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the River in Egypt
longest river on earth
vital to the development of Egypt because it provided enough water for a large population
great for the growth of crops and fertile soil
predictable river that rose and descended at the exact same time every yearEgyptians believed they were a chosen people for living by the Nile
first Pharaoh of Egypt 3100 BCcreated the unified state of Egypt, which united upper and lower Egypt into a single kingdom
began building an empire into Anatolia (modern day Turkey) and conquered extensive territory in the near east. 1st people to make use of iron.
New kingdom Egypt: Ramses II attacked Hittites when Muwataliss was the leader at City of Qadesh to regain control
Fall of Bronze age: someone (no one knows, maybe Barbarians) destroyed every city→ the very memory of the Hittites was lost
lived on the island of Crete
They were not greek, did not speak greek, and had no greek culture.
not a unified state
established first civilization in Greece (first in Europe) in 2000 BC
Civilized group that showed the Myceneans the art of civilizationDestroyed by Myceneans in 1400 BC
old/middle kingdom: pastoralist tribe that came from the north east and invaded Egypt in 1652 BC
they were able to defeat the Egyptians because they had superior war technologies (chariot, bow & bronze bodied armor)
ruled Egypt for just over a century
Egyptians rose up against them and they were defeated with their own technologies by Ahmose I in 1551 BCtheir defeat in 1551 BC marked a new period in Egyptian history called The New Kingdom
first woman pharaoh in world history (New Kingdom)
seized control of Egypt because the rightful ruler Thutmosis III was still a baby
ruled for 20 years until Thutmosis was old enough to take over
Thutmosis tried to rid her from all of history by destroying all her portraits
and statuesby erasing her name he was trying to rid her of an afterlife
Thutmosis III -1458-1425
main goal was to capture the last empire
he led Egypt to the victory in the battle of Megiddo against Near East (1457)the first emperor to make it to Mesopotamia
the first known battle known about in history
Thutmosis wanted to capture the last empire (Mesopotamia)
many city states did not want to be conquered by Egypt so they joined forces to try and stop Thutmosis
Thutmosis led the Egyptians to victorythe first time in history that these two regions were under one rule
broke apart and tribe began to go to different directions
after they had been separated for long periods of time their languages began to become more diversethis means that many of our languages today are derived from indo-european roots
Indo-Europeans who were pastoral people who migrated from season to season in search for fodder for their herds.
invented the horse-drawn chariots and the stirrup
moved south across the Hindu Kush into the plains of northern IndiaUsed chariots to invade, brought in Sanskrit language
Indo-European group 1600 BC
Traveled to an island already owned by Minoans (who taught the Myceneans the art of civilization)
Destroyed Minoan culture on Crete.
always fighting amongst themselves, never a unified state, instead they had many city-states
Biggest city-state: Mycenae
Attacked by Pastoralists in 1100 BC, Mycenae destroyed and burned down
Mycenae was in a 300 year dark age
Mycenae repopulated after 300 years but thought too dangerous outside city walls, so they built shanty towns in the city, no trade
longest reign in Egyptian history
most famous pharaoh in history
built the most monuments of all pharaohs
when he took over most of the Egyptian empire was lost
his great dream was to reconquer all of which used to be Egypt this meant that he would have no choice but to attack the HittitesRamses leads out the entire Egyptian army 20,000 foot soldiers and 3,000 chariot teams and marches north east to Qadesh which lead to the establishment of the first peace treaty
King of Egypt when the last pastoralist attack happened with 4 different invasions.Egypt won because they knew of the barbarian tactics and technology
During the Dark Age(1100–c. 750 B . C . E), Greece entered a difficult era of declining population and falling food production.Large numbers of Greeks left the mainland and migrated across the Aegean Sea to various islands and especially to the southwestern shore of Asia Minor, a strip of territory that came to be called Ionia.
Assyria, conquered the kingdom of Judah, and completely destroyed Jerusalem in 586 B . C
Many upper-class people from Judah were deported to Babylonia.
The kingdom of Israel had been forced to pay tribute to the Assyrian Empire.
The Assyrians overran the kingdom in 722 or 721 B . C . E . and destroyed the capital city of Samaria.
Controlled most of Mesopotamia , near east & Egypt.
Good leadership and army.
Used Iron instead of Bronze.
