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group of students traveled by bus thru the south to force the desegregation of bus stations.
a student branch of Martin Luther Kings Southern Christian Leadership Council. (worked to keep the spirit of resistance alive).
Johnsons concept; in order for employers/ society to prove they weren’t discriminating against minorities they needed to prove it.
Organizations denounced whites as “devils” & appealed to the AA to embrace Islamic Faith & work for complete racial segregation.
McCarthy attacked secretary of the army, Robert Stevens, and armed services of acts of communism. The first congressional hearings to be nationally televised, which led to people starting to see McCarthy as a villain.
conservative middle class people who Nixon thought wanted to reduce federal interference in local affairs.
U.S. would “participate in the defense & development of allies & friends” but would leave the “basic responsibility for the future of those friends” to the nations themselves.
thousands of civil rights workers spread to Mississippi to work on behalf of voter registration & participation. Produced violent responses from southern whites.
Kennedys promise for domestic reforms. Built a legislative agenda, tariff reductions, tax cuts to promote economic growth.
Coalition of anticommunist liberals wanted Dwight Eisenhower to run for nomination, when he refused they then chose Truman.
writers and producers refused to answer questions about their political beliefs and those of their colleages. They were sent to jail for contempt. (happened during the fear of communism)
Declared that an armed attack against one member would be considered an attack against all. Maintained military force in Europe to defend a threat of soviet invasion. (this scared soviet union and led to them creating a communist alliance of their own, the Warsaw Pact).
American & North Vietnamese govt were ready to accept a cease fire. Ngugen Van Thieu of south Vietnam wanted a full scale withdrawal of North Vietnamese forces from the south.
End result: immediate cease fire, North Vietnamese would release American prisoners, Thieu Regime would survive, North Vietnamese forces already in the south would remain.
5 men broke into headquarters of democratic national committee in Watergate building. They had been payed to break in by the reelection committee. –Public thought Nixon had been involved in the break in and was trying to obstruct investigations on the scandal.
Stalin agreed to an American request that soviet union enter the war in the pacific soon after the end of hostilities in Europe. Roosevelt (in turn) promised that an Anglo American second front would be est within 6 months.
international organization containing a General Assembly in which every member would be represented and a security council would permanent representatives. They would each have veto power (U.S, Britain, France, China, Soviet Union)
strict limit on the # of newcomers admitted to the country each year, but it eliminated the national origins system which gave preference to immigrants from northern Europe over other parts of the world. (allowed people to enter the U.S. on equal basis)
Military- Industrial Complex
alliance of communist govts in Europe put together in response to other Europeans alliance: NATO
Stalin imposed a tight blockade around western sectors of Berlin. If Germany was to be divided, then the country’s western govt would have to abandon its outpost in the heart of the soviet controlled eastern zone. Truman refused and ordered massive airlift to supply Berlin with food and resources. Stalin eventually lifted the blockade and the division of Germany was divided into two nations.
: A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt
: Carter turned over the canal to the panama govt
informal bargaining unit for the sale of oil by 3rd world nations; used its oil as a economic and political weapon. –Raised prices high, refused to ship petroleum to countries supporting Israel (U.S.)
mobilized conservative opposition to laws & restrictions on development, sought to portray the west as a victim of govt control. Demanded that the large amount of land the govt owned in the west to be opened for development.
Ayatollah Rutollah Khomeini:
soviet troops invaded Afghanistan for oil supplies.
Believed market offered best solutions to problems, had hostility to govt interference in markets, hostility towards anti-business govt regulations
U.S. & its allies would work together to “contain” the threat of further soviet expansion. (Truman’s Policy)
It must be the policy of the U.S. to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”
Republican pres, conservative, gave huge tax reduction (biggest in history), against abortion/gay marriage/ stem cell research, did tax cuts & his education reform (no child left behind)
Hurricane struck gulf of Louisiana and Mississippi, big impact on New Orleans. Big flooding
Linked together computers over large distances, allowed people to exchange with each other through computer network facilities.
defended traditional culture against incursions from the west. Didn’t want western societies to influence their cultural customs. (acts of terrorism emerged).
