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the protestant Christian church belief that god chooses certain people for salvation before they are born, sixteenth century John theologian John Calvin was the main proponent of this doctrine for which became a fundamental tenet of Puritan theology
term used to describe British colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II by relaxing their supervision of internal colonial affairs, royal bureaucrats inadvertently assisted the rise of self government in North America
the area including Mexico and Central America
Salem Witchcraft Trials
Salem village girl falsely accused other of witchcraft. Witch hunts in 1692 resulted in over 100 arrestes and 20 deaths.
Immigrants that are sold and work years to pay off their debt.
lateen (triangular) sail that enabled the ship to tack into the wind, allowed them to sail far into the Atlantic Ocean where they discovered the madeira and azores island
1740's Religious movement that challenged traditional churches and social hierarchies in British colonies.
major religious event in the 1730s and 40s; an effort to put more emotion into the religious experience and return to the old Calvinist doctrines of theology; .
started in the 1820’s; encouraged the belief that people could and should work to achieve a state of moral perfection; fueled the rapid growth of Christian denominations
a grant of Indian labor in spanish america given in the sixteenth century by the spanish kings to prominent ment. Encomenderos extracted tribute from these Indians in exchange for granting the protection and Christian instruction
House of Burgesses
origin of government in colonial virgin made of an assembly of representatives elected by the colony inhabitant
Lead puitans to America
left England and its corruption
"we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill"
-Led second group of Puritans to settle the Massachusetts Bay
-Model of Christian Chairty
led the parliamentary forces victorious way in 1649, ordered the beheading of King charles I
a system based of local government in New England in which all male heads of household met regularly to elect selectman, levy local taxes, and regulate markets, roads and schools
prince of portugal (1394-1460) interested in ro in the Caravel, learned of arab merchants rich trade in gold and slave across the sahara, seeking maritime route to the source of the trade in West Africa, founded a center in oceanic navigation, founder of navigation school of young men
the reform movement that began in 1517 with Marti
Luther critiques of the roman catholic church and that preceptated an enduring schism that divided protestant from catholics
products grown or extracted from england's north american colonies that could be shipped only to egland or other colonies within the empire.
To give someone greater knowledge or understanding about a subject, in a religious context it is when the knowledge of that religion is passed and understood completely by the person. Some religions have risen from the "enlightenment" of certain leaders.
Characteristic of the Northern Maritime Economy
Farmers in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania where shipping wheat, corn, and bread to the Caribbean. West Indian received credit in the forms of bills of exchange from London merchants, factories and manfacturing operations
o The French were driven out of N. America
o Great Britain has largest number of troops in North America
o Great Britain has a massive debt
How Africans resisted and accommodated slavery
ran away, committed suicide, revolts in the boats and plantations, break machinery, work slowly accommodated: religion, family, culture, bargain with their master for better conditions,
the claim made by British politicians that the interest of the American colonist were adequately represented in Parliament by merchants who traded with colonies and by absentee landlords (mostly sugar planters) who owned estates in the West Indies
British law was designed to collect revenue from the colonists in America by putting custom duties on glass, lead,paper, and tea. Led by boycotts and heightened tensions between Britain and the American colonies.