Experts at sea warfare
Had walls to Protect them from attack
Elaborate imperial administrationDirect connection between religion and war [God Assyr]
Roman Origin Myth. After Trojan War, Aeneas led escaped Trojans and Ewas sent a message to establish empire in central Italy. Part of royal family, son of a goddess. Established Alba Longa.Had two children. Amulius and Numitor
One of twins who was son of Rhea Silvia and Mars. Prophecy said that they would overthrow Amulius.Stabs twin brother Remus to death, establishes a new city called Rome.
followed the long dark age
was a dramatic recovery from that long dark age
during the archaic age the population rises dramatically
the number and the size of cities do as well
as a result during the archaic age the greeks send out colonies over much of the known world, greeks meet all sorts of new peoplethis enables the greeks then to borrow important technology from other people, Phoenicians
during the archaic age the greeks meet the Phoenicians, who came from phoenicia, they and invented a revolutionary system of writing called the alphabet, before that everything was dependent on pictographs, this alphabet only included 22 symbols which represented soundintroduced iron--cheap --->hoplite--->polis
Greek soldier in iron armor and iron weapons, used mainly a spear
through the introduction of iron the hoplite was created
before iron the greeks used bronze (more expensive)
person who uses iron weaponry and gear, in the greek world the soldiers had to pay for their own bronze goods, meaning only the wealthy could serve in the army
iron on the other hand is far cheaper than bronze meaning more men could afford to serve in the army and have political power
fought to defend the citythey also received political power leading to the development of the polis
ex. Athens & Sparta
two forms of government - democracy(what athens was) and oligarchy(more common)
politically run by hoplites
Polis is the unique greek city state, the development was a long process by 500BC, there were about 1,000 polis’ in the greek worldthe polis was an independent little greek country
the polis did not have a king or an elected leader like a president, instead in each polis all decisions were made by an assembly of citizens, it was the assembly that governed the state, people were allowed to attend the assembly and allowed to get up in the assembly and make proposals
citizens with political rights had the power to get up and debate and a citizen with political rights had the right to vote in the assembly, first form of democracy
most greek polis’ were oligarchies - meaning rule by the few
the only people with political rights in an oligarchy were the hoplitesdemocracy aka rule by the many, if you were too poor to serve as hoplites in the army you rode the boats in the navy, however even in democratic Athens only about 20% of the population had political rights, they thought it was the greatest system because they ran their own affairs giving greeks patriotism willing to fight and die to protect polis
Viewed as the center of Greek culture.
Home of all major Greek philosophy, art, literature; scholars flock to Athens as a center of learning.
Run by Direct Democracy- All “citizens” vote directly on laws and disputes of the Polis.
Had the strongest Navy in all of Greece.Aided in the Ionian revolt
2 Gods: Ahura Mazda (good) & Angromainya (evil)
Constant struggle between good and evil
Human beings had role in struggle due to free choice
In the end, Good would vanquish Evil
(after there would be a judgement day to decide between Heaven & Hell)
persians believed in Zoroastriams and they believed they were a chosen people of the good god, the good god made sure they conquered so much so they could spread the religionPersians did not force this religion on people but they did welcome converts
son of Cyrus II
inherited the Persian empire after his father died
conquered Egypt adding to the Persian empiredied in 522 under mysterious circumstances
inherited the throne after Cambyses II
he finished the conquest of the persian empire
in the east he conquered lands in india and Asia Minor in the west he led persian armies into Europe for the first time
when all his conquest were done it was the biggest empire seen up until that time
he was the last of the 3 great kings of Persia-father of Xerxes who in the 5th Century tried to conquer Greece (Darius: marathon-lost Xerxes: Thermopylae-won Salamis- lost Platae-lost)
Battle between 10,000 Athenian troops vs 20,000 Persians.
Athenians defeated the Persians under Darius
-Home field advantage
-Most Persians were subjects
-Persians didn’t have hoplite armors
the battle where 10,000 Athenian hoplites went to fight 20,000 persians
At the battle of marathon 490BC in a huge upset the Athenians defeated the Persian army
about 7,000 persians killed and the rest hopped on their boats and fled back to persia
Athenians had home field advantage, fighting to defend their own homes and families, and political powerthe soldiers in the persian army for the most part aren't persian, they're subject peoples forced to fight, meaning they probably hated the persians more than the athenians
Darius I son who became king after Darius died.
Wants to take revenge but he isn’t a good military leader.
He makes a lot of mistakes against the Athenians.