Critics of Intervention[right vs. left]:
Left: said U.S. was using military action to advance economic interests in the gulf war.
Right: said nation was swayed by the interests of other nations and was ceding its sovereighty to international organizations
Filed assault against Clinton for Sexual harrassment
White house intern who had an affair with Bill Clinton
Republican secretary of state—certified Bush was the winner in Florida.
Radical legislative program from republican congress proposed measures to transfer powers from fed govt to the state, wanted dramatic reductions in fed spending, reduce costs, wanted to scale back many fed regulatory functions.
a new nation, involved in a civil war between ethnic groups; muslims and Serbian Christians. Ended when Richard Holbrooke brought the parties together and crafted an agreement to partition Bosnia.
Democratic President (1993) did: tax increase on wealthiest Americans, reduction in govt spending, expansion of tax credits to low income working people.
eliminated trade barriers among U.S/Canada/ and Mexico.
Bloody massacre took place to crush the democracy movement China students launched and restore hardliners to power.
Reagan Administration helped deregulate the savings load industry, led to chaos; govt stepped in to prevent complete collapse.
led a ground offensive into Iraq killing many Irans. Iraq accepted allied terms for a cease fire and the gulf war ended.
passed acts to guarantee reservation Indians protection of Bill of Rights, recognized tribal laws within reservations, increase fed aid.
(AIM) seized the town of wounded knee demanding radical change in the admin of the reservation, insisting the govt honor its long forgotten treaty of obligations.
Organized by Cesar Chavez, a union of Mexican inherent farm workers, wanted to organize Hispanics.
leaked to the press by Daniel Ellsberg, provided evidence the govt had been dishonest both in reporting military progress of the war and explaining its own motives for American involvement.
Nixon ordered air force to begin bombing Cambodian territory, to destroy enemy sanctuaries and ordered American ground troops across the border into Cambodia to clean out enemy bases. (thought it would help the military favor the U.S. if they destroyed Cambodia’s bases)
suburban developer symbolized suburban growth with his mass production techniques to construct large developments of housing, selling cheap.
written by William H. Whyte Jr. he described how mentality of the worker in a large bureaucratic setting, said self reliance was losing place to conformity.
helped groups resisting communism in 3rd world countries
Reagon thought through use of lasers and satellites could provide an effective shield against incoming missiles and make nuclear war obsolete.
against Polio. Discovered by Jonas Salk
originally proposed “earth day”
Nixon’s vision in which China, Japan, & Western Europe were becoming major independent forces.
Nixon appointed as his special assistant for National Securities Affairs.
wrote “The Sand Country Almanac” argued that humans have a responsibility to understand and maintain the balance of nature and should be have according to “land ethic”. He was a writer and naturalist, sought to find & explain works of ecology.
wrote “The Other American” which chronicled the continuing existence of poverty in the U.S.
ruled that communities could provide AA with separate facilities as long as they were equal to those of whites.
U.S. lifted restrictions on industrial development and encouraged rapid economic growth in Japan
Had a corrupt govt in China, with popular support. Engaged with bitter rivalry with the communist armies of Mao Zedong. (Truman supported Chiang—continuing to give him supplies even though it was a lost cause).
he drew attention to environmental consciousness. A tanker hit a reef and led to massive oil spill, leading to major damage to shoreline and wildlife.
to enforce anti pollution standards on business and consumers.
Reagons promise to restore the economy to health, thought the woes of the economy were from excessive taxation which left inadequate capital available to investors to stimulate growth. His solution was to reduce taxes with benefits to corporations and wealthy people to encourage new investments.
Gorbachev (leader of soviet union) transformed soviet politics by glasnost (openness):dismantling of repressive mechanisms that had been features of soviet life and perestroika(reform): restructure the rigid and unproductive soviet economy by introducing capitalism as private ownership and profit motive.
