History 2210 Exam 1 Study Guide Elizabeth McCrory Limited Government: This was the idea of government around the turn of the century, the idea that the economy would “take care of itself.” People were very hesitant to government regulation. Considering most of the rules and regulations that governed were written for a much smaller economy, the government was very unregulated. Free Market: No government intervention in the economy whatsoever. “Laissez faire” Individualism: Equal opportunity vs. Individualism Constant battle between wanting a free market and constantly being burnt by its ways. Social theory advocating the liberty, rights or independent actions of an individual. “Becoming white”: Over time, European immigrants meshed in to American culture. People who were born here no longer thought of these immigrants as an inferior race like they thought of blacks and Asians, but as white. Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896: Plessey was a black man on a train headed south and was sitting in a white railcar. He refused to give up his seat claiming that by doing so he would be in violation of the 14th Amendment. The supreme court thought differently and came to the conclusion that it was legal to create “separate but equal” systems for blacks and whites. Politics at the turn of the 20th Century…were kinda a hot mess. Mainly Democrats vs. Rebublicans Democrats rule the south and urban areas within the north. People who were Democrats were often ethnic laborers and Catholic. Republicans were much more popular within the northern rural areas and consisted of native-born middle class Protestants and African Americans. While Democrats rules the cities, Republicans typically won the presidency. There were some third parties. These consisted of labor parties or progressive reformers. Teddy Roosevelt formed the Bull Moose party to deter votes from William Howard Taft. ‘New” immigrants/ “second wave” immigrants 1st Wave of Immigrants came from Western Europe and account for 2/3rds of total immigrants and came during the 1880s 2nd Wave of Immigrants came from Eastern Europe and came during the turn of the century (1900s) “New Middle Class” The term middle class is still a new thing at this point. These are people who work jobs as farmers, shopkeepers, doctors. Normally the husband goes to work during the day while the wife stays home and cares for the kids. The presence of the wife at home is what defines a particular family as middle class. Black Middle Class Since white collar jobs were denied to African Americans, they worked blue collar jobs that the middle class was no longer working. The existence of this black middle class was primarily in the north and was defined more by their values than their income. Members of the black middle class prided themselves on their values, being sober and celibate. Skilled Workers Skilled workers were normally of the white, native born variety and usually organized themselves in to craft and trade unions. These skilled workers had more power in the companies as the strength of the union depends on the skill of the worker. Unskilled Workers Vary from sharecroppers and tenant farmers to machine operators and domestic servants. Unskilled workers were normally immigrants and were not nearly as organized as the skilled workers. If they such workers were invivled in a union it would be an industrial union that valued strength in numbers. Family Wage Ideology The family wage ideology is based in the idea that a husband needs no make enough money to keep his wife from working a job outside of the household. The American Federation of Labor saw women in the workplace as the sign of a bad economy. Racial Uplift This was an area of big social contradictions as people wanted reform, but weren’t wiling to reform Jim Crow laws. There were so many segregation practices in both the south and the north that many black leaders were looking for away to rise above them. American Federation of Labor (AFL): The AFL was lead by Samuel Gompers and was focused on organizing skilled workers in a trade. Samuel Gompers: Leader of the AFL, cigar maker. Characteristics of Progressivism: City government, electoral reform, trust-busting, conservation, social justice, women’s rights, racial justice, modernizing rural life, scientific efficiency. White, middle class, born in the US, northern, urban. Motivated by genuine desire to help the poor. Thought that the solution to “make them more like us” Contradictions within Progressivism: Progressives wanted to reform city governments, but those same progressives were in institutions that were corrupt, like Tammany Hall. While women’s rights was definitely on the Progressive agenda, they were still being denied the right to vote. Racial justice was also on the agenda, but blacks and other ethnicities were still being segregated and discriminated against. Private