Destroyed his superior navy by forcing his ships into Salamis Channel, destroying his one advantage against the Greek Navy, and strands himself in GreeceXerxes: Thermopylae-won Salamis- lost Platae-lost
the first of three battles between Persia and Greece
by august of 480 the persians have arrived in Greece
Greeks know that the persians are coming so some of the polis’ join together to create the hellenic league, luckily most of the important greeks states join including Sparta and Athens which now had the best and biggest Navy in Greece, all together the greek states had 40,000 hoplites and 400 Triremes
the greeks decide they are going to try and stop the persians at a place called Thermopylaethe Persians will not be able to surround the greek army instead they will have to face the greeks head on in the narrow confined space the hoplites will have the advantage
Xerxes orders his men into the pass to attack the greeks but for two days the persians could not break through but then a greek traitor (Goat trader) appears and he tells the persians about another way through the valleys
Xerxes sends soldiers through the mountains and most of the greeks were able to get away but 300 spartans and Leonidas stay and fight til the death, they do this to give the other greeks time to get awayThermopylae was a defeat for the greeks and persian march on and capture Athens
the second of the three battles between persia and greece
after Xerxes destroys Athens for revenge most of the greeks have fled to the south and the only greeks nearby were the ones in the navy which was stationed at the island of salamis
Xerxes does not want to spend month or even years chasing the greeks around so he decides to send his navy to attack the greeks in salamis channel to end things once and for all
Xerxes sets up his throne on a hill over looking slamis channel, and then orders his guys in, the battle of salamis takes place 480 BC
The greek navy destroys the persian navy, the greeks win because the persian ships were actually faster and more maneuverable than the greek ships, there were more persian ships, so if it was actually fought at sea the persians would have had an advantage, but Xerxes made the mistake in fighting in a narrow channel because the greek ships were slower and stronger, Xerxes then watches in horror as his navy is destroyedhis battle was important for two reasons, 1. persian fleet destroyed, 2. Xerxes panics, to get back home at some point he must cross water and he no longer has a navy to protect that crossing and he is terrified that he might be trapped in greece, so immediately after the battle he takes most of his army and flees back to persia, yea leaves 70,000 men in Greece but suddenly the odds got a lot better for the greeks
Last Persian/Greek battle.
Greek won and Persians fled.
Important because Persians never came back to Greece and they thought Polis was the greatest system.
Led to the Golden/Classical Age.
Greek states were fighting.
Sparta & Athens didn’t agree on anything.Broke any chances of Greek unity.
Northern Greek empire that rose to power while other Greeks fought amongst themselves; viewed as barbarians
Where Alexander was born.Philip II made it into a great kingdom.
Chaeronea was the site of two important ancient battles.The first Battle of Chaeronea was fought in August 338 B.C. Macedonia, led by Philip II and his 18-year-old son Alexander (soon to be Alexander the Great), defeated the Greek poleis ofAthens and Thebes ("Sacred Band"). When Macedonia won, they killed many Greeks and sold others into slavery, so Athens agreed to a treaty. Among the terms, Athens agreed to join Phillip's Hellenic union in exchange for the release of prisoners.
the second of three major battles between Alexander the Great and the persian king Darius III
Armies line up at Issus like every other battle, infantry in the middle cavalry on the wings, one side Persians and the other Macedonians
Issus great place for Alexander to fight a battle, it was vert narrow plane between mountains and the cities, therefore Persians cannot spread out and use their superior numbers, but because it’s so narrow Alexander will be able to hold his line meaning Persians must hit head on which never works
Alexander knows the key to victory is to kill or capture DariusAlexander believed that because most Persian soldiers were not Persian once Darius is dead the soldiers will be free
When Darius see Alexander coming he decides to hop in a chariot and fleesWith Darius gone the Persian army collapses and Alexander wins the battle of Issus
the last of three battles between Alexander the great and Darius
When Alexander is in Egypt he gets a letter from Darius saying “Why cant we be friends?” In exchange for peace he offers Alexander the western part of his empire, his daughters hand in marriage and to make Alexander his successor once he has passed
Alexander sends a letter back pointing out that he already has the western pear of his empire and he has his daughter, Alexander tells him he will meet him any time any place to fight it out and gives Darius the chance to choose the battlefield, ends by saying “this time stand and fight for your throne.”
battle is pretty much a repeat of Issus
Darius even flees the battle
it was the decisive battle of the war, because Darius was killed by his own guysAlexander was then King of Persia at the age of 25 Alexander now controls the largest empire in history
was a Greekhistorian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the 2nd-century Roman period. As with other authors of the Second Sophistic, Arrian wrote primarily in Attic (Indica is in Herodotus' Ionic dialect, his philosophical works in Koine Greek).The Anabasis of Alexander is perhaps his best-known work, and is generally considered one of the best sources on the campaigns of Alexander the Great. (It is not to be confused with Anabasis, the best-known work of the Athenian military leader and authorXenophon from the 5th-4th century BC.) Arrian is also considered as one of the founders of a primarily military-based focus on history. His other works include Discourses of Epictetus and Indica.
these kingdoms were created after Alexander the Great died.
