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· Chinese Nationalist
· In 1926 Chiang commanded the army which aimed to unify China. He defeated the communist army and forced the survivors to make the famous Long March to Shensi in North West China.
· Chiang eventually established a government in Nanjing. Major financial reforms were carried out and the education system and the road transport were both improved.
· The Doctrine of Containment is a policy that incorporates both military and economic action to prevent the spread of communism.
· used to eliminate the diplomatic and political policies that were in favor of the communist practices.
· General Navarre setup a defensive complex at Dien Bien Phu, which would block the route of the Vietminh forces trying to return to camps in neighboring Laos.
· The Battle of Dien Bien Phu was fought from March 13 to May 7, 1954, and was the decisive engagement of the First Indochina War (1946-1954), the precursor to the Vietnam War.
· Secretary of State on January 21, 1953
· Dulles also enjoyed the close cooperation of the Central Intelligence Agency, which was run by his brother, Allen Dulles
· One of his last directives was the formulation of the Eisenhower Doctrine in response to the Suez Crisis.
· Dulles was also the first Secretary of State to be directly accessible to the media and to hold the first Department press conferences.
· accused in 1948 of having earlier been a Soviet agent, a charge made by former acquaintance Whittaker Chambers, a journalist and repentant former communist who named Hiss during testimony before Congress's House Committee on Un-American Activities (usually abbreviated HUAC).
· tried for perjury in 1949 and, after two trials, convicted in 1950.
· director of the State Department's policy-planning staff
· Kennan sent a series of five telegrams to President Harry S. Truman. This eventually became known as the Long Telegram
· Ambassador to Soviet Union, Yugoslovia.
· Published “X” article
· 'The Great Helmsman'; Chinese Marxist theoretician and statesman
· helped to found the Chinese Communist Party (1921) and established a soviet republic in SE China (1931-34)
· led the retreat of Communist forces to NW China known as the Long March (1935-36), emerging as leader of the party.
· founded the People's Republic of China (1949) of which he was chairman until 1959
· 1947 secretary of state Marshall proposed a massive economic aid program to rebuild the war-torn economies of western European nations
· Motivated by both humanitarian concern for the conditions of those nations economis and fear that economic dislocation would promote communism in western Europe
· United States politician who unscrupulously accused many citizens of being Communists (1908-1957)
· the combined interests of the military establishment and industries involved in producing military material considered as exerting influence on US foreign and economic policy
· It can be viewed as a “war for profit” theory.
· immortalized by outgoing United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower in his January 17, 1961 farewell address to the nation. In his speech, he cites the Military-Industrial Complex as a warning to the American people – to not let this establishment begin to dictate America’s actions at home or abroad.
· North Atlantic Treaty Organization
· an international organization composed of the US, Canada, Britain, and a number of European countries: established by the North Atlantic Treaty (1949) for purposes of collective security.
· In 1994 it launched the partnerships for peace initiative, in order to forge alliances with former Warsaw Pact countries
· in 1997 a treaty of cooperation with Russia was signed and in 1999 Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic became full NATO members
· 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after World War II
· Established the Department of Defense, the Central Intelligence Agency and National Security Council, and the CIA
· To unify the military system
· American communists who were executed in 1953 for conspiracy to commit espionage.
· The charges related to passing information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. This was the first execution of civilians for espionage in United States history.
· provisional military demarcation line between North and South Vietnam established by the Geneva Accords of 1954.
· did not exactly coincide with the 17th parallel but ran south of it, approximately along the Ben Hai River in Quang Tri Province to the village of Bo Ho Su and from there due west to the Laos-Vietnam border.
· In 1976 the demarcation line was made redundant as Vietnam was unified following the surrender of the South Vietnamese government.
· He also ran for the Presidency of the United States in 1948 as the segregationist States Rights Democratic Party (Dixiecrat) candidate, receiving 2.4% of the popular vote and 39 electoral votes
· American politician who served as the 103rd Governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator
· Thurmond holds the record for the longest serving Dean of the United States Senate in U.S. history at 14 years
· President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
· On March 12, 1947, President Harry S. Truman presented this address before a joint session of Congress. His message, known as the Truman Doctrine, asked Congress for $400 million in military and economic assistance for Turkey and Greece.
· Sociology) a sharp increase in the birth rate of a population, esp the one that occurred after World War II (40s-60s)
· 1954 Supreme Court reversed the Plessy v. Ferguson decision that established the “separate but equal” doctrine
· Found segregation in schools inherently unequal and initiated a long and difficult effort to integrate the nation’s public schools
· primarily a voting rights bill
· first civil rights legislation enacted by Congress in the United States since Reconstruction.