Articles of Confederation
deal with the economy, was a lawyer and military aide, secretary of treasure, assist financial matters, outline three path breaking: public credit, national bank, and manufactures
Chief of Miami, led the Western Confederacy, crushed American expeditionary force sentry Washington in 1791-1791, signed the Treaty of Paris
Shawnee War Chief, reviewed the Western Confederacy in 1809, he join British forces to capture and invasion of Ohio battle against WilliamHH end it his death in the War of 1812
protects property rights through broad reading of Constitutions contract clause
safeguards property rights, especially of charted corporations
enlisted 1,000 slaves who fled their patriots owners
fourth president member of the House of Representatives, submitted 19 amendments to the first congress by 1771, father of the constitution
prohibited states from issuing proper’s or enacting, the constitution declared that congressional legislation was the supreme law of the land, gave government power to tax, raise an army and a navy and regulate foreign and interstate commerce with the authority to make all laws implement those and other provisions
1794 farmers mounted to protest Hamilton tax on spirits, whiskey, protestors waved banners proclaiming the revolutionary slogan to deter, refused to pay
tribes joined with Miami & Potawatomi Indians to form, ceded most of Ohio
Tecumseh brother, prophet provided the confederacy w/ a powerful native ideology, urged Indian people to shun Americans
Interprets Constitutional to give broad powers to national government
sparsely populated, aristocratic- controlled electoral districts and demanded greater representation for rapidly growing and manufacturing cities, it was to reverse the growth of government and threat to personal liberty and property rights, b/c of the debt
Berouick Maine celebrated American products by drinking rye coffee and dinning on bear venison, supported boycott w/ charitable work spinning flax and wool for the needy, rejected their customary concern for the wellbeing of the community
Declaration of Independence
governor of the Indian territory decided on preemptive strike, Nov 1811 took advantage of Tecumseh absence and attack Prophetstown , overcame British and Indian at the Battle of Tippecanoe taking the life of Tecumseh (British General)
-Federalist party was protesting US policy during the War of 1812.
-upset over the restriction put on the New England trade and the defense of their coastline.
-The convention was seen as treasonous by some and was one of the major reasons for the death of the Federalist party.
Radical Whig condemned rotten boroughs, first elected parliament in 1757, condemned the rotten boroughs
Led by radical patriots (artisans &laborers) sons of liberty disguised as Mohawk Indians, Bostonians dumped the East India Company into the harbor, they made political motives
opponents of the constitution, had diverse backgrounds and motives, argued that republican institutions were best suited small polities
sons of madding New England farm family, age 14 built cotton gin and manufacture military weapons
The 1803 purchase of French territory west of the Mississippi river that stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada. The Louisiana Purchase nearly doubled the size of the United States and opened the way for future American expansion west. The purchase required President Thomas Jefferson to exercise powers not explicitly granted to him by the Constitution.
1. It was a Rapid expansion of the banking industry
2. There was lot more cheap natural resources (cotton)
3. legal framework
4. technological innovations
5. division of labor
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo between the United States and Mexico, signed on February 2, 1848, officially ended the Mexican-American War.
1. United states pays 15 million for American Southwest
2. Mexican living in the ceded area will have immediate citizenship and equality.3. Property deeds of mexican nationals will be recognized.
1. Organized newly acquired land into New Mexico and Utah and left the issue of slavery in their hands
2. New fugitive slave act
3. California is admitted as a free state4. Abolished slave trade in the district of columbia
Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin
Oliver Evans invented the Automated Flower Mill
Samuel Colt invented the 6 Shooter Revolver
The major innovation that revolutionized transportation was the Canals ,Railroads and Steamboats
1. US government "should" build a transportation infrastructure.
2. Protective Tariffs on English Imports protected business but hurt consumers.3. A federally run banking system that to coordinate funding.
1. National bank kept state banks from issuing money
2. Ordinary Americans feared the 2nd bank would force the closure of state banks leaving people with worthless notes
3. Politicians opposed the bank because of the arrogance of it's leader (Biddle)
4. Bankers wanted specie in their own institutions rather than in the 2nd.
Assisting fugitive slaves
Used Christian doctrine to establish that slavery was a mortal sin.
Laws: ending of gag-rule
1. Material Comfort by by investing in their homes
2. Justified the accumulation of wealth with the idea of a " self made man''3. Middle class parents invested in their Children's Education and instilled moral conduct through protestantism.
1. Destroying agricultural resources so confederate women and children would write to their husbands, which would take motivation to fight.
2. Created a naval blockade
3. Planed to take the Mississippi River valley
and Richmond4. Used railroad to transport troops and supplies
John Quincy Adams,
Sumter Hill started the Civil War.