vs. Public Power: Progressives believe that the functioning of the free market/The American Dream had been corrupted by the hands of private corporations. The only way to make things right again was to balance private power with public power. Justice vs. Order: Interdependence: The notion that you are dependent on what other people are doing. Interventionist: “Environmentalism”: Progressives wanted to improve the environment through human action and understood that when you improve the environment that people live in, you improve their life. Environmentalists at this time believed that poverty was caused by the environment impoverished people were living in. Evangelical Protestantism Social Gospel: Movement established that urged churches and individuals to apply Christian ethics to social and economic problems. Part of an emerging liberal movement in American religion, emphasized moral and ethical lessons in the Bible, not the literal interpretations. Moral Outrage: Progressives were afraid of the worst possible consequences that the current political/social environment could bring. They did not like what they saw going on in side the worlds of lower AND upper classes. The New Social Sciences: Working to modernize practices of research. Professionalizing. Jane Addams: Founder of the Chicago settlement house, Hull House. Progressive. Helped show the nation that the needs of mothers and children needed to be recognized. Argued that women needed the right to vote in order to be effective. Louis Hine: Photographer for the National Labor Committee that took infamous pictures of children working in factories. These photos were very influential and inspired a sense of moral outrage. Child Labor: Progressives believed that children should be in schools, not factories, so they got made at parents and employers for making them work. Child labor laws were drafted and voted on but were either difficult to pass or were deemed unconstitutional in parts of the country. International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (Triangle) Headed by Clara Lemlich and supported by women in NY society (Frances Perkins, Anne Morgan and Alva Belmont. Strikes for better wages, hours. Jim Crow Booker T. Washington and the Atlanta Compromise Booker T. Washington worked to form the Tuskegee Institute to educate his peers in the practices of trade. Eventually Washington formed the Atlanta Compromise where he established that there needed to be a mutual respect between the races when it came to segregation and the economy. Ida B. Wells: Real big on anti-lynching as she was known for her research about how the reason for most lynching’s in America were not sufficient. She was also known for the articles she wrote of the topic about how rape was just an excuse for why a lot of black men were hung. She suggested that sex between white women and black men was often consensual. Southern Horrors: Lynching No/limited voting, grandfather clauses. Segregation REALLY BAD ECONOMY. Sharecropping NAACP: Formed in 1910 by white progressives. Lynching: Lynchers were typically working class white people who were struggling in the depressed southern economy. Lynch Law: How angry white people dealt with crimes committed by blacks. Taking the law in to their own hands. W.E.B. DuBois Rejected Washington’s idea of a compromise. Black and white citizenship had to be put on equal levels. Necessary to educate a black elite. Niagara Movement: Advocating for an end to discrimination. “Talented Tenth”: Leadership class of African Americans created by WEB DuBois. According to DuBois, only one in 10 black men would become leaders in the world and because of this strongly believed that blacks needed a classical education to enhance their standing in the world. Woman Suffrage and Progressivism: As outlined in Triangle, women were very involved in getting their right to vote and were very apparent in the workers strikes around the turn of the century. Women supported the progressive movement, and for those progressives looking to get elected, the votes of women were invaluable. In order for progressive ideals to be put on the ballot, women needed the right to vote. Machine Politics: Around the turn of the century, political machines emerged in order to control the populations and put the powers of government in to the hands of a select few. These machines normally worked to gain the votes of immigrant populations by handing out jobs, benefits and other forms of social services . The most famous of all political machines was NYC’s Tammany Hall. Traits of a political machine: Ward bosses. Make sure that everybody within the ward was a happy camper. Machine would be rewarded in return. Tammany Hall: NYC Democratic political machine that controlled the political culture of both the city and state throughout the first part of the 20th Century. Tammany was controlled by