· After it was proposed to Congress by then-President Dwight Eisenhower, Senator James Strom Thurmond sustained the longest one-person filibuster in history in an attempt to keep it from becoming law.
· landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against blacks and women, including racial segregation.
· It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public ("public accommodations")
· was an American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African American civil rights movement.
· led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957
· led to the 1963 March on Washington, where King delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech.
· In 1964, King became the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for his work to end racial segregation and racial discrimination through civil disobedience and other nonviolent means.
· King was assassinated on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee.
· signed into law on September 2, 1958, provided funding to United States education institutions at all levels. The act authorized funding for four years, increasing funding per year
· The NDEA was influenced by the Soviet launch of the satellite Sputnik on October 4, 1957. The launch shook the American belief that the USA was superior in Math and Science to all other countries.
· The citizens of the United States feared that schools of the Soviet Union were superior to American schools, and Congress reacted by adding the act to take US schools up to speed.
Led by MLK in 1956. A coalition of black ministers and civil rights activists, to press for desegregation. Popular mobilization but without national backing it was hard to turn over Jim Crow. Supreme court implementation ruling in 1955. This unintentionally encouraged a campaign of “massive resistance” that paralyzed civil rights progress in the south.
· American civil rights organization. SCLC was closely associated with its first president, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
· The SCLC had a large role in the American Civil Rights Movement.
· was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.
· It emerged from a series of student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina in April 1960.
· played a major role in the sit-ins and freedom rides, a leading role in the 1963 March on Washington, Mississippi Freedom Summer, and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party over the next few years..
· organization that originally played a pivotal role for African-Americans in the Civil Rights Movement
· chapters were organized on a model similar to that of a democratic trade union, with monthly membership meetings, elected and usually unpaid officers, and numerous committees of volunteers.
· In the South, CORE's nonviolent direct action campaigns opposed "Jim Crow" segregation and job discrimination, and fought for voting rights.
· Outside the South, CORE focused on discrimination in employment and housing, and also in de facto school segregation.
· launched the first human-made object to orbit the Earth. That launch took place on October 4, 1957 as part of the International Geophysical Year and demonstrated the viability of using artificial satellites to explore the upper atmosphere.
· led to the creation of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (renamed the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in 1972): DARPA, and NASA, and an increase in U.S. government spending on scientific research and education.
· unsuccessful action by a CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba, with support and encouragement from the US government, in an attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro.
· The conflict was launched in April 1961, less than three months after John F. Kennedy assumed the presidency in the United States. The Cuban armed forces, trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the invading combatants within three days.
· Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African-American revolutionary leftist organization. It was active in the United States from the mid-1960s into the 1970s.
· The group's "provocative rhetoric, militant posture, and cultural and political flourishes permanently altered the contours of American Identity."[
· The Black Panther Party's most influential and widely known programs were its armed citizens' patrols to evaluate behavior of police officers and its Free Breakfast for Children program. However, the group's political goals were often overshadowed by their confrontational, militant, and sometimes violent tactics against police.
· Trinidadian-American black activist active in the 1960s American Civil Rights Movement.
· He rose to prominence first as a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, pronounced "snick") and later as the "Honorary Prime Minister" of the Black Panther Party.
· Carmichael later became affiliated with black nationalist and Pan-Africanist movements. He popularized the term "Black Power".
· Mexican American farm worker, labor leader, and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers (UFW).
· founder of the United Farm Workers (UFW)
· confrontation between the Soviet Union, Cuba and the United States in October 1962, during the Cold War.
· Cuban and Soviet governments began to surreptitiously build bases in Cuba for a number of medium- and intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles (MRBMs and IRBMs) with the ability to strike most of the continental United States.
· The United States considered attacking Cuba via air and sea and settled on a military "quarantine" of Cuba.
· Publicly the Soviets would dismantle their offensive weapons in Cuba and return them to the Soviet Union, subject to United Nations verification, in exchange for a US public declaration and agreement to never invade Cuba.
· is a book written by Betty Friedan. According to The New York Times obituary of Friedan in 2006, it “ignited the contemporary women's movement in 1963 and as a result permanently transformed the social fabric of the United States and countries around the world” and “is widely regarded as one of the most influential nonfiction books of the 20th century”.
· was a defense strategy implemented by John F. Kennedy in 1961 to address the Kennedy administration's skepticism of Dwight Eisenhower's New Look and its policy of Massive Retaliation.