4 Hellenistic kingdoms (W&H pg. 115)
Antigonid Dynasty – Established by Antigonus Gonatus (grandson of one of Alexander’s generals) ruled over Macedonia & Greece
Ptolemaic Dynasty – Macedonian General Ptolemy established himself as king ruled over Egypt
Attalid Dynasty –Attalus I declared himself king of Pergamum in Asia Minor
Seleucid Dynasty – (largest) Founded by General Seleucus & controlled most of the old Persian Empire from Turkey to India
-was kicked out by Chandragupta Maurya when he established Mauryan Empire
When Alexander’s generals crowded around him while he was on his death bed he said that “the strongest” will take over
This lead to the Epigoni wars: lasted 45 yearsIn 276 BC 4 Hellenistic kingdoms arose
established the school in Alexandria
primarily known for his work “Elements”Elements: the systematic organization of the fundamental elements of geometry, it became the standard textbook for geometry
most famous scientist of the period
important for his work on the geometry of spheres and cylinders and for establishing the value of the mathematical constant piPractical inventor – the compound pulley, Archimedean screw, & war machines
Was kicked out of Maghada went to North east India.
Raised his own army than went to Maghada to conquer it.
Controls all of the northern India two main rivers
founder of the Maurya Empire and the first emperor to unify most of Greater India into one statewanted to emulate alexander the great after they met at the battle of the hydaspes river
Politics/ideals of the KindFocuses on the results not the method
A system where one was stuck in the class one was born in, unable to marry or move outside of the caste. Based on former lives.
Classes were absolute – born, lived, and died in the same class,no mobility, not permitted to marry up only men could occasionally marry below their class
*Classes based on occupation in society
*Class determined - occupation, status & one’s hope for ultimate salvation
India – 5 major classes called varna, literally, “color”
(1) Brahims – the priestly class “one possessed of Braham”; seers who used to advise the ruler on religious matters
(2) Kshatriya – the warriors; used to just fight
(3) Vaisya – merchant class, “commoners”; originally guardians of tribal herds
a. First 3 are considered “twice born” ~ ceremony where boys were initiated into Indian society
(4) Sudras – bulk of population, most were peasants, laborers or artisans, limited rights in societyPariahs – the untouchables, likely a slave class made up of POWs, criminals, ethnic minorities about 5% population: collected trash, hung dead bodies, butchers, tanners; regarded as not fully human – had to bang sticks together to alert others of presence so they could avoid them, no ate food touched by an untouchable **not even considered a legitimate part of class system
Reincarnation religion, Indian religion
emphasizes reincarnation, based on the results of the previous life, and the desirability of escaping this cycleits various forms feature both asceticism and the pleasures of ordinary life and encompass a multitude of gods as different manifestations of ultimate reality
Could be seen as a reformist view of Brahmanism - accepted most of its views i.e. Accepted concept of reincarnation & the role of karmaNirvana - Siddhartha’s vision of metaphysical reality involving an extinction of self and a final reunion with the Great World Soul
Founder of BuddhismHis teachings became philosophy of Buddhism
Grandson of Chandragupta
AKA “asoka the beloved”
executed brothers and massacred people to secure his throneWas a bad ruler but then converted to Buddhism. Conquered most of the root in India
was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity.
Dream to unify China under his rule, it took years but at the end he did unify China.Gave himself a new name Shih Huang-Di which means first emperor.
Abolishes the old kingdom and states.
Divides China into 36 new provinces.
Imposes one financial system.
Built thousands of miles of roads
Built first great wall.
Alphabet(new writing).did all sorts of things to unify china, he create one monetary system, he standardized weights and measures, he built thousands of miles of roads to connect every part of the country and he abolished all the old kingdoms and created 36 provinces
New han dynasty.
Came from humble origin.he was able to conquer all of china and established the han dynasty
5th emperor of the Han dynastyHis reign resulted in vast territorial expansion, development of a strong and centralized state resulting from his governmental re-organization, including his promotion of Confucian doctrines.
Reformist who seized power from Han court and declared foundation of Xin(New) Dynasty.He tried to confiscate estates, restore well and abolish slavery but was killed.
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