Soviets were constructing sites in Cuba for nuclear weapons ( missiles). Kennedy ordered a naval/air blockade around Cuba, a “quarantine” against all offensive weapons. Kennedy later received a message from soviets implying they would remove missile bases for exchange of American pledge not to invade cube (kennedy agreed)
armed exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba, they were anti Castro govt armies that CIA trained. Kennedy was supposed to provide air support which he withdrew in fear of getting U.S. too involved. Well armed Castro forces crushed the invaders and the mission collapsed
Truman wanted to avoid direct conflict with China he feared it would lead to a new world war. MacArthur thought the U.S. was really fighting the Chinese and thought they should attack China itself, if not using an invasion then atomic weapons.
Chinese govt alarmed by movement of U.S. forces towards its borders, intervened and Chinese entered war. ( told U.S/south korea not to go past the Yule River or they would get involved, it happened)
Made illegal closed shop(workplace in which no one can be hired without first being a member of a union). Permitted the creation of union shops (workers must join union after being hired), allowed the president to call a “cooling off period” before a strike by issuing an injunction against any work stoppage that endangered national safety or health.
rejected modern society and sought personal fulfillment through rejecting middle class culture and giving expression of personal instinct and desire.
concert in New York, at a farm where they listened to music, did drugs etc
organization of the New Left, determined to build new politics, leading organization of Student Radicalism.
provides federal aid to the elderly for medical expenses. Make benefits available to all elderly regardless of need, shifting paying fees from the patient to the govt.
extended fed medical assistance to welfare recipients and other indigent people of all ages.
focused on “right of privacy”, invalidated all laws prohibiting abortion during the first trimester.
science of interrelatedness of the natural world. Issues involving water & air pollution, destruction of forests, existence of species. ( all elements of earths environment are linked, damaging one risks damaging them all)
interracial group of students began “freedom rides” traveling by bus through the south- trying to force desegregation of bus stations.
Johnsons program] increased fed spending, tax cuts, reduced hunger in America, made medical care available to millions of elderly/poor, contributed to greatest reduction in poverty.
conservative, wanted to be president, against desegregation, helped blockade the “little rock” desegregation in Alabama.
AA/Indians/Hispanics/Gays/Women all wanted to define and assert themselves and make demands on the larger society. Found expression through their effort to create a new culture. One that would allow them to escape from dehumanizing pressures.
communist forces marched into Saigon, occupied the capital, renamed it Ho Chi Minh city; and began the process of reuniting Vietnam under harsh rule of Hanoi.
President of south Vietnam, wanted a full withdrawal of North Vietnamese forces from the south. Pro-American govt. He was anti communist and wouldn’t be bound by the Geneva Accords, had a secret police,
Pushing soviet union to the brink of war in order to exact concession. This was Secretary of State: John Foster Dulles approach.
leader of Egypt began developing a trade relationship with the soviet union.
nationalist leader in Vietnam, he was a communist. France wanted authority over Vietnam. Ho didn’t want this he wanted help from U.S. but they ignored him and helped their allies, the French. So he received aid from communist china and soviet union.
Communist North Korea invaded South Korea, U.S. got involved and pushed North Korea back across the 38th parallel into North Korea. Once they got to the Yulu River the Chinese got involved and pushed U.S. back across 38th parallel into south korea.
leader of southern leadership council, leading figure of the civil rights movements, “I have a dream speech”
established a temporary division of Vietnam along the 17th parallel. North=Ho Chi Minh South=pro western regime (Syngman Rhee) marked the end of the French commitment to Vietnam and beginning of an expanded American presence. (signed to bring about a united Vietnam)
French troops surrounded in Dien Bien Phu , French needed U.S. intervention to help but U.S. didn’t want to, knew their allies wouldn’t support it. Without U.S. aid French defense collapsed and agreed to a settlement at the Geneva Conference.