· Flexible response calls for mutual deterrence at strategic, tactical, and conventional levels, giving the United States the capability to respond to aggression across the spectrum of warfare, not limited only to nuclear arms.
· student protest which took place during the 1964–1965 academic year on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley
· In protests unprecedented at the time, students insisted that the university administration lift the ban of on-campus political activities and acknowledge the students' right to free speech and academic freedom.
In 1961 CORE with aid from SNCC, organized this and was a tactic designed to test whether southern states would obey the Supreme Court ruling and allow African Americans to exercise the rights newly gratned to them.
· rode in interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the United States Supreme Court decision Boynton v. Virginia, (1960) 364 U.S.
· Riders were arrested for trespassing, unlawful assembly, violating state and local Jim Crow laws, etc.
· Arguably, the Riders did not engage in civil disobedience because the Supreme Court's decision in Boynton v. Virginia granted them a legal right to disregard local segregation ordinances regarding interstate transportation facilities.
· American politician who as U.S. senator from Arkansas (1945-1975) proposed the Fulbright Act (1946), which established an exchange program for American and foreign educators and students.
· domestic programs proposed or enacted in the United States on the initiative of President Lyndon B. Johnson.
· Two main goals of the elimination of poverty and racial injustice.New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation were launched during this period. The Great Society in scope and sweep resembled the New Deal domestic agenda of Franklin D. Roosevelt, but differed sharply in types of programs enacted
· Unlike the New Deal, which was a response to a severe financial and economic calamity, the Great Society initiatives came just as the United States' post-war prosperity was starting to fade, but before the coming decline was being felt by the middle and upper classes.
· joint resolution which the United States Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in response to a sea battle between the North Vietnamese Navy's Torpedo Squadron 135 and the destroyer USS Maddox on August 2 and an alleged second naval engagement between North Vietnamese boats and the US destroyers USS Maddox and USS Turner Joy on August 4 in the Tonkin Gulf; both naval actions are known collectively as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident.
· The Tonkin Gulf Resolution is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of conventional military force in Southeast Asia.
· United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services
· Its motto is "Improving the health, safety, and well-being of America".
· was a Vietnamese Marxist revolutionary leader who was prime minister (1946–1955) and president (1945–1969) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam).
· He formed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and led the Viet Cong during the Vietnam War until his death.
· establishing the communist-governed Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 and defeating the French Union in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu
· served under President Lyndon B. Johnson as the 38th Vice President of the United States.
· In 1968, Humphrey was the nominee of the Democratic Party in the 1968 presidential election but lost to the Republican nominee, Richard Nixon.
· was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963.
· American politician, a Democratic Senator from New York, and a noted civil rights activist. An icon of modern American liberalism and member of the Kennedy family, he was a younger brother of President John F. Kennedy and acted as one of his advisors during his presidency. From 1961 to 1964, he was the U.S. Attorney General.
· June 5 at The Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, Kennedy was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan.
· health program for eligible individuals and families with low incomes and resources
· program that is jointly funded by the state and federal governments, and is managed by the states.
· largest source of funding for medical and health-related services for people with limited income in the United States.
· social insurance program administered by the United States government, providing health insurance coverage to people who are aged 65 and over, or who meet other special criteria.
· Medicare operates similar to a single-payer health care system, but the key difference is that its coverage only extends to 80% of any given medical cost; the remaining 20% of cost must be paid by other means, such as privately-held supplemental insurance, or paid by the patient.
· Campaign program advocated by John F. Kennedy in the 1960 election that promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights
· was the 37th President of the United States from 1969 to 1974,
· he was the only President to resign the office as well as the only person to be elected twice to both the Presidency and the Vice Presidency.
· In the face of likely impeachment for his role in the Watergate scandal, Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974.
· June 30, 1966, in Washington, D.C., by 28 women and men attending the Third National Conference of the Commission on the Status of Women, the successor to the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women.
· The founders included Betty Friedan, the author of The Feminine Mystique (1963), Rev. Pauli Murray, the first African-American female Episcopal priest, and Shirley Chisholm, the first Black woman to run for president of the United States of America.
· During the 1970s feminist leaders promoted the Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. After Congress approved the amendment in 1972, it was quickly ratified by 28 states, and its passage seemed assured.
· is a treaty prohibiting all test detonations of nuclear weapons except underground.
· It was developed both to slow the arms race (nuclear testing is necessary for continued nuclear weapon advancements), and to stop the excessive release of nuclear fallout into the planet's atmosphere.