Charlie F. Murphy. Tammany was known for having ward bosses that would work to buy the vote of the immigrants in their part of the city. Many voters depended on bosses for their employment. Al Smith, Robert Wagner. Municipal Reform: Belief that government should serve the public interest. Government needs to become more modern, rational and include trained professionals. Factory Investigating Commission: Commission formed to investigate the Triangle Fire and to improve factory conditions in NYC. Many Tammany men served (Smith, Wagner) as well as Samuel Gompers and Francis Perkins. Frances Perkins: Head of NY Consumers League Worked in NY State Legislature during Triangle Fire, worked on Factory Commission. Hobnobbed with Tammany. Progressive Internationalism: The idea exchange that occurred between the US, England and Germany. US occupies Cuba, Philippines. Woodrow Wilson IS THE MAN. Theodore Roosevelt: Trust buster. Regulatory government Worried about European powers intervening in Latin America to collect debts, raise hell, etc. 1904: Roosevelt announces that the U.S. was going to be the ‘policemen” of the region Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. (No European affairs in sovereign countries) U.S. Has the right to intervene in the affairs of its neighbors. Becomes part of U.S. Foreign Policy Spanish American War Cubans wanted independence from Spain. Americans advocate intervention in the Cuban Independence, Sinking of the Maine Happens. Spain is also in control of the Philippines, so McKinley orders an attack there on the Spanish. Platt Amendment: Restricted Cuba’s autonomy in diplomatic relations with other countries and in internal financial policies. Cuba had to allow for a US Navy port on their land and authorized American intervention at anytime. Basically a US charter in Cuba saying that we can do whatever we want. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: Chronic wrongdoing would cause the US to exercise a international police power in Latin America if Europeans tried to interfere there. Dollar Diplomacy (Taft): Substituting dollars for bullets. Government action to encourage private American interests in Latin America. Basically planting all sorts of American/European interests in Latin America to promote development and stability and gain profits for US banks. Fourteen Points Points 1-5: Call for open diplomacy, free trade, disarmament. Points 6-13: National Sovereignty. (Poland) Point 14: League of Nations. National Sovereignty: To each country its own. WW1 broke up empires. Treaty of Versailles: Treaty signed at the Paris Peace conference in 1919. Terms included Germany paying all war reparations. League of Nations and the 14 Point brought up by Wilson. Brings about long armistice. Outcome of World War I: In America: The government takes on new powers such as mobilizing an army, mobilizing resources and mobilizing public opinion. In the rest of the world: Empires are broken up, national sovereignty is enforced. Progressives and World War I World War I marked both the peak and the end of progressivism. When war was declared, the idea came about that we can spread this new notion of progressivism if we win the war. We can help shape the peace that matches Wilson’s progressive goals. WWI Effects on Progressivism: Drafting: Provides opportunities to use the military for benevolent social purposes such as clean health, prohibition, etc. The hope is that reforming soldiers means reforming the country. Selective Service: Used for the first time during WWI, government made it seem like an honor to be drafted. Comm on Public Information (Creel Comm.) Sought to manipulate, not inform public opinon by fighting for the minds of men and for the conquest of their convictions. The CPI campaigned war propaganda in to many aspects of American life . Promoted fear, hatred and prejudice in the name of triumphant Americanism. Espionage/Sedition Acts Great Migration Red Scare A Mitchell Palmer Russian Revolution/Bolshevik Revolution Boston Police Strike J. Edgar Hoover Effects of the Red Scare Immigration Acts of 1921/1924 Miss America Pageant, 1921 Norma Smallwood Ideals of Beauty Conspicuous consumption Modernism Consumer culture Advertising parables Home economist “Spokesservants” flappers Stock market crash Unemployment during Great Depression Racial cast to unemployment Women’s employment during the Great Depression Families during the Great Depression Mexican Repatriation Pro-Imperialism Anti-Imperialism Anti-Imperialists feared that nations with empires would not preserve liberty at home. That pretty much undermines our ideals. Also, we’re annexing non whites, and that could be corrupting. Annexing new territories means military security and is necessary for trade. Progressive occupation. We aren’t occupying them for our own gain. United States needs to be in charge of creating a good world.