January 26th, 2012 Labor Unions and Working Class The Jungle Written by Upton Sinclair (1906) Corruption of American Meatpacking Industry Read by Theodore Roosevelt Influenced the Pure Food and Drug Act Advertising Follows Society Celebrity Endorsement (60s) Cultural Change & Feminism (70s) Natural (80s) Cartoons (90s-Present) Examples: Old Spice and Cool-Aid New Diseases Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) BPH, PAD, COPD, DPD and ASC Creation of New Diseases and Products Ways Working Class Can Improve (3) Lay Low Join Political Party (20%) Creation of Labor Unions (Dangerous) Labor Unions Created by European Immigrants Tools: Strikes, Picket Line Marches, and Boycotts Majorly Unsupported Factory Owners Raise Prices Controlled Government Supporters Blacklisted Anarchists People Changers Didn?t believe in government. Coal Miners ?Molly McGuire?s? Rebellious Actions Destroyed Machinery Mine Explosions Violence National Labor Union First Labor Union Founded in 1866 by William Sylvis Members Iron Workers Small Amount Goals Elimination of Monopolies Federal Department of Labor Abolition of Contract Labor Foreign Workers into United States 12-Hour Work Day Quickly Failed Knights of Labor Union Second Labor Union Founded by Terence Powderly (1869) Goals Nationwide Union of Skilled and Unskilled Workers Government Control of Money First Bank of New Orleans Time Line 1866: There were 5,000 local chapters, containing over 700,000 members. 1886: Collapsed due to a strike in Chicago (Haymarket Strike) International Harvester Plant Haymarket Square Police were involved (bombed and fired shots) Several were killed (including policemen) Many were arrested. Urais Stephens Tailor Philadelphia American Federation of Labor Took over Knights of Labor in 1886 Founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886 Members Count 1886 - 150,000 1901 ? 1,000,000 Successful Two (2) Major Strikes 1892: Carnegie Steel Things Management had at Disposal Yellow Dog Contract: Before they hire you, you have to sign a document saying you will never join a Union; completely legal. Blacklist: Circulate a list of names of people telling you that you aren?t allowed to hire. Injunction: Go to Court that forces you back to work. Company Police and Spies (General Ford): Held by Owners? Strike Breakers (Scad Labor): If you strike, you are fired. Replacement Labor Labor/Workers Wants Shorter Working Hours (Average: 14 Hours) Higher Pay Safe and Sanitary Conditions Get Rid of Child Labor Recognition of Collective Bargaining Increasing Immigration ½ Million in 1880 Immigrants willing to work for less pay for longer. More Immigrants = Greater Problems for Working Class Increasing Population Types of Immigrants 1st: Northern Europe (Skilled and Protestant) 2nd: Southern Europe (Unskilled) Economic Downturns Every 2 Decades Recessions 1870s and 1890s: Huge Recessions Working Place Change Non-Local Owners Machines Skilled Workers are Less Necessary Family Life Women are Working Kids are Working Broken Families
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