· It was signed by the Governments of the USSR (represented by Andrei Gromyko), the UK (represented by Sir Alec Douglas-Home) and the USA (represented by Dean Rusk), named the "Original Parties", at Moscow on August 5, 1963 and opened for signature by other countries.
· the assassin of President of the United States John F. Kennedy, by firearm in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963.
· American volunteer program run by the United States Government, as well as a government agency of the same name.
· The mission of the Peace Corps includes three goals: providing technical assistance, helping people outside the United States to understand U.S. culture, and helping Americans understand the cultures of other countries.
· It was established by Executive Order 10924 on March 1, 1961, and authorized by the Congress on September 22, 1961, with passage of the Peace Corps Act (Public Law 87-293).
· Volunteers in Service to America anti-poverty program created by Lyndon Johnson's Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 as the domestic version of the Peace Corps.
· Volunteers served in communities throughout the U.S., focusing on enriching educational programs and vocational training for the nation's underprivileged classes.
· military campaign during the Vietnam War that began on January 31, 1968.
· Regular and irregular forces of the People's Army of Vietnam fought against the forces of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), the United States, and their allies.
· The purpose of the offensive was to strike military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam and to spark a general uprising among the population that would then topple the Saigon government, thus ending the war in a single blow.
· Although the offensive was a military defeat for the communists, it had a profound effect on the US government and shocked the US public, which had been led to believe by its political and military leaders that the communists were, due to previous defeats, incapable of launching such a massive effort.
· The term "Tet offensive" usually refers to the January-February 1968 NLF offensive, but it can also include the so-called "mini-Tet" offensives that took place in May and August.
· "The most influential loser" in 20th-century U.S. politics
· ran for U.S. president four times, running officially as a Democrat three times and in the American Independent Party once
· Strike at a harvester plant wanting a wage increase
· Planned to be a meeting but someone threw a bomb
· 5 people were arrested and convicted then sentenced to be hanged
· Immigrants and political advocates of no government/anarchy
· Under McKinley, gold became the standard of currency
· Republicans/creditors class (wealthy)
· Fixed money supply and a tight credit system
· began in cities with settlement workers and reformers who were interested in helping those facing harsh conditions at home and at work.
· emerged in the late 19th century into the 20th century in reference to a more general response to the vast changes brought by industrialization: an alternative to both the traditional conservative response to social and economic issues and to the various more radical streams of socialism and anarchism which opposed them.
· Premier socialist and the American Railway Union leader
· Joined the Pullman Strike (due to wage cuts and no rent reduction)
· Shut down 24 rail companies and a major rail hub (successful)
· Cleveland had to send troops to get the railways running again, and Debs was arrested
· Reform governor from Wisconsin ( R ), premier reform governor, “Battling Bob”, the prototype
o 1st hold state primary elections
o Implement RR tax and state RR commission
o 1st workers compensation (accidents, fatalities, ect.)
o Graduated Income tax
o Public utilities Commission (price gauging)
· Elected to U.S. Senate in 1905
· McKinley wanted all countries to have an equal opportunity to compete for the Asian market
· Established free trade between U.S. and China and marked the end of American tradition of isolationism
· Urged three agreements: 1) nations possessing a sphere of influence would respect the rights and privileges of other nations in that sphere 2) the Chinese gov would continue to collect tariff duties in all spheres 3) nations would not discriminate against other nations in levying port dues and railroad rates within their respective spheres of influence
· Sensationalism in the press to sell newspapers
· NY World (Pulitzer), NY Journal (Hearst)
· Some unfactual reporting, generates American support, turned public opinion against Spain’s actions in Cuba
· Senator who was a challenge to FDR by planning the “share of wealth” movement that would make everyone “a king”
· Guaranteed $5000 home and $2500 income financed by seizing all fortunes of more than $5mill and 100% income tax over $1mill
· Threatened to run as 3rd party in 1936 election, assassinated, tremendous support
· Roman Catholic priest that called for monetary inflation and nationalization of the banking system and was a challenge to FDR
· Helped organize the Union Party in the 1936 election
Governor of Kansas, he was involved with oil. Smalloil business in Independence. September 9th, 1887. The LandonAdministration- small business promoter, government austerity, state incometax, 1932, Tax limitation act (Cash basis law) effectively utilized federalassistance. Balanced state budget. Was very strict about reporting andregulations. Big money from the new deal. He loses presidential campaignbecause of this. He also lost Kansas. They voted for a democrat (FDR)
General in command of the American and British soldiers in the European arena. during WWII.
· Cuban exiles moved ashore, but castro’s forced easily squashed the invasion
· An attempt by Kennedy to check global communist expansion and overthrow Fidel Castro
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