Bull Run ( first battle fought between both sides)
Gettysburg (turning point of the war)
Shiloh (20k die in one day)
Antietam creek bloodiest single day in American history.
Union: Ulysses S. Grant,Tecumseh Sherman, George McClellan, Ambrose Burnside
Confederacy: Robert E. Lee , Joseph E. Johnson, Stonewall Jackson, George Pickett,
Lower South /South Carolina (Led the secessionist movement)
Upper South/North Carolina -
The Know nothing party
American English Dictionary - Noah Webster,
Nathaniel Hawthorne - The Scarlet Letter,
Missouri comes in as slave state.
Maine comes in as a free state.
the belief that human labor produces economic value. Adherents argued that the price of a product should be determine not by market(supply and demand) but by the amount of work required to make it, and that most of the price should be paid to the person who produced it.
- They replaced women in factory jobs.
- Had the largest number of immigrants in the nation.
term used by Andrew Jackson supporters for the appointment by President John Quincy Adams of Henry Clay as his secretary of state, the traditional stepping stone to the presidency. Clay had used his influence as Speaker of the House to select Adams rather than Jackson in the election of 1842.
the religion of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints, founded by Joseph Smith in 1830. After Smiths death at the hands of an angry mob. Brigham Young led many followers of Mormonism to lands in present day Utah in 1846
a system of work discipline used on southern cotton plantations in the mid-nineteenth century in which white overseers or black drivers supervised gangs of enslaved laborers to achieve greater productivity
the 1836 defeat by the Mexican Army of the Texan garrison defending the Alamo in San Antonio.
the 1846 proposal by representative David Wilmot of Pennsylvania to ban slavery in territory acquired from the Mexican War.
Wanted no slavery to be allowed in seeded Mexican territory
o An educated enslaved American
o Realizes he’s being held as a slave in a state where slavery is prohibited
o Takes his case to court
o Supreme Court Justice says that Scott is not a human being but property and does not have rights and that individual states do not have authority to abolish slavery because slaves are chattel (property)
the act gave 160 acres of free western land to any applicant who occupied and improved the property. This policy led to the rapid development of the American West after the Civil War ; facing arid conditions in the West, however many homesteaders found themselves unable to live on their land.
cutting, boring, and drilling machines used to produce standardized in metal parts which were then assembled into products such as textile looms and sewing machines. The rapid development of machine tools by American inventors in the early 19th century was a factor in the rapid spread of industrialization.
a 346-mile waterway connecting the Hudson river and Lake Erie. It brought prosperity to the entire Great Lakes region and its benefits promoted civic and business leaders in Philadelphia and Baltimore to propose canals to link their cities to the Midwest.
the power of elected officials to grant government jobs and favors to their supporters also the jobs and favor themselves.
declared the mandatory relocation of eastern tribes to territory west of the Mississippi .
second national party arose in 1834, group of congressman that contested Andrew Jackson policies and conduct
term coined by John L. O'Sullivan in 1845 to express the idea that Euro Americans were fated by God settle the North American continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
an 1854 manifesto that urged President Franklin Pierce to seize the slave-owning province of Cuba from Spain. Northern Democrats denounced this aggressive initiative and the plan was scuttled.
Called on the US to purchase or seize Cuba, where slavery was still legal, from Spain.
bloody struggle between pro slavery and antislavery factions in Kansas following its organization as a territory in the fall of 1854
form of werfare that mobilizes all of a society resources, economic, political, and cultural in support of military effort.
craftsmen and inventors who built or improved machinery and machine tools for industry.
ideology that celebrated small scale producers , men, and women who owned their own shops or farms.