authorized the president to “take all necessary measures” to protect American forces and “prevent further aggression” in SE Asia. Johnson ordered bombings of north Vietnam when they attacked a military base. Bombings to destroy the depots/transportation lines responsible for the flow of north Vietnamese soldiers and supplies into south Vietnam.
long range missiles capable of traveling through space and across oceans continents to reach targets.
secretary of state, announced plan to provide economic assistance to all European Nations, that would join in drafting a program for recovery. (the marshall plan)
American invasion at Inchon sent north korea forces from the south and sent them fleeing back across the 38th parallel, president now moved beyond containment to attempt to rollback of communist power.
commanded united nations operations in Korea, pursued communist forces into their own territory of North Korea. Truman later released him because he wanted to pursuer and bomb china etc. .
wrote “The Feminine Mystique”, helped women’s liberation movements. Thought the house was a comfortable conservation camp.
demanded greater education opportunities for women, denounced traditional concepts of marriage, worked for women’s place in the workforce.
marked the gay liberation movement, many people began coming out/demanded equal and fair treatment and equal rights recognized.
Chambers, an editor of Times magazine accused Hiss of passing State Department documents to him. Hiss sued Chamber for slander although chamber had proof called “pumpkin papers” nothing could be done because it happened over 7 years ago so Hiss was protected, only serving prison time.
Required all communist organizations register with the govt and publish their records.
Republican Senate from Wisconsin, gave the “Wheeling Speech” claiming he had a list of 205 communists working in the American state department, although he never had any real proof of anyone, but led many accusations and investigations around many people.
: U.S. move on its own to stop communism expansion anywhere it occurred.
filmmaking that originated in France, portrayed loneliness of individuals in an impersonal world—looming possibility of vast destruction because of nuclear weapons.
Civil Rights Act of 1965
Provided federal protection to AA attempting to exercise the right to vote.
series of projects for peaceful development and stabilization of the nations of that region, youth traveled to help poverty and underdeveloped countries.
communist forces launched attack on Americans through out south Vietnam. Some countries fell to communism. News reports began showing images of this war to Americans and they began seeing the violence. Started moving against the war and Johnson. Drafted many young men. Was a military victory for the U.S. but a political defeat for the Administration.
govt sacrifice the interest of small nations in attempt to sacrifice freedom for sake of stability. –Bush thought we should value stability less and freedom more, take rises to end oppression.
Belief that U.S. could inflict more damage on the enemy than enemy could absorb. Which was wrong because north korea was willing to put more soldiers in war to fight for national independence, underground tunnels and factories were made.
Kennedy proposed a series of projects for peaceful development and stabilization of the nations in Latin America region
Congress approved the creation of the economic cooperation Administration agency that administered the Marshall Plan. Marshall Plan channeled billions of American Aid into Europe helping spark economic revival. European industrial production rose, communist strength declined, opportunities for American trade survived.
containment] U.S. would work to “contain” threat of soviet expansion. Truman drew ideas from George F. Kennan who wanted a “long term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies”. Truman requested aid to Greece and Turkey to help ease soviet pressure on Turkey and helped Greek govt defeat the communist insurgents. (est basis for American foreign policy)
Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO):
created new educational, employment, housing, and health care programs. Focused on community action.
Johnson passed bills to extend aid to both private and parochial schools and based the aid on the economic conditions of the students not on the needs of the schools themselves.
Eisenhower Fiscal Conservatism:
he encouraged private enterprise, supplied private rather than public development of resources. Lowered fed support for farm prices, removed limited wage and price controls, strove to reduce federal expenditures and balance budgets.
was responsible for collecting info both open and covert methods would also engage secretly in political and military operations on behalf of American interests.
led to two indictments in the House but an acquittal in the senate.
: argued that the standards for evaluating the disputed ballots were too arbitrary to withstand constitutional scrutiny.
instituted the largest tax cut in American history in his first year of office.
the lowest rate of poverty in the post-world war II era
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