception of a world divided between free (capitalist) and enslaved people (communist). After the scare of the Cold War, one example of this perception was the United States extended aid to non-communist Vietnam as a way of countering communism in the north. What were the goals of U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War? Did America?s new level of involvement in global affairs tend to produce stability or instability? After the U.S. and Russia emerged from WW2 as two of the world?s superpowers, they both began to rebuild the world as they saw fit, preferably in their image. The U.S. wanted to impose capitalism in occupied territories while the Soviet Union was trying to expand communism. The U.S. saw communism as a threat to democracy and committed itself to an interventionist foreign policy dedicated to the ?containment? of communism. As a result the world polarized into two separate armed parties of which military or economic aid was provided; led by either the U.S. or the Soviet Union. This new idea of foreign policy in the Truman Doctrine soon led to a multiple of different policies and pacts which created much instability in the world. The U.S. called for the Marshall Plan which helped rebuild European economies, the Soviet Union responded with COMECON which offered increased trade with them as an alternative to the Marshall Plan. Both countries were fighting for European favor which established tension all over the world. NATO and the Warsaw Pact only made things worse by militarizing the cold war. Having NATO nations in Europe right on the border of Warsaw Pact Nations often created conflict and instability e.g. Korea, Vietnam, and Berlin. However, the balance of terror restrained the two countries from military attacks which produced some stability in their relationship. Post war social transformation demonstrated how international affairs often become linked with domestic policies especially when people living in unrelated parts of the world discover commonalities and differences that will most likely create stability or instability between nations. What is meant by ?globalization?? Is globalization a curse? A blessing? Both? Neither? What do YOU think? Globalization is the interconnectedness of people and nations across the globe. Through improvements in transportation and communication and the creation of the IMF and World Bank, nations and business are now more connected than ever. With the end of empires and also the Cold War, a new world order emerged: one without borders. One pronounced feature of that world was an increased level of economic interaction and integration between countries. The forces driving the world economy in that direction, often referred to as Globalization, included advances in communications technology, an enormous expansion of international trade, and the emergence of new international organizations that favored market oriented economics. Globalization has shocked the world with its unprecedented speed and scope. It has transformed the social, political, and economic shape of the world. It is both a blessing and a curse. On one hand we now have free global trade, and the world economy has expanded tremendously. Cultural practices have also expanded such as different tastes, ideas, and information. However, there are consequences to a globalized world, one being the rapid growth of the human population and its relation to poverty, and the environmental capacity of the earth. There is widening gap between rich and poor societies and also worldwide homogenization of diverse cultures. Also due to decolonization and the absence of national borders, people such as terrorists can utilize resources previously unavailable to them, giving them the power to control or combat the actions of some of the most powerful nations. Mark Fritz?s Lost on Earth (*as I announced in lecture, you will be required to answer this on the exam) What factors led to the massive refugee crises of the late-1980s and early-1990s? How does author Mark Fritz propose that the U.S. should confront these problems? Explain why you agree or disagree with Fritz's proposals. -The Superpowers caused all of this. -When they gave rule back, it caused all of these ethnic wars. -They created the political divisions, ethnic strifes. -Fall of U.S.S.R. was a big cause, economic angle. -1st girl in book thought communism was boring. -Gypsies face persecution. They were victims of the holocaust. -All of these countries (like Bosnia, Rwanda) is defined by a history of hostility between rival factions who claim the same swath of land, places where the very idea of going home is tantamount to an act of war. -The right of refugees to return home was essential to a long-term solution, yet often a dangerous impediment to a short-term progress. Factors: -Many countries would not have had guns with the U.S. and Soviet Union. (Cold War).The superpowers created puppet regimes. -Ethnic strife- Due to decolonization. -Yugoslavia- Bosnia(Muslims)-from Ottomans, Serbs-East Orthodox, Croatians-Catholic. -Iraqis and Kurds, Sunnis and Shiities. -Germany had gone from granting asylum to nearly all the Yugoslavian refugees and revering them as heroes, to simply cutting off the border to all of them who had excercised the right to come. 3.5 displaced Yugoslavs. Fritz? Proposals: -The enforcement of NATO force required the presence of American troops, who supposedly had no business taking part in such wars. -The real need was for a freelancing force that was faster, more fluid and much more ferocious than the warmongers. -When Americans arrived in Bosnia roads suddenly became passable. Checkpoints vanished. Relief groups found their jobs a little easier. -Bosnia showed an example of what could happen whenever the United States mustered enough courage to halt population upheavals caused by the end of the superpower showdown. -Failing to find a perfect, all-encompassing remedy for a conflict is no excuse for failing to act at all. -United States could have stopped the civil war in Liberia, averted genocide in Rwanda and ended the Bosnian conflict years before they finally did. But they were scared off by high expectations and seduced by the idea that cunning warlords can be swayed at the negotiating table. -They were burdened with the attitude that any big intervention that doesn?t guarantee the mythical lasting peace is somehow fatally flawed. -The UN continually proved itself incapable of summoning the strength to point a gun at the head of a recalcitrant combatant and just say: Stop it or die. -Most people in the war zone would not have known that NATO had entered the fray if they hadn?t heard about it on the radio. - (Kosovo) The United States and its allies could have saved more lives if they acted more decisively. -Yet aggressive intervention in far away wars is a tough concept to sell to a generation raised on Vietnam. Americans have opposition to anything that might cause American military casualties. Vietnam?s jungles became Bosnia?s frigid mountains, the Vietnamese army Saddam?s battle-hardened fighters. -There isn?t another side anymore; there is only one nation with the raw power to halt mass upheaval. -The only thing that Americans lack, besides resolve, is speed. The country needs a special military branch to enforce peace agreements, end wars with regional potential and stop conflicts to avert massive refugee crisis. The times demand a freestanding and multi-purpose army, composed of volunteers from the other branches, working with comparable units from other nations willing to operate under U.S. command. It would stand as the global police force of the paramount power, halting catastrophic crimes against humanity with lightning speed and ferocious efficiency. -The United States is already overworking the same handful of divisions across the service branches for such missions. Why not just embrace the responsibility, and wear the badge proudly? -The wealthy nations that took part in creating the dynamics of the old era should assume the responsibility for accepting people uprooted by the transition to the new one. -Instead the U.S. and Europe have made it more difficult for people to enter their countries. -The West has responded to the most crushing refugee tide by restricting asylum, when it would be better off punishing nations that attack their own. -Only quick and courageous intervention by the last superpower can keep great numbers of people from taking to the road.
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