19th century ideal that celebrated to men who rose to wealth or social prominence from humble origins through self discipline, hard work, and temperate babies.
widespread aware of public jobs to political supporters after an electoral victory.
enacted in 1828 that raised duties significantly on raw materials, textiles, and iron goods.
forced westward journey of Cherokees from their land in Georgia to present-day Oklahoma in 1838. Nearly a quarter of Cherokees died in route
second major economic crisis of the United States which led to hard time for 1837 to 1843
Abraham Lincoln issued on January 1 1863 that legally abolished slavery in all states that remained out of the Union. It didn't free any slave but signed an end to institution of slavery
informal network of whites and free blacks in the south that assisted fugitive salves to reach freedom in the north
constitutional argument advanced by John C. Calhoun that a state legislator or convention could void a law passed by congress
idea that the less government does, the better, particularly in reference to economic policies such as tariffs and incentives for industrial development. Attacking corruption and defending private property, late nineteenth century liberal generally called for elite governance and questioned the advisability of full democratic participation.
One of the main overland migration routes American pioneers followed during the 1840s and 1850s from the East to the Oregon Territory in the West. Over several decades more than 400,000 travelers made this 2000 mile long journey.
controversial 1854 law that divided Indian territory into Kansas and Nebraska , repealed the Missouri Compromise and left the new territories to decide the issue of slavery on the basis of popular soverignty.You can’t have any slave territory above the 36/30 lines .So they move it up to the northern borderline of Kansas.
Mayan- southern Mexico into northern central america
Inca- South America (Peru)
Aztec - Meso-America
Mississippian - Mississippi River Valley
1) Weaponry (Guns & horses)
2) Diseases (small pox & influenza)
3) Cortez's girl (Malinche) gave him imp. info. on Aztecs
-A borderland, a place where numerous peoples and cultures coexist.
-All of the early English colonies were middle grounds between English settlers, Native Americans, and other European colonists.
Identify the imperial wars b/w England & France from 1688-1750
o Establishment of the Bank of United States (BUS)
o Intervention in the wars of the Revolution
*humans posses rights that cannot be given away or take from them
*people create government to protect these rights
*if government fails to protect these rights or itself, people can withdraw their consent from the government and form a new one
-Boston Port Bill
-Massachusetts Government Act
-The Quartering Act of 1773
A common law doctrine under which the legal personality of the husband covered the wife, and made all the legal binding decisions.
A plot by slaves in Virginia itself to gain their freedom. They planned to march on the city, from surrounding plantations. They would kill some whites and hold the city and governor until the abolition of slavery was met. Never actually happened; they were caught and killed.
o To raise revenue to pay off debt with revenue terrace (like all sales tax)
o Wants to pay off all debt (country & state) at par with interest
o Create a Bank of the United States so federal government can deposit its revenue
Biddle decides to make the bank a political issue
-Controversy over Second Bank of US
-Jackson didn't like it
-Biddle tries to recharter it but Jackson vetoes it
event when South Carolina declared a federal tariff law "null and void".
Spanish for Texan, used to identify Texan of Spanish or Mexican Heritage
Idea that right this minute, the process to end slavery must start, movement by abolitionists
Identify important generals from the Union and Confederacy
Name the 3 different regions of the slave states and their secession status
1. Know nothings
2. Free Soilers
Key characteristics of the Compromise of 1850
o California comes in as a free state
o Slave trade is outlawed
o Modern borders of Texas are established and we avert war
Key inventions from the 19th century antebellum period
Key characteristics of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
-Texas annexed by American republic recognized
-US purchases American southwest from Mexico for $15 million (Mexican session)
-Mexico demands immediate equal citizenship for all Mexican citizens
-All Mexican property in Mexican session will be recognized as legitimate
-The US govt. assumes $3 ½ million in legal liabilities for Mexico in the court system of the seeded territory
Prominent members of the abolition movement
Key reform movements of the antebellum period
Explain the key elements of the Missouri Compromise
Describe the key characteristics of the American system of economic development
o Second bank of US controlling currency and banking system
o High protective tariffs
o Money spent on Infrastructure Projects
A law that offered farm plots of 160 acres to anyone willing to live on a farm for 5 years, dig a well, and build a road. Land companies made much money from this.
Stephen Douglas took over for Henry Clay in the Compromise of 1850. Clay could not get the compromised passed, Douglas split the compromise up to get